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Partially Compensated Respiratory Acidosis

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Arterial blood gas: ABGs made easy for nurses, nursing school students with the Tic Tac Toe Method for NCLEX exam This video demonstrates how to set-up arterial blood gas problems for solving respiratory acidosis/alkalosis and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis (fully compensated or partially compensated. ABG Quiz: http://www.registerednursern.com/abg-... Video: How to use the Tic Tac Toe Method for PARTIALLY vs FULLY Compensated ABGs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_V8E... Respiratory Acidosis: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0Vjn... Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-... Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nurs... Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/Register... Popular Playlists: "NCLEX Study Strategies": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Fluid & Electrolytes Made So Easy": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Skills Videos": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Study Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Tips & Questions": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Types of Nursing Specialties": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Healthcare Salary Information": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "New Nurse Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Career Help": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "EKG Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Personality Types": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Dosage & Calculations for Nurses": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Diabetes Health Managment": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

The Abcs Of Abgs: Blood Gas Analysis

A systematic and step-wise process based upon pH shift is the key to correct interpretation and application of arterial blood gas results In a previous article, “The Pitfalls of Arterial Blood Gases” (RT, April 2013), I described how simple pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical errors can produce arterial blood gas test results (ABGs) that are of little or no value, and perhaps even dangerous. In this article, I will assume that we have avoided all of those pitfalls and and will discuss how to interpret valid ABG results. (Some of the foundational information in this article is necessary for those new to interpreting. I encourage more experienced practitioners to bear with me.) This article will not attempt to discuss all of the possible causes or disease states that could relate to the results. Neither will it attempt to go into the interpretation of electrolytes or co-oximetry results. Adequate review of these subjects could require—in fact, have required—whole textbooks, and are beyond the scope of this article. What Is Normal? To interpret ABGs, we first need to know the normal values for the various analytes. Where do these normal values come from? They mostl Continue reading >>

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  1. mtnbknggrl

    My trainer recently put my on a 1300 calorie meal plan. She has broken it up to 5 meals per day at 260 p/m. She wants me to break it down to a 45/25/20 ratio p/m but i am struggling with making that work. Everything that i find that is healthy for me to eat, i cannot fit it together. Any ideas or suggestions on what to do? It is very frustrating, i have been working on it for a few days and cannot seem to make it fit.
    Thanks for your help.

  2. ianianian

    1. get rid of that trainer
    2. start at 2200 calories (if weight loss stalls, drop 100-150 calories, rinse repeat)
    3. sit and read these forums

  3. PBateman2

    Before you get rid of the trainer, can you ask him/her why 1300 calories to start? Im curious to know.

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There are two types of compensation to look for in an ABG. If compensation occurs, it is full or partial. If there is no compensation, the ABG is called uncompensated. If there are both respiratory and metabolic primary problems, the ABG is known as mixed or combined. Uncompensated Here the pH is abnormal; it will be either an acidosis or an alkalosis. The pH will always point to the primary problems (acidosis/alkalosis). The nurse then needs to look at the pCO2 or HCO3. In an uncompensated problem, there will be a respiratory acidosis or alkalosis or a metabolic acidosis or alkalosis, but the value that would correct for this, the opposite organ value, will not change as there is no compensation for the problem. ---------- Biology tutoring on Chegg Tutors Learn about Biology terms like Uncompensated Partially Compensated on Chegg Tutors. Work with live, online Biology tutors like Niyati B. who can help you at any moment, whether at 2pm or 2am. Liked the video tutorial? Schedule lessons on-demand or schedule weekly tutoring in advance with tutors like Niyati B. Visit https://www.chegg.com/tutors/Biology-... ---------- About Niyati B., Biology tutor on Chegg Tutors: Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India, Class of 2013 Medicine major Subjects tutored: Health and Medicine, PSAT (reading), PSAT (math), SAT (reading), Biology, Marathi, Medical Assistant, TOEFL, Basic Math, Hindi, English as a Second Language, SAT (math), and Medicine TEACHING EXPERIENCE I have taught concepts of basic math like solving linear equations to my young cousins in California ( grade 6 ) as well as basic human biology like circulatory system. I used to teach English to the children of the house hold helpers back in India and i find that this is what has helped me develop patience and not just that but also helped me brush up on my own knowledge of some things that I never thought I'd use after middle school. Einstein said if you can't explain it simply then you haven't understood it well enough and I completely agree. My goal: explain it simply, but also in a way that is hard to forget. EXTRACURRICULAR INTERESTS Well in a nutshell I'm a knowledge hungry newbie doctor ( graduated from a medical school in India ) , an avid reader , and I'm also a huge trivia nerd. I have a flair for all things literary ( debate , crosswords , word play you name it ) I absolutely love to read ( mostly fiction , some of my favorite authors like Khaled Hosseini are doctors by profession ) and I have written about 30 poems over the past 10 years. I enjoy listening to podcasts, my favorite one is called Good Job Brain which is a quiz and trivia podcast and I also have a particular fondness for learning about Greek and Roman mythology, and love spoken word poetry. I love to listen to music and sing ( albeit not too well ) and I collect fridge magnets from the places I've been. I have spent part of my childhood in the US, and then the rest in India and my life has been transcontinental for the most part which has given me the benefit of some amazing experiences. I also have an artsy side - sketching and painting are some ways I like to unwind, and listening to TED talks is always an option. Want to book a private lesson with Niyati B.? Message Niyati B. at https://www.chegg.com/tutors/online-t... ---------- Like what you see? Subscribe to Chegg's Youtube Channel: http://bit.ly/1PwMn3k ---------- Visit Chegg.com for purchasing or renting textbooks, getting homework help, finding an online tutor, applying for scholarships and internships, discovering colleges, and more! https://chegg.com ---------- Want more from Chegg? Follow Chegg on social media: http://instagram.com/chegg http://facebook.com/chegg http://twitter.com/chegg

