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Nutritional Ketosis And Starvation Ketosis

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

Metabolism And Ketosis

Metabolism And Ketosis

Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>

Clinical And Translational Report Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference And Thereby Endurance Performance In Athletes

Clinical And Translational Report Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference And Thereby Endurance Performance In Athletes

Introduction Ketone body metabolism is a survival trait conserved in higher organisms to prolong life during an energy deficit or metabolic crisis. The advantages of ketone body metabolism during starvation are clear; providing an oxidizable carbon source to conserve precious glucose/gluconeogenic reserves while simultaneously satisfying the specific fuel demands of the brain. Ketone bodies, when present, act not only as respiratory fuels to power oxidative phosphorylation but as signals regulating the preferential oxidation and mobilization of fuel substrates (Robinson and Williamson, 1980). The conservation of CHO reserves in the form of glycogen and gluconeogenic skeletal muscle protein is a hallmark of starvation induced ketosis (Cahill, 1970), dramatically increasing survival duration (Cahill and Owen, 1968; Felig et al., 1969). Ketosis may also provide thermodynamic advantages over other carbon substrates by increasing the free energy conserved in ATP (ΔGATP) by the oxidation of ketones during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (Sato et al., 1995). The combination of improved energetic efficiency and fuel sparing is vitally important not only during famine, but could also provide clues to new methods of sustaining human performance, or restoring dysregulated substrate metabolism. Produced continuously under normal physiological conditions, a significant increase in the ketone bodies, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (d-βHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), rarely manifests in concentrations above 1 mM (Robinson and Williamson 1980). However, the production of ketone bodies increases rapidly in response to calorie deprivation or energy deficit such as starvation, prolonged exercise, and as part of the clinical manifestations of diseases, such as uncontrolled diabetes (Robinson Continue reading >>

Acute Nutritional Ketosis: Implications For Exercise Performance And Metabolism

Acute Nutritional Ketosis: Implications For Exercise Performance And Metabolism

Go to: Dietary intake influences metabolism An ancient Spanish proverb ‘Diet cures more than the lancet’ suggests that the importance of diet in maintaining good health is an age-old concept. Mechanisms by which the body uses the fuels we eat to sustain life, or in the case of excess, store the surplus energy, have fascinated generations of scientists. Carbohydrates, fat, protein and, for some, alcohol are the fundamental sources of dietary energy. Whilst the numbers of dietary macronutrients (food groups) are limited, the particular composition and relative contribution of these dietary groups to our calorific needs vary widely. Until recently, little was known of the metabolic systems that linked diet with human function. In 1937, Krebs made arguably the most important breakthrough in biochemistry [1], describing a cycle of enzymatic reactions uniting dietary fuel combustion with cellular energy provision. This final common pathway for substrate metabolism has allowed the detailed study of the flow of energy transformation (energetics) from dietary sources to the ‘energy currency’ adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Exercise the litmus of metabolic performance Over the last century, our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying human performance has expanded greatly. At the intersection of elite sport and substrate, metabolism lays the potential to investigate the processes that define the limits of human physiology. The onset of acute exercise triggers a rapid increase in demand for substrate and oxygen (mediated via an increase in cardiac output), with metabolic rate raised up to 100-fold above resting conditions during high-intensity exercise [2]. Depending on the relative intensity of exercise, durations of physical effort may last for minutes, hours Continue reading >>

