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Ph Of Ketones

Ketone Body Infusion With 3‐hydroxybutyrate Reduces Myocardial Glucose Uptake And Increases Blood Flow In Humans: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

Ketone Body Infusion With 3‐hydroxybutyrate Reduces Myocardial Glucose Uptake And Increases Blood Flow In Humans: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

Background High levels of ketone bodies are associated with improved survival as observed with regular exercise, caloric restriction, and—most recently—treatment with sodium–glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitor antidiabetic drugs. In heart failure, indices of ketone body metabolism are upregulated, which may improve energy efficiency and increase blood flow in skeletal muscle and the kidneys. Nevertheless, it is uncertain how ketone bodies affect myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in humans. Our study was therefore designed to test whether ketone body administration in humans reduces myocardial glucose uptake (MGU) and increases myocardial blood flow. Methods and Results Eight healthy subjects, median aged 60 were randomly studied twice: (1) During 390 minutes infusion of Na‐3‐hydroxybutyrate (KETONE) or (2) during 390 minutes infusion of saline (SALINE), together with a concomitant low‐dose hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp to inhibit endogenous ketogenesis. Myocardial blood flow was measured by 15O‐H2O positron emission tomography/computed tomography, myocardial fatty acid metabolism by 11C‐palmitate positron emission tomography/computed tomography and MGU by 18F‐fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Similar euglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and suppressed free fatty acids levels were recorded on both study days; Na‐3‐hydroxybutyrate infusion increased circulating Na‐3‐hydroxybutyrate levels from zero to 3.8±0.5 mmol/L. MGU was halved by hyperketonemia (MGU [nmol/g per minute]: 304±97 [SALINE] versus 156±62 [KETONE], P<0.01), whereas no effects were observed on palmitate uptake oxidation or esterification. Hyperketonemia increased heart rate by ≈25% and myocardial blood flow by 75%. Conclusions Ketone Continue reading >>

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

Whether you think eating alkaline foods is useful or woo woo junk it appears that metabolic acidosis is a thing. Metabolic acidosis seems to be interrelated with insulin resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and retention of muscle mass. To prevent metabolic acidosis, it appears prudent to ensure that your body has adequate minerals to enable your kidneys to balance pH over the long term. This can be achieved by eating plenty of veggies and/or supplementing with alkaline minerals (e.g. magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc etc). If you eat plenty of veggies you’re probably getting enough alkalising minerals, however, you can easily test your urine to see if your dietary acid load is high. If you are targeting a high fat therapeutic ketogenic diet, following a zero-carb dietary approach and/or taking exogenous ketones it seems then it may be even more important to be mindful of your acid load and consider mineral supplementation. Recently I had a fascinating, surprising and exciting experience during a fast. The chart below shows my ketones, glucose and ‘total energy’ (i.e. glucose plus ketones) over the seven days. My ketones increased to above 8.0 mmol/L. They even couldn’t be read on my ketone metre! It was the full keto brochure experience. It was like my body fat was effortlessly feeding my brain with delicious, succulent ketones! I felt great. This chart shows my glucose : ketone index (GKI) dropping to below 0.5 after a few days. The orange dots in this chart shows the relationship between glucose and ketones about 18 months ago when I first started trying this keto thing (after I read ‘Jimmy’s Moore’s Keto Clarity’). The blue dots show the relationship between my glucose and ketones during the recent fast. As you can see from the much flatter line, my blood g Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies Formed In The Liver Are Exported To Other Organs