Uncompensated, Partially Compensated, Or Combined Abg Problems

Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) analysis requires in-depth expertise. If the results are not understood right, or are wrongly interpreted, it can result in wrong diagnosis and end up in an inappropriate management of the patient. ABG analysis is carried out when the patient is dealing with the following conditions: • Breathing problems • Lung diseases (asthma, cystic fibrosis, COPD) • Heart failure • Kidney failure ABG reports help in answering the following questions: 1. Is there acidosis or alkalosis? 2. If acidosis is present, whether it is in an uncompensated state, partially compensated state, or in fully compensated state? 3. Whether acidosis is respiratory or metabolic? ABG reports provide the following descriptions: PaCO2 (partial pressure of dissolved CO2 in the blood) and PaO2 (partial pressure of dissolved O2 in the blood) describe the efficiency of exchange of gas in the alveolar level into the blood. Any change in these levels causes changes in the pH. HCO3 (bicarbonate in the blood) maintains the pH of the blood within normal range by compensatory mechanisms, which is either by retaining or increasing HCO3 excretion by the kidney. When PaCO2 increases, HCO3 decreases Continue reading >>

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  1. Margot LaNoue

    A few methods:
    - pee on a stick. There's a generic brand (I use Walgreen's) and the official brand. In general, they're called "ketone test strips" and they will change colors depending on the amount of ketone bodies in your urine. There is no "perfect level" of ketone bodies; you are either in ketosis or you are not. You will find these test strips in the same isle as the diabetic test stuff.
    - smell your breath. It will smell *awful* because a side product of ketosis is acetone in the urine and breath. While urine might always smell bad to you, your breath will smell truly, noticeably foul.
    - no bloating. Ketones do not bind with water the way glucose/glycogen does. You will not retain water when in ketosis. Nice!

  2. Cherie Nixon

    Warning: this might gross you out, but there's a simple answer to this question.
    OK, you want to know how you can tell? If you're in ketosis, you will often find oily residue floating in the toilet (assuming adequate lighting to see it). That's because while in ketosis, you excrete excess fat calories.

  3. Gary Wayne Nettoc

    The taste that people have mentioned is from the acetone in your breath, produced when you are in ketosis. There's a cool gadget that can measure that and let you know if you are in ketosis. KETONIX by Moose AB, Org.nr 556443-3794 It doesn't require strips or any replacement parts so in the long run it is the cheapest alternative.

