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Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis Wiki

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This video Drugs of Abuse: Ethanol, Methanol & Ethylene Glyco is part of the Lecturio course Toxicology WATCH the complete course on http://lectur.io/alcohols LEARN ABOUT: - Clinically important alcohols and their antagonists - Ethanol metabolism and metabolism inhibitors - Methanol "Wood Alcohol" - Ethylene glycol - Test question THE PROF: Dr. Shukle is a board certified specialist in internal medicine. He performs over 150 special lectures across the nation each year with various audiences ranging from the general public, to nurses, to physicians, to medical specialists. His lectures are engaging, funny, and informative. LECTURIO is your single-point resource for medical school: Study for your classes, USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2, MCAT or MBBS with video lectures by world-class professors, recall & USMLE-style questions and textbook articles. Create your free account now: http://lectur.io/alcohols INSTALL our free Lecturio app iTunes Store: https://app.adjust.com/z21zrf Play Store: https://app.adjust.com/b01fak READ TEXTBOOK ARTICLES related to this video: How to Recognize and Treat the 5 Major Drug Intoxications http://lectur.io/intoxicationarticle Drugs of Abuse: Alcoholis

Wikitox - 2.2.5.2.5 Methanol

Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood spirits) is used as a fuel in high performance engines, solvents, as an antifreeze or window cleaner. Methanol is also used to fortify illicit spirits. Methanol is a colourless, flammable solution with a slightly alcoholic smell. Almost all significant exposures occur via ingestion, but methanol can also be absorbed via inhalation and through the skin. Small amounts of methanol are ingested with foods such as fresh fruit juices and vegetables. Methanol is a natural fermentation product found in all spirits. Serum methanol concentrations rise following binge drinking and are thought to be one cause of a hangover. Methanol toxicity produces a raised anion-gap metabolic acidosis, ocular and central nervous system toxicity. Treatment with an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor such as ethanol or fomepizole may be life-saving. Fifiteen mL of a 40% solution has been fatal, and as little as 10mL has caused blindness. Due to the current relative concentrations of methanol (2%) and ethanol (98%) in methylated spirits it is the ethanol which is the more toxic in acute ingestions. In Australia there is no methanol contained in methylated spirits. Methanol is metabo Continue reading >>

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  1. ricks

    I have followed the Whole30 program for almost 6 weeks. I started it because I was a carb and sugar monster. Typical daily carb intake was about 400 grams coming from pasta, bread, rice, sugar post-workout drinks, and sugar. I was also hungry ALL the time and easily ate 4-6 times a day.
    I believe I have a fast metabolism as my RMR (resting metabolic rate) was tested several years ago when I was 48 and it was 3,000 calories a day. Seeing I work 60-80 hours a week in manual labor (construction trades) and work out several times a week, my trainer thought I was easily burning about 5,000 calories a day. My weight has never been a problem as I am 6'5" and weigh about 190 even when eating bad food (yea I know I was lucky)
    To my amazement, the sugar addiction left on the evening of day one and I had not had anything with sugar since then...no cravings either. I also do not miss ANY of the other carbs. I do think I need to eat more food in general and especially more dense veggie carbs as I feel a bit tired still at times especially after meals that don't have many carbs.
    I have had a coating on my tongue since day 2 or 3 which is still there. My urine looked and smelled very different right from the beginning and still does. The weirdest thing is that my wife and I temporarily live in different states and this weekend was the first time she has seen me since I started. She told me my body smells different and it is not a good smell
    My questions are these:
    1) I had heard / read that the Whole30 program has a detoxing element to it and these symptoms remind me of when I did weeklong veggie juice only fasts years ago when I was trying to detox. Should I just stay on the Whole30 until these go away as they mean I am still cleaning? I don't feel any desire for the old bad food so I don't really feel like introducing things at this time as I don't really miss or crave them.
    2) My joints actually feel worse at times since I started. I thought they would feel better after giving up the sugar, yet i wonder if the pain has anything to do with all the red meat I am now eating as in the past I only ate chicken, turkey, and fish. In the past, my joints always seemed to feel the best when I didn't eat meat at all.
    Any and all suggestions / feedback is welcomed.
    Thanks,
    Rick

  2. melbournegirl

    Wow ricks, that sounds tough. I notice bad smell/breath come and go.. I think it is worse when I have too much fat or not enough carbs. I also notice the urine smell sometimes... But I think that is related to me using stronger spices for flavoring. Or maybe too much meat. Sometimes I adjust this by replacing with eggs more often. I have fixed my skin problems and aches through the extra saturated fat. Ghee in particular is supposed to provide a major building block for our natural anti inflammatory production, do you have it?
    If the aches are from too much meat/acidity then you need to blance this with more leafy green veggies. Also lemon juice in water before meals is supposed to help this.....
    These are just some thoughts, not a medical opinion of course. Good luck!

