Vomiting - Wikivet English
Created by the veterinary profession for you - find out more about WikiVet Did you know you can edit or help WikiVet in other ways? Vomiting has potentially lethal effects in the monogastric animal. The effects are listed below. It is clinically important to differentiate vomiting from regurgitation , as clients can often confuse these clinical signs and the two have very different aetiologies. Fluid loss is evident as an increased PCV or haematocrit, an increased total protein concentration or a prerenal azotaemia . The main losses are of H+ and Cl-, and also K+. Electrolyte loss can potentially cause metabolic alkalosis, although this is only likely with disease which stops at the pylorus, e.g.: pyloric outflow obstruction. In cases where mild alkalosis occurs, homeostatic mechanisms produce a more alkaline urine to restore normal body pH. However, in severe metabolic alkalosis with marked dehydration, acidic urine may be produced. This is termed paradoxical aciduria. Because vomiting induces hypokalaemia, there is an overriding stimulus in the kidney for Na+ (and therefore water) retention. Na+ can only be resorbed in exchange for H+, H++ is therefore excreted in the urine, cau
Testing a "Khan Academy" presentation for USMLE style videos.
Pyloric Stenosis is a medial emergency that requires urgent fluid resuscitation and resolution of biochemical abnormalities. Definitive surgical treatment can then be undertaken to restore enteral nutrition. projectile vomiting in neonate (not billous) visible peristalsis and olive sized mass in epigastrium 5. initially, alkaline urine -> later, acidic urine decreased secretion of pancreatic HCO3- increased HCO3- presented to distal tubule and eliminated producing an alkaline urine loss of Na+ in urine until kidney adjusts to increased HCO3- load activation of renin-AG-ALD system to off set this and restore Na+ and H2O activation of rennin-AG-ALD system with produces loss of K+ in urine with extreme K+ loss in urine -> it gets reabsorbed in distal tubule with loss of H+ worsening metabolic alkalosis and producing and acidic urine initially, alkaline urine -> later, paradoxical aciduria inability to absorb enteral fluid and vomiting activation of rennin-AG-ALD system + ADH Fluid resuscitation determined by weight and degree of dehydration assessed clinically (tissue turgor, pulse, fontanelle, CR centrally, peripheral perfusion, respiratory rate) IV boluses of normal saline or collo
Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
8.7 Use Of Bicarbonate In Metabolic Acidosis
8.7 Use of Bicarbonate in Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic acidosis causes adverse metabolic effects (see Section 5.4 ). In particular the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system may cause serious clinical problems. Bicarbonate is an anion and cannot be given alone. Its therapeutic use is as a solution of sodium bicarbonate. An 8.4% solution is a molar solution (ie it contains 1mmol of HCO3- per ml) and is the concentration clinically available in Australia. This solution is very hypertonic (osmolality is 2,000 mOsm/kg). The main goal of alkali therapy is to counteract the extracellular acidaemia with the aim of reversing or avoiding the adverse clinical effects of the acidosis (esp the adverse cardiovascular effects). Other reasons for use of bicarbonate in some cases of acidosis are: to promote alkaline diuresis (eg to hasten salicylate excretion) 8.7.2 Undesirable effects of bicarbonate administration In general, the severity of these effects are related to the amount of bicarbonate used. These undesirable effects include: 8.7.3 Important points about bicarbonate 1. Ventilation must be adequate to eliminate the CO2 produced from bicarbonate Bicarbonate decreases H+ by reacting
(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Acid-base disorders are pathologic changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) or serum bicarbonate (HCO3) that typically produce abnormal arterial pH values. Acidosis refers to physiologic processes that cause acid accumulation or alkali loss. Alkalosis ref ...
Facts: Complication seen in patients with DM I Hyperglycemia-induced crisis Lack of available glucose, leads to breaking down of FAs Production of ketone bodies History / PE: H/O recent URI Mild leukocytosis Kussmaul respirations (rapid, deep breathing) Polyuria Dehydration Fruity, acetone breath odor Decreased level of consciousness Diffuse abdominal pain Diagnosis: Hyperglycemia (glucose > 250 mg/dL) Metabolic acidosis (pH<7.3 or bicarbonate < ...
Metabolic acidosis in childhood: why, when and how to treat Olberes V. B. AndradeI; Flvio O. IharaII; Eduardo J. TrosterIII IProfessor assistente, Faculdade de Cincias Mdicas, Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericrdia de So Paulo, So Paulo, SP, Brasil. Mestre, Universidade Federal de So Paulo (UNIFESP), So Paulo, SP, Brasil. Doutor, Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericrdia de So Paulo, So Paulo, SP, Brasil. Mdico, Centro de Terapia Intensiva Peditric ...
Module 10: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify the three blood variables considered when making a diagnosis of acidosis or alkalosis Identify the source of compensation for blood pH problems of a respiratory origin Identify the source of compensation for blood pH problems of a metabolic/renal origin Normal arterial blood pH is restricted to a very narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. A per ...
A 24-year-old woman presented with a history of persistent vomiting for at least 3 months. This resulted in severe dehydration with risk of acute kidney injury. In addition to volume depletion, loss of gastric fluid resulted in a specific metabolic derangementhypokalaemic, hypochloraemic normal anion gap metabolic alkalosis with a reduced ionised calcium concentration and paradoxical aciduria. These metabolic changes were reflected in her ECG. I ...
metabolic acidosis leads to adverse cardiovascular effects bicarbonate must be administered in a solution as sodium bicarbonate 8.4% solution contains 1mmol of HCO3-/mL and is very hypertonic (2,000mOsm/kg) goal of NaHCO3 administration in severe metabolic acidosis to counteract the negative cardiovascular effects of acidaemia alternatives to NaHCO3 include carbicarb, dichloroacetate, Tris/THAM Treatment of sodium channel blocker overdose (e.g. ...