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Here I explain a bit about ABG"s or Arterial Blood Gases, and what values are normal, what values are abnormal, a chart to help you solve which type of compensation it is (metabolic or Respiratory), is it Acidosis or Alkalosis, and how much it may have compensated or not. Please open the charts in a second & 3 browser to reference, or open the normal range chart on google! At the end, I show easy tricks and ways on how to remember the chart, so you can recreate it for a nursing test, respiratory test, or Medical Laboratory science test, etc. Thanks for Watching! Medical Maura

Easy Way To Interpret Abg Values

ABG values can be very intimidating! Its hard to remember all the different normal values, what they mean, and which direction theyre supposed to be going. With so much information, its super easy to get mixed up and make a stupid mistake on an exam, even when you really DO know how to interpret ABGs. In this article, Im focusing more on the How to, rather than understanding whats going on with the A&P, which Ive already done in previous articles. If you want to understand whythese steps work (which you should do anyway to become a great nurse!),take some time to review my articles on Respiratory Imbalances and Metabolic Imbalances . Heres my 7-step method to interpreting ABGs. We have three puzzle pieces to put together: B)uncompensated, partially compensated, or compensated 1) Across the top of your page, write down the normal values for the three most important ABG lab results: pH (7.35-7.45), PaCO2 (35-45), and HCO3 (22-26). 2) Underneath pH, draw arrows to remind you which direction is acidic (down), and which direction is basic (down). 3) UnderneathPaCO2, and HCO3, draw arrows to remind you what abnormally high and low values would do to the bodys pH. When youre done, your p Continue reading >>

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  1. manohman

    Why can't fat be converted into Glucose?

    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?

  2. Czarcasm

    manohman said: ↑
    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?
    Click to expand... Both glucose and fatty acids can be stored in the body as either glycogen for glucose (stored mainly in the liver or skeletal cells) or for FA's, as triacylglycerides (stored in adipose cells). We cannot store excess protein. It's either used to make other proteins, or flushed out of the body if in excess; that's generally the case but we try to make use of some of that energy instead of throwing it all away.
    When a person is deprived of nutrition for a period of time and glycogen stores are depleted, the body will immediately seek out alternative energy sources. Fats (stored for use) are the first priority over protein (which requires the breakdown of tissues such as muscle). We can mobilize these FA's to the liver and convert them to Acetyl-CoA to be used in the TCA cycle and generate much needed energy. On the contrary, when a person eats in excess (a fatty meal high in protein), it's more efficient to store fatty acids as TAG's over glycogen simply because glycogen is extremely hydrophilic and attracts excess water weight; fatty acids are largely stored anhydrously and so you essentially get more bang for your buck. This is evolutionary significant and why birds are able to stay light weight but fly for periods at a time, or why bears are able to hibernate for months at a time. Proteins on the other hand may be used anabolically to build up active tissues (such as when your working out those muscles), unless you live a sedentary lifestyle (less anabolism and therefore, less use of the proteins). As part of the excretion process, protein must be broken down to urea to avoid toxic ammonia and in doing so, the Liver can extract some of that usable energy for storage as glycogen.
    Also, it is worth noting that it is indeed possible to convert FA's to glucose but the pathway can be a little complex and so in terms of energy storage, is not very efficient. The process involves converting Acetyl-CoA to Acetone (transported out of mitochondria to cytosol) where it's converted to Pyruvate which can then be used in the Gluconeogenesis pathway to make Glucose and eventually stored as Glycogen. Have a look for yourself if your interested: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002116.g003/originalimage (and this excludes the whole glycogenesis pathway, which hasn't even begun yet).
    TLDR: it's because proteins have no ability to be stored in the body, but we can convert them to glycogen for storage during the breakdown process for excretion. Also, in terms of energy, it's a more efficient process than converting FA's to glycogen for storage.

  3. soccerman93

    This is where biochem comes in handy. Czarcasm gives a really good in depth answer, but a simpler approach is to count carbons. The first step of gluconeogenesis(formation of glucose) requires pyruvate, a 3 carbon molecule. Acetyl Co-A is a 2 carbon molecule, and most animals lack the enzymes (malate synthase and isocitrate lyase) required to convert acetyl co-A into a 3 carbon molecule suitable for the gluconeogenesis pathway. The ketogenic pathway is not efficient, as czarcasm pointed out. While acetyl co-A can indeed be used to form citric acid intermediates, these intermediates will be used in forming ATP, not glucose. Fatty acid oxidation does not yield suitable amounts of pyruvate, which is required for gluconeogenesis. This is part of why losing weight is fairly difficult for those that are overweight, we can't efficiently directly convert fat to glucose, which we need a fairly constant supply of. Sorry, that got a little long-winded

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