Ketone Bodies Formed In The Liver Are Exported To Other Organs

Ketone Bodies In human beings and most other mammals, acetyl-CoA formed in the liver during oxidation of fatty acids may enter the citric acid cycle (stage 2 of Fig. 16-7) or it may be converted to the "ketone bodies" acetoacetate, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone for export to other tissues. (The term "bodies" is a historical artifact; these compounds are soluble in blood and urine.) Acetone, produced in smaller quantities than the other ketone bodies, is exhaled. Acetoacetate and D-β-hydroxybutyrate are transported by the blood to the extrahepatic tissues, where they are oxidized via the citric acid cycle to provide much of the energy required by tissues such as skeletal and heart muscle and the renal cortex. The brain, which normally prefers glucose as a fuel, can adapt to the use of acetoacetate or D-β-hydroxybutyrate under starvation conditions, when glucose is unavailable. A major determinant of the pathway taken by acetyl-CoA in liver mitochondria is the availability of oxaloacetate to initiate entry of acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle. Under some circumstances (such as starvation) oxaloacetate is drawn out of the citric acid cycle for use in synthesizing glucose. When the oxaloacetate concentration is very low, little acetyl-CoA enters the cycle, and ketone body formation is favored. The production and export of ketone bodies from the liver to extrahepatic tissues allows continued oxidation of fatty acids in the liver when acetyl-CoA is not being oxidized via the citric acid cycle. Overproduction of ketone bodies can occur in conditions of severe starvation and in uncontrolled diabetes. The first step in formation of acetoacetate in the liver (Fig. 16-16) is the enzymatic condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA, catalyzed by thiolase; this is simply Continue reading >>

What Is The Ph Of The Blood In A Diabetic Patient When His Glucose Levels Are Appropriate?

What Is The Ph Of The Blood In A Diabetic Patient When His Glucose Levels Are Appropriate?

Diabetes causes your body's pH levels to become more acidic and develop a condition called ketoacidosis, the American Diabetes Association explains. Your body's pH level refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the fluids in your body. Diabetes impairs your body's ability to properly utilize the glucose in your blood. Instead, your body is forced to convert fat into energy through a process that develops into ketoacidosis. Diagnosing ketoacidosis involves testing blood for the presence of ketones, the University of Maryland Medical Center explains. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is congenital, and its symptoms appear as early as childhood, MayoClinic.com explains. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by your body's inability to produce insulin, the hormone needed for cells to metabolize glucose into energy. Type 2 diabetes is essentially defined by acquired insulin resistance that usually manifests in adulthood. Both types of diabetes cause increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, hypertension and ketoacidosis. Left untreated, both types of diabetes lead to complications that damage your cardiovascular system, kidneys and nerves due to the accumulated glucose in your blood. Complications due to diabetes such as ketoacidosis are fatal if not treated. Ketones are the acidic byproducts of fat breakdown that accumulate when your body uses fat instead of glucose as a source of fuel, MedlinePlus, a service of the National Institutes of Health, explains. As your ketone levels increase, your body becomes more acidic. Ketones are present in both types of diabetes but are generally more typical of type 1 diabetes. Ketones are also sometimes present in urine. Acetone and acetoacetic acid are examples of ketones. Ketoacidosis does not happen o Continue reading >>

Urine Dipstick Analysis

Urine Dipstick Analysis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Instructions All samples should be midstream and collected in a clean sterile container. Suprapubic aspiration or fresh catheter samples are ideal, but not always practical. The gold standard method of testing is to remove a small volume of urine from the sterile container with a fresh sterile syringe, and then apply the removed urine to the dipstick. In this way, the remainder of the collected sample contents remains untouched by a potentially unsterile dipstick and so can be sent for laboratory analysis if required. Hold the dipstick horizontally before reading. Available tests include the likes of Multistix® (suitable for screening for glycosuria only), Micral-Test II® or Microalbustix® (detect microalbuminuria) and the more commonly used multiple combination strips - eg, five tests on each strip (detects blood, ketones, glucose, pH and protein), or seven tests on each strip (tests for blood, ketones, glucose, pH, bilirubin, urobilinogen and protein). Costs vary depending on how many substances can be detected and on the supplier. Physical examination Colour The colour of the urine can vary greatly. Normal urine varies from colourless to dark yellow. Various factors can affect urine colour.[1] Common Causes of Urine Discolouration Colour Pathological causes Food and drug causes Brown Bile pigments, myoglobin Levodopa, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, some antimalarial agents, fava beans Brownish-black Bile pigments, melanin, methaemoglobin Cascara, levodopa, Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Excess ketones are dangerous for someone with diabetes... Low insulin, combined with relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels, causes fat to be released from fat cells, which then turns into ketones. Excess formation of ketones is dangerous and is a medical emergency In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketones can develop. What are ketones and why do I need to know about them? Ketones and ketoacids are alternative fuels for the body that are made when glucose is in short supply. They are made in the liver from the breakdown of fats. Ketones are formed when there is not enough sugar or glucose to supply the body’s fuel needs. This occurs overnight, and during dieting or fasting. During these periods, insulin levels are low, but glucagon and epinephrine levels are relatively normal. This combination of low insulin, and relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels causes fat to be released from the fat cells. The fats travel through the blood circulation to reach the liver where they are processed into ketone units. The ketone units then circulate back into the blood stream and are picked up by the muscle and other tissues to fuel your body’s metabolism. In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketone Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies (urine)