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

Why Dka & Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same

There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstandings lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50 grams of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person in a state of “nutritional ketosis” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of “diabetic ketoacidosis” (DKA) and lastly, there are “starvation ketones” and “illness-induced ketones” The fact is they are very different. DKA is a dangerous state of ketosis that can easily land a diabetic in the hospital and is life-threatening. Meanwhile, “nutritional ketosis” is the result of a nutritional approach that both non-diabetics and diabetics can safely achieve through low-carb nutrition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis vs. Nutritional Ketosis Ryan Attar (soon to be Ryan Attar, ND) helps explain the science and actual human physiology behind these different types of ketone production. Ryan is currently studying to become a Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine in Connecticut and also pursuing a Masters Degree in Human Nutrition. He has interned under the supervision of the very well-known diabetes doc, Dr. Bernstein. Ryan explains: Diabetic Ketoacidosis: “Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), is a very dangerous state where an individual with uncontrolled diabetes is effectively starving due to lack of insulin. Insulin brings glucose into our cells and without it the body switches to ketones. Our brain can function off either glucose or fat and ketones. Ketones are a breakdown of fat and amino acids that can travel through the blood to various tissues to be utilized for fuel.” “In normal individuals, or those with well controlled diabetes, insulin acts to cancel the feedback loop and slow and sto Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Ketosis Vs Keto-adapted

Ketosis Vs Keto-adapted

As you might know already, I started a Facebook group called Ketogenic Success as a positive, success-oriented community of like-minded folks who are on their own keto journey. Well, the group is growing every day (almost 15k members as of right now), which is awesome. Because the group is growing so fast, new folks will frequently ask the same questions. There’s nothing wrong with that. Asking questions is how we all learn and grow. So I wanted to take some time to address one of the most common questions we see in the group: What’s the difference between being in ketosis and being keto-adapted? It’s easy to see why this is such a confusing topic, and it’s not made easier by the common misconceptions (and just plain errors) that seem to abound. First, let’s address the subject of ketosis. Ketosis is a situation where your body is producing ketones. There are three ketone bodies: acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Ketones are produced hepatically (which is a fancy way of saying “by the liver”) as a product of breaking down fatty acids. But there’s a bit of a problem with this simple definition of ketosis. You see, your liver is constantly breaking down fatty acids, and therefore creating ketones, but it would be difficult to say that you’re in ketosis. That’s because the level of ketones isn’t high enough to be considered ketosis. So, having ketones in your body doesn’t necessarily mean you’re in ketosis. Okay. Cool. Cool, cool, cool. But, hey…so…wait a sec. Is there, like, a level of ketones that DOES mean you’re in ketosis? Well…yes. Yes, there is. Dr. Stephen Phinney is the grandmaster of ketogenic research (along with Dr. Jeff Volek), and he’s the person who coined the term “nutritional ketosis.” Before Phi Continue reading >>

Is Ketosis Dangerous? No, Because Ketosis Is Not Ketoacidosis.

Is Ketosis Dangerous? No, Because Ketosis Is Not Ketoacidosis.

At this point, I consider myself pretty immune to what internet trolls say to me. I have a pretty tough skin, usually laugh off nonsensical comments, and carry on with my day. This last time was different. When checking the social media account for my ketosis supplement company, Perfect Keto, I noticed a rather ridiculous comment. To the best of my memory, the comment said something like this: “How dare you promote ketosis?! I HATE KETOSIS! My daughter is a diabetic and had to be brought to hospital the other day because she was in ketoacidosis! Shame on you and everyone like who you recommends a dangerous diet that kills people! You are killing people! AGHHH!” Not only is this comment wildly misinformed and ignorant, I think comments like this are more dangerous than the promoting the ketogenic diet. When people make comments like this, they use the same scare tactics and lack of facts that have recently overtaken our political system to influence people in not using very beneficial tools to their advantage. Sometimes you just have to use your brain. The unfortunate truth is that this lady isn’t the only delusional and misinformed one instilling fear into people who are trying to gain benefit from their nutritional choices. Plenty of mainstream doctors also think the ketogenic diet is life threatening. I’ve recommended the ketogenic diet to many of my patients trying to fix weight and metabolic issues they haven’t been able to correct for years. One of them mentioned this change to their primary care physician, who was reviewing the statins and several other medications they have this patient on, who reacted with disbelief. Ketosis! How could I recommend such a life threatening intervention?! They were told not to see such a quack like myself any more before Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis, And How Long Does It Take To Get Into Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis, And How Long Does It Take To Get Into Ketosis?

