Physiological Vs Pathological Insulin Resistance

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What is GLYCOGEN? What does GLYCOGEN mean? GLYCOGEN meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch), but is more extensively branched and compact than starch. Both are white powders in their dry state. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the glucose cycle. Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides (lipids). In the liver, glycogen can comprise from 5 to 6% of its fresh weight (100–120 g in an adult). Only the glycogen stored in the liver can be made accessible to other organs. In the muscles, glycogen is found in a low concentration (1-2% of the muscle mass). The amount of glycogen stored in the body—especially within the muscles, liver, and red blood cells—mostly depends on physical training, basal metabolic rate, and eating habits. Small amounts of glycogen are found in the kidneys, and even smaller amounts in certain glial cells in the brain and white blood cells. The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.

Physiological And Pathological Changes In Glucose Regulate Brain Akt And Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3*

Insulin regulates the phosphorylation and activities of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in peripheral tissues, but in the brain it is less clear how this signaling pathway is regulated in vivo and whether it is affected by diabetes. We found that Akt and GSK3 are sensitive to glucose, because fasting decreased and glucose administration increased by severalfold the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of non-diabetic mice. Brain Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation also increased after streptozotocin administration (3 days), which increased blood glucose and depleted blood insulin, indicating regulation by glucose availability even with deficient insulin. Changes in Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation and activities in epididymal fat were opposite to those of brain after streptozotocin treatment. Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and increased brain Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation were reversed by lowering blood glucose with insulin administration. Long term hyperglycemia also increased brain Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, both 4 weeks after streptozotocin and in db/db insulin-resistant mice. Thus, the Akt-GSK3 signaling pathway is regulated in mouse br Continue reading >>

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  1. hide

    Has anyone had any luck finding them at a pharmacy? I went into a big Boots and the guy was trying to be helpful, but he found out that Boots don't carry them because it's their policy not to carry these types of medical accessories that you don't need a prescription for (meanwhile, loads of herbal "remedies" line the shelves). Anyway he suggested I try a small independent pharmacy, and I know you can get them from amazon, but I was wondering if anyone had any luck getting them from a pharmacy?
    Update I asked a little pharmacy tucked away next to my work, nice Irish bloke, after discussing it he said he could order some in, "about six quid", so even if it's 7 quid, it's still convenient.
    Update 2 Yep he sold them to me for six quid. I'm finding them interesting to tweak my diet, but even after eating at a nice restaurant for Valentine's day, which involved some bread, polenta, potato, and sugary pudding, I still registered ketones the next day, so I think the "if in doubt eat more butter" approach, while using MFP, is probably just fine. Still, I'll probably use them for another week or so out of curiosity.

  2. JenCarpeDiem

    I don't think you're going to find them -- I never have -- and if you do, they likely won't be any cheaper than they are on Amazon (£6.54). If anyone can prove me wrong though, I'd love to know! My 'stix are about to expire and I need to get some more soon. :)

  3. kersh2099

    I know its not much, but I found these on ebay for £6.30 inc postage. Arrived in 2 days with no problems for me.
    I too have found none in the shops though.

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What is INSULIN RESISTANCE? What does INSULIN RESISTANCE mean? INSULIN RESISTANCE meaning - INSULIN RESISTANCE definition - INSULIN RESISTANCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults. Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose. Insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin action; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance may also develop in patients who have recently experienced abdominal or bariatric procedures. This acute form of insulin resistance that may result post-operatively tends to increase over the short-term with sensitivity to insulin typically returning to patients after about five days.

