Pathophysiology Of Type 2 Diabetes Made Easy

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Pathophysiology Of Type 2 Diabetes.

Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles. However, the mechanisms controlling the interplay of these two impairments are unclear. A number of factors have been suggested as possibly linking insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. A majority of individuals suffering from type 2 diabetes are obese, with central visceral adiposity. Therefore, the adipose tissue should play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Although the predominant paradigm used to explain this link is the portal/visceral hypothesis giving a key role in elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, two new emerging paradigms are the ec Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. BreC

    Diabetes and Arthritis

    It has been cold and wet here off and on since November. Yards are mushy from so much rain. With all the cold and rain, most will eventually get a visit from the ritis brothers. I already feel their presence in my back, knees, and neck. Read an article that stated people with diagnosed diabetes are nearly twice as likely to have arthritis, indicating a diabetes-arthritis connection. That certainly has a ring of truth with me. I use warm compresses and take Aleve. My pcp and spine specialist bot have said that Aleve is an arthritis medicine and have me taking at least 1 a day and more if needed. How do you deal with arthritis.

  2. moni_now

    Hi BreC, I hear you when you mention the cold and dampness. My body has been an aching field. I had always been told that Ibrophfen was okay to take but at my last regular doc. appt. (after reviewing the lab work where my AC1 had gone from 6.5 to 7.8) my doc. referred me to orthopaedic specialist. My pain had become chronic for 4 months in my right knee. I can only say I should have gone much sooner. I'd literally been eating ibroprofen. It wasn't helping and I was developing stomach problems. Xrays showed the extent of my osteoarthritis. I was given a cortisone shot and next Tues. I begin physical therapy to strengthen my legs. (I'd gotten to the point that I wasn't walking correctly at all and this was causing hip and back pain as well as the knee.) Anyway, if you get to the point where the pain meds you are taking isn't helping at all, please tell your doctor and ask for a referral to have it checked out by a bone and joint specialist. I can't tell you the difference that one cortisone shot made to help me get back on the road to recovery and to get my BG back under control. Pain can elevate BG and slow your movements so that you aren't getting enough exercise. I've got enough going on with diabetes management without having to deal with arthritis. Another thing is weight and I know that's a nasty word, but I was told for every pound overweight that we are there are 4 to 6 pounds of pressure on our load bearing joints. In my case that means there are hundreds of pounds of pressure on my knees that really shouldn't be there so I'm working on that, too. My plan includes that by this time next year I can be within my goal weight and it will take the year I'm sure. All this is the reason I just joined Diabetic Connect. I know I can't do this alone…

  3. suecsdy

    Be aware that nsaids can cause damage to the kidneys with long term use. I am no longer allowed to take them because of recent issues with kidney function. Bummer, since ibuprofen was my painkiller of choice. Right now my only option is Tylenol and it doesn't work that well for me unless it's hydrocodone or the pm mix with benadryl. One makes me slightly loopy and the other will put me out. At least I get some sleep with the latter. Aspercream and other rubs seem to help with joint pain and some other aches though. Used them recently when I got a vaccination that went into the muscle and was really hurting.(Still feels bruised, but the lump is finally gone.)

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