Ketosis is a natural state of the body in which it is fueled almost solely by fat. This happens when a person fasts or adheres to a very low carbohydrate diet. The exciting thing about ketosis and ketogenic diets is that you can lose a lot of weight while eating a normal quantity of food. You don’t have to suffer through skimpy portions. There are other benefits of keeping a ketogenic diet as well. These will be explained in the following article. An Explanation of Ketosis The root “keto” in the word ketosis comes from the type of fuel that the body produces when blood sugar is in low supply. The small molecules that are used as fuel are called “ketones.” If you consume very few carbohydrates and only a moderate amount of protein, then the body begins to produce ketones. Ketones are made by the liver from fat. Both the body and the brain can use them as fuel. The brain cannot directly function from fat. It must convert the fat into ketones. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com When you go on a ketogenic diet, your body almost solely runs on fat. Your insulin levels become rather low as well. Since you are burning so much fat, this is a great way to lose weight. Studies show that ketogenic diets result in greater weight loss. The fastest way to get into ketosis is by fasting. However, you cannot fast for very long, so you need to start a low carb diet. The Brain and Ketones Many people think that the brain needs carbohydrates to function. This is not really true. The brain can work well simply by burning ketones. The reality is that many people feel like they have even more energy and focus when they are fueled by ketones. Benefits of Ketosis There ar Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Fear, Uncertainty And Doubt

Ketosis: Fear, Uncertainty And Doubt

Perhaps nothing is more damaging to the new low-carber than the intentional spread of fear, uncertainty and doubt regarding the state of ketosis compared to the dangerous state of ketoacidosis. The former is a natural and healthy state of existence, the latter is a condition that threatens the life of type 1 diabetics and type 2 diabetics whose disease has progressed to the point where their pancreatic beta cells can no longer produce insulin (ketoacidosis is also a risk for alcoholics). So if you’re not an alcoholic, a type 1 diabetic or a late-stage type 2 diabetic, fear of ketosis is misdirected. You should regard with suspicion anyone who confuses the two and warns you against a low-carb diet because they cannot tell the difference. The confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis is a sign of a grave misunderstanding of basic biology (if not a complete lack of critical faculty). So too is the assumption that ketosis is the “early stage” of ketoacidosis or that “ketosis leads to ketoacidosis” in a person whose pancreas is still able to produce insulin. If you don’t trust me (and why should you), you should consider listening to some people who know a lot more about this than either you or I ever will: Nutritional ketosis is by definition a benign metabolic state… by contrast, ‘diabetic ketoacidosis’ is an unstable and dangerous condition that occurs when there is inadequate pancreatic insulin response to regulate serum B-OHB. This occurs only in type-1 diabetics or in late stage type-2 diabetics with advanced pancreatic burnout. (Dr. Phinney & Dr. Volek, The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living, p.4) Later in the book (p.80), Phinney and Volek explain further: [Type-1 diabetics] need insulin injections not just to control blood glucose levels, Continue reading >>