Physiological Insulin Resistance

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Hi, I have been doing a little reading on this subject but I`m still not sure if I have a handle on it or not and would like a little advice please. My understanding is as follows: A lot of t2`s have Pathological insulin resistance so that when we produce glucose our pancreas has to produce insulin but we don`t use it very well which means more insulin which causes weight gain and so on... A low carb diet produces less glucose which calls for less insulin which has to be a good thing presumably. However, carb restriction can also cause Physiological insulin resistance which, if I understand correctly, saves the smaller amount of glucose which is produced for the brain by making the muscles insulin resistant which leads to higher bg readings. Is my understanding anywhere close to correct and will these higher bg levels lead to a higher HBA1C ? Thank you for reading and please reply with your opinions. Chris. Hi, I have been doing a little reading on this subject but I`m still not sure if I have a handle on it or not and would like a little advice please. My unders Continue reading >>

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  1. ramid3

    Does my insulin resistance factor into whether or not I would lose fat faster on a ketogenic diet vs one that's balanced and simply reduces calories? I don't have any serious discipline problems while dieting and I have very adaptive lifestyle requirements, so if it's all the same, and keto is just a diet that's more satiating and easier to stick to, I'd rather just go with an otherwise 'normal' diet.
    But I have identifiably poor insulin resistance. I feel bloated, lethargic, and soon-hungry following a high carb meal, and if that factors into me losing fat faster (as so many seem to do), I'd rather go with that. Does it?

  2. anbeav

    Yes! If you're insulin resistance, why would you continue to flog your body with carbs that it can't process efficiently? This isn't a question about fat loss, but health.
    I highly recommend "The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living"

  3. ramid3

    Well, I'm describing that as an effect of high carbs. Like, downing a big bowl of pasta of white rice. Which I normally don't do. I'd be going more moderate carbs 200g/day max if I were dieting in a way to include them.
    But I'm wondering if my poor insulin resistance- as indicated by how I feel when going high carb- means I'd lose fat faster with fewer carbs. So many nutritionists- including ketogenic dieters right here on reddit- say there is no real 'fat loss advantage' to going low carb outside of the fact that your appetite is more suppressed and cravings reduced on account of the fat and protein.

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Did you know that a single biological process is related to diseases as diverse as Parkinson's, diabetes and cancer? The process is called the unfolded protein response, and it helps cells deal with problematic proteins. Learn more about the award-winning discovery by UCSF's Peter Walter that helped scientists understand that regulating this process could lead to treatments - and even cures - for many diseases: http://www.ucsf.edu/news/2014/09/1169... Animation by Mark Wooding

Physiological/pathological Ramifications Of Transcription Factors In The Unfolded Protein Response

Physiological/pathological ramifications of transcription factors in the unfolded protein response 1Soonchunhyang Institute of Medi-Bio Science (SIMS), Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-si, Choongchungnam-do 31151, Republic of Korea; 2Degenerative Diseases Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, California, 92307 USA Corresponding authors: rkaufman{at}sbpdiscovery.org, hanjs015{at}sch.ac.kr Numerous environmental, physiological, and pathological insults disrupt protein-folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), referred to as ER stress. Eukaryotic cells evolved a set of intracellular signaling pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), to maintain a productive ER protein-folding environment through reprogramming gene transcription and mRNA translation. The UPR is largely dependent on transcription factors (TFs) that modulate expression of genes involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, including development, metabolism, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Here we summarize the current knowledge about these mechanisms, their impact on physiological/pathological processes, and pote Continue reading >>

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  1. RedhairedNurse

    Your nursing text should point out the difference. I would tell you, but I'd just have to look it up and my books are in storage. I could also google it, but something you can also do as well. Sorry.

  2. RedhairedNurse


  3. Ilithya

    In HHNS, blood sugar levels rise, and your body tries to get rid of the excess sugar by passing it into your urine, your body tries to compensate. This usually happens to type 2s
    In DKA there is little to no circulating insulin. DKA occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in Type 1 diabetes because Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a lack of insulin production in the pancreas. It is much less common in Type 2 diabetes because the latter is closely related to cell insensitivity to insulin, not -- at least initially -- to a shortage or absence of insulin. Some Type 2 diabetics have lost their own insulin production and must take external insulin; they have some susceptibility to DKA. You get acidosis in DKA because ketones lower the bloods pH.
    Does that help?

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