Ketone Bodies (urine)

Does this test have other names? Ketone test, urine ketones What is this test? This test is used to check the level of ketones in your urine. Normally, your body burns sugar for energy. But if you have diabetes, you may not have enough insulin for the sugar in your bloodstream to be used for fuel. When this happens, your body burns fat instead and produces substances called ketones. The ketones end up in your blood and urine. It's normal to have a small amount of ketones in your body. But high ketone levels could result in serious illness or death. Checking for ketones keeps this from happening. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you have a high level of blood sugar. People with high levels of blood sugar often have high ketone levels. If you have high blood sugar levels and type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it's important to check your ketone levels. People without diabetes can also have ketones in the urine if their body is using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This can happen with chronic vomiting, extreme exercise, low-carbohydrate diets, or eating disorders. Checking your ketones is especially important if you have diabetes and: Your blood sugar goes above 300 mg/dL You abuse alcohol You have diarrhea You stop eating carbohydrates like rice and bread You're pregnant You've been fasting You've been vomiting You have an infection Your healthcare provider may order this test, or have you test yourself, if you: Urinate frequently Are often quite thirsty or tired Have muscle aches Have shortness of breath or trouble breathing Have nausea or vomiting Are confused Have a fruity smell to your breath What other tests might I have along with this test? Your healthcare provider may also check for ketones in your blood if you have high levels of ketones in your urine Continue reading >>

Acidity Of

Acidity Of

a-Hydrogens In the following table, the acidity of the H for various enolate systems and other closely related systems are given. You should be able to justify the trends in this data ! Why are the protons adjacent to carbonyl groups acidic ? As we have advocated before, look at the stabilisation of the conjugate base. Notice the proximity of the adjacent p system, and hence the possibility for RESONANCE stabilisation by delocalisation of the negative charge to the more electronegative oxygen atom. The more effective the resonance stabilisation of the negative charge, the more stable the conjugate base is and therefore the more acidic the parent system. Let's compare pKa of the common systems: aldehyde pKa = 17, ketone pKa = 19 and an ester pKa = 25, and try to justify the trend. The difference between the 3 systems is in the nature of the group attached to the common carbonyl. The aldehyde has a hydrogen, the ketone an alkyl- group and the ester an alkoxy- group. H atoms are regarded as having no electronic effect : they don't withdraw or donate electrons. Alkyl groups are weakly electron donating, they tend to destabilise anions (you should recall that they stabilise carbocations). This is because they will be "pushing" electrons towards a negative system which is unfavourable electrostatically. Hence, the anion of a ketone, where there are extra alkyl groups is less stable than that of an aldehyde, and so, a ketone is less acidic. In the ester, there is also a resonance donation from the alkoxy group towards the carbonyl that competes with the stabilisation of the enolate charge. This makes the ester enolate less stable than those of aldehydes and ketones so esters are even less acidic. The most important reactions of ester enolates are the Claisen and Dieckmann cond Continue reading >>