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

The ketogenic diet is a popular, effective way to lose weight and improve health. When followed correctly, this low-carb, high-fat diet will raise blood ketone levels. These provide a new fuel source for your cells, and cause most of the unique health benefits of this diet (1, 2, 3). On a ketogenic diet, your body undergoes many biological adaptions, including a reduction in insulin and increased fat breakdown. When this happens, your liver starts producing large amounts of ketones to supply energy for your brain. However, it can often be hard to know whether you're "in ketosis" or not. Here are 10 common signs and symptoms of ketosis, both positive and negative. People often report bad breath once they reach full ketosis. It's actually a common side effect. Many people on ketogenic diets and similar diets, such as the Atkins diet, report that their breath takes on a fruity smell. This is caused by elevated ketone levels. The specific culprit is acetone, a ketone that exits the body in your urine and breath (4). While this breath may be less than ideal for your social life, it can be a positive sign for your diet. Many ketogenic dieters brush their teeth several times per day, or use sugar-free gum to solve the issue. If you're using gum or other alternatives like sugar-free drinks, check the label for carbs. These may raise your blood sugar levels and reduce ketone levels. The bad breath usually goes away after some time on the diet. It is not a permanent thing. The ketone acetone is partly expelled via your breath, which can cause bad or fruity-smelling breath on a ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diets, along with normal low-carb diets, are highly effective for losing weight (5, 6). As dozens of weight loss studies have shown, you will likely experience both short- and long Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet, and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Cause Ketoacidosis Ketone bodies are acidic, but acid-base homeostasis in the blood is normally maintained through bicarbonate buffering, respiratory compensation to vary the amount of CO2 in the bloodstream, hydrogen ion absorption by tissue proteins and bone, and renal compensation through increased excretion of dihydrog Continue reading >>

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Ketosis & Measuring Ketones

Generally, ketone concentrations are lower in the morning and higher in the evening. Whatever time you pick to measure ketone levels, make sure to keep it consistent. Also, do not measure your ketone levels right after exercise. Ketone levels tend to be lower while your glucose levels higher so you won't get representative numbers. Keep in mind there are daily fluctuations caused by changes in hormone levels. Don't get discouraged! Another aspect that affects the level of ketones is the amount of fat in your diet. Some of you may show higher concentration of ketones after a high-fat meal. Coconut oil contains MCTs that will help you boost ketones. To easily increase your fat intake on a ketogenic diet, try fat bombs - snacks with at least 80% fat content. Ketone levels tend to be higher after extensive aerobic exercise as your body depletes glycogen stores. Exercise may help you get into ketosis faster. ketogenic "fruity" breath is not pleasant for most people. To avoid this, drink a lot of water, mint tea and make sure you eat foods rich in electrolytes. Avoid too many chewing gums and mints, as it may put you out of ketosis; there may be hidden carbs affecting your blood sugar. Increase your electrolyte intake, especially potassium. You are likely going to lose some sodium and potassium when switching to the keto diet. Finally, if you find it hard to lose weight on a ketogenic diet, there may be plenty other reasons than the level of ketone bodies: Not Losing Weight on Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet? Don’t Give Up and Read Further. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Certainly a low carb approach doesn’t work with Type 1’s, right? What about the dangerous risks of hypoglycemia? Actually, this thinking is repeated over and over. Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, those using a low carbohydrate high healthy fat (LCHF) approach have much more stable blood sugars, some nearly eliminating hypoglycemic episodes altogether. It really makes perfect sense. Why this reasoning is shunned, defies logic. Think about it…less (fast acting, blood-sugar-spiking) carbs, less insulin, less hypos. Before we go further in this post, I’d like you to read this powerfully compelling account of Dr. Keith Runyan, MD, a Nephrologist, who is a Type 1, and who successfully uses a carb restricted approach to manage his diabetes. Please read his story (link below). There is no way I could do this story justice in fewer words. The entire article is needed to understand its full impact. Afterwards, I would recommend his accompanying video. Nutritional Ketosis vs Diabetic Ketoacidosis Much of the backlash from mainstream beliefs regarding the use of carb restriction with Type 1’s stems from the lack of understanding about the difference between nutritional ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis. I’m going to quote directly from Diabetes Daily Website. Here is the content of their article entitled “Why DKA and Nutritional Ketosis Are Not The Same”…(read the full article HERE) “There’s a very common misconception and general misunderstanding around ketones. Specifically, the misunderstanding lie in the areas of: ketones that are produced in low-carb diets of generally less than 50g of carbs per day, which is low enough to put a person into a state of “nutritional ketosis.” ketones that are produced when a diabetic is in a state of Continue reading >>

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