  3. Tom Denham

    The adjustment/detox phase should be complete by now. If you and your urine are smelling off and your joints feel worse, I worry that something is wrong in your diet. It would be useful to study a food log that covers a few days of your meals to get a good idea of what you are eating. You might need more of some things and less of others.
    You didn't mention the color of your urine, but I am wondering if you are drinking enough water. I would expect well-diluted urine to have little smell. Personally, I am amazed at how much water I have to drink to keep my urine relatively clear and to keep from having foot cramps... right at 10 big glasses per day separate from what I drink while training. I've only discovered the foot cramps/water connection recently. I tend not to cramp when I am drinking a lot of water, but get fierce foot cramps in some positions when I fail to drink enough.
    I am curious about your experience of your joints feeling best when you did not eat meat. I don't have any ideas about why red meat might be a problem, but you might want to cut red meat for a week and see if your joints feel better. The Whole30 encourages eating a variety of proteins, but I suppose you could limit red meat if it provokes problems for you.

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What is HYPOKALEMIA? What does HYPOKALEMIA mean? HYPOKALEMIA meaning - HYPOKALEMIA pronunciation - HYPOKALEMIA definition - HYPOKALEMIA explanation - How to pronounce HYPOKALEMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum. Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia. Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms. Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm such as bradycardia and cardiac arrest. Causes of hypokalemia include diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet. It is classified as severe when levels are less than 2.5 mmol/L. Low levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum. The speed at which potassium should be replaced depends on whether or not there are symptoms or ECG changes

Hypokalemia, Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis, Vomiting: Causes & Diagnoses | Symptoma.com

Diagnosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, normo or hypokalemia, decreased titulable acidity in urine, hypercalciuria and/or hipocitraturia. [renaltube.com] Diagnostic methods The disease is characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. [orpha.net] This leads to the clinical features of dRTA: [1] Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis /acidemia Hypokalemia Urinary stone formation (related to alkaline urine, hypercalciuria [en.wikipedia.org] Features Chronic metabolic acidosis with hyperchloremia and normal anion gap. [renaltube.com] The inability to lower urine pH below 5.5 and a positive urine anion gap during spontaneous metabolic acidosis is indicative of dRTA. [orpha.net] [] renal acid-base regulation due to impaired ability to acidify the urine and excrete acid results in net acid retention and hyperchloremic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis [lifeinthefastlane.com] Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis /acidemia Hypokalemia , Hypocalcemia , Hyperchloremia Urinary stone formation (related to alkaline urine, hypercalciuria , and low urinary [en.wikipedia.org] Laboratory testing is notable for hyperchloremic and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. [medbull Continue reading >>

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  1. Deranged_hypnotist

    Hey all, So I began this Keto diet over 1 month ago and the results have been FANTASTIC! I have lost 35 pounds! (M/6'1 Sw: 245 CW: 210 GW: 180) I have been extremely happy with myself now and its all thanks to you guys. Sadly though yesterday while checking my ketosticks i saw blood in my urine and after a 7 hour ER visit I was told by the doctor that I had passed a kidney stone and gotten a UTI from it as well. I have never had a kidney stone in my life or any major health problems (aside from being overweight). The doctor told me to get off my diet until I can see an urologist to find out why I have a kidney stone. The thing is the next available appointment is not for a long time since I work 2 jobs. So I have done a bit of research and a side effect of being in ketosis is kidney stones (from random online website).
    So my questions to r/keto is 1. How often does this happen? 2. Is this Research Valid Online? 3. Where do I go from here?
    I still want to continue keto for the next 30 more pounds.
    P.S. I do not want this post to discourage anyone from trying keto, EVERYONE'S body is different.

  2. gogge

    Higher protein intake increases the calcium absorption in the gut, and consequently increases the calcium excreted in the urine. Ketosis increases the need to balance blood pH as ketones are acidifying, one way the body likely does this i by increasing calcium leaching from the bones, this also increases urine calcium excretion.
    Increased calcium levels in the urine increases the risk of calcium-oxalate stone formation.
    Excretion of ketones in the urine increases urine acidity, as does the increased excretion of uric acid (can lead to supersaturation, the uric acid can't dissolve and form crystals).
    Increased urine acidity increases the risk of kidney stone formation, lower levels of citrate in the urine also increases the risk of stone formation.
    Paul over at perfecthealthdiet.com has an article on kidney stones and carb restriction, "Dangers of Zero-Carb Diets, IV: Kidney Stones".
    Generally the best way to counter this is to eat more vegetables, most have a negative potential renal acid load (PRAL), which means they'll reduce the acidity of urine (here's a list of foods and their PRAL score). Even calcium rich foods can help as the calcium will bind to oxalate (chelation) in the gut and prevent absoption.
    Increased water intake also helps as it balances the urine pH and prevents supersaturation (through dilution) as you pee more, in general dehydration is a common risk factor for stone formation.
    Another more drastic way to reduce calcium excretion, reduce urine acidity, and increase