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones, ketosis, ketoacidosis, DKA…these are words that you’ve probably heard at one point or another, and you might be wondering what they mean and if you need to worry about them at all, especially if you have diabetes. This week, we’ll explore the mysterious world of ketones, including if and how they may affect you. Ketones — what are they? Ketones are a type of acid that the body can form if there’s not enough carbohydrate to be burned for energy (yes, you do need carbs for fuel). Without enough carb, the body turns to another energy source: fat. Ketones are made in the liver from fat breakdown. This is called ketogenesis. People who don’t have diabetes can form ketones. This might occur if a person does extreme exercise, has an eating disorder, is fasting (not eating), or is following a low-carbohydrate diet. This is called ketosis and it’s a normal response to starvation. In a person who has diabetes, ketones form for the same reason (not enough carb for energy), but this often occurs because there isn’t enough insulin available to help move carb (in the form of glucose) from the bloodstream to the cells to be used for energy. Again, the body scrambles to find an alternate fuel source in the form of fat. You might be thinking that it’s a good thing to burn fat for fuel. However, for someone who has diabetes, ketosis can quickly become dangerous if it occurs due to a continued lack of insulin (the presence of ketones along with “normal” blood sugar levels is not necessarily a cause for concern). In the absence of insulin (which can occur if someone doesn’t take their insulin or perhaps uses an insulin pump and the pump has a malfunction, for example), fat cells continue to release fat into the circulation; the liver then continues to churn Continue reading >>

Reagents For Modifying Aldehydes And Ketones—section 3.3

Reagents For Modifying Aldehydes And Ketones—section 3.3

Aldehydes and ketones are present in a number of low molecular weight molecules such as drugs, steroid hormones, reducing sugars and metabolic intermediates (e.g., pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate). Except for polysaccharides containing free reducing sugars, however, biopolymers generally lack aldehyde and ketone groups. Even those aldehydes and ketones that are found in the open-ring form of simple carbohydrates are usually in equilibrium with the closed-ring form of the sugar. The infrequent occurrence of aldehydes and ketones in biomolecules has stimulated the development of techniques to selectively introduce these functional groups, thus providing unique sites for chemical modification and greatly extending the applications of the probes found in this section. Fluorescent modification of aldehyde or carboxylic acid groups in carbohydrates is also frequently utilized for their analysis by HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and other methods. Periodate Oxidation The most common method for introducing aldehydes and ketones into polysaccharides and glycoproteins (including antibodies) is by periodate-mediated oxidation of vicinal diols. These introduced aldehydes and ketones can then be modified with fluorescent or biotinylated hydrazine, hydroxylamine or amine derivatives to label the polysaccharide or glycoprotein. For example, some of the hydrazine derivatives described in this section have been used to detect periodate-oxidized glycoproteins in gels. The Pro-Q Emerald 300 and Pro-Q Emerald 488 Glycoprotein Gel and Blot Stain Kits (P21855, P21857, M33307; Detecting Protein Modifications—Section 9.4) are based on periodate oxidation of glycoproteins and subsequent labeling with a Pro-Q Emerald dye. Periodate oxidation of the 3'-terminal ribose provides one of the few met Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone body metabolism includes ketone body synthesis (ketogenesis) and breakdown (ketolysis). When the body goes from the fed to the fasted state the liver switches from an organ of carbohydrate utilization and fatty acid synthesis to one of fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. This metabolic switch is amplified in uncontrolled diabetes. In these states the fat-derived energy (ketone bodies) generated in the liver enter the blood stream and are used by other organs, such as the brain, heart, kidney cortex and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are particularly important for the brain which has no other substantial non-glucose-derived energy source. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) also referred to as β-hydroxybutyrate, with acetone the third, and least abundant. Ketone bodies are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. After an over-night fast, ketone bodies supply 2–6% of the body's energy requirements, while they supply 30–40% of the energy needs after a 3-day fast. When they build up in the blood they spill over into the urine. The presence of elevated ketone bodies in the blood is termed ketosis and the presence of ketone bodies in the urine is called ketonuria. The body can also rid itself of acetone through the lungs which gives the breath a fruity odour. Diabetes is the most common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Ketone bodies The term ‘ketone bodies’ refers to three molecules, acetoacetate (AcAc), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and acetone (Figure 1). 3HB is formed from the reduction of AcAc i Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Aminophosphines And Aminobis(phosphines) With Aldehydes And Ketones: Coordination Complexes Of The Resultant Aminobis(alkylphosphineoxides) With Cobalt, Uranium, Thorium And Gadolinium Salts

Reactions Of Aminophosphines And Aminobis(phosphines) With Aldehydes And Ketones: Coordination Complexes Of The Resultant Aminobis(alkylphosphineoxides) With Cobalt, Uranium, Thorium And Gadolinium Salts

Abstract The reaction of aminophosphines and aminobis(phosphines) with aldehydes leads to either insertion of carbon fragments into the P(III)–N bonds or formation of α-hydroxyphosphine oxides through P(III)–N bond cleavage. Reaction of 1,2-C6H4{N(H)PPh2}2 with paraformaldehyde gives the P(III)–N bond inserted product 1,2-C6H4{N(H)CH2P(O)Ph2}2, whereas 1,3-C6H4{N(H)PPh2}2 forms an analogous product but with an additional methylene group inserted between the two nitrogen centers through nucleophilic addition to form a bicyclic derivative, 1,3-C6H4{Ph2P(O)CH2N(μ-CH2)NCH2P(O)Ph2}. Reactions of Ph2PN(H)Ph with aromatic aldehydes, RCHO (R = C6H4OH-o, 5-BrC6H3OH-o, (η5-C5H5)Fe(η5-C5H4–)) lead to the insertion of ‘RCH’ into the P(III)–N bond to give Ph2P(O)CH(R)N(H)Ph. The reactions of aminobis(phosphine), Ph2PN(nBu)PPh2 with both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes lead to the formation of α-hydroxy phosphine oxide derivatives of the type Ph2P(O)CH(R)OH, through P(III)–N bond cleavage. The N-bridged bis(phosphine oxide) nPrN(CH2P(O)Ph2)2 readily forms chelate complexes with U(VI), Th(IV) and Gd(III) derivatives. Graphical abstract The reactions of aminophosphines and aminobis(phosphines) with aldehydes and ketones are described. Continue reading >>

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

See, for the past several days, I’ve been randomly grabbing drinking glasses from the shelf in the kitchen… …and peeing into them. And yes, I realize that now you will likely never want to join me at my home for a dinner party. So why the heck am I urinating into our family’s kitchenware? It’s all about better living through science and figuring out ways to live longer and feel better (at least that’s what I tell my wife to appease her). It’s also about my sheer curiosity and desire to delve into an N=1 experiment in self-quantification with urinalysis. It’s also because I’ve been too lazy to order one of those special urinalysis specimen cups with the cute plastic lid. And let’s face it: with my relatively frequent use of a three day gut testing panel, my wife is already somewhat accustomed to giant Fed-Ex bags full of poop tubes sitting in the fridge, so urine can’t be all that bad, right? Anyways, in this article, you’re going to learn exactly why I think it’s a good idea to occasionally study one’s own urine, and you’ll also discover 10 very interesting things your pee can tell you about your body. Enjoy, and as usual, leave your questions, thoughts, feedback, and stories of your own adventures in urinalysis below this post. ———————– The History Of My Interest In Urinalysis Two years ago, I first became interested in urinalysis when I discovered a new start-up called “uChek”. The premise of uChek was quite simple. People with diabetes who want to check the amount of glucose in their urine would simply be able to download uChek to their iPhone or iPad. Then, after a “mid-stream collection,” (yes, that’s exactly what it sounds like and, in my experience, despite my Private Gym training, can be quite difficult to Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Approach Considerations Diabetic ketoacidosis is typically characterized by hyperglycemia over 250 mg/dL, a bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq/L, and a pH less than 7.30, with ketonemia and ketonuria. While definitions vary, mild DKA can be categorized by a pH level of 7.25-7.3 and a serum bicarbonate level between 15-18 mEq/L; moderate DKA can be categorized by a pH between 7.0-7.24 and a serum bicarbonate level of 10 to less than 15 mEq/L; and severe DKA has a pH less than 7.0 and bicarbonate less than 10 mEq/L. [17] In mild DKA, anion gap is greater than 10 and in moderate or severe DKA the anion gap is greater than 12. These figures differentiate DKA from HHS where blood glucose is greater than 600 mg/dL but pH is greater than 7.3 and serum bicarbonate greater than 15 mEq/L. Laboratory studies for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) should be scheduled as follows: Repeat laboratory tests are critical, including potassium, glucose, electrolytes, and, if necessary, phosphorus. Initial workup should include aggressive volume, glucose, and electrolyte management. It is important to be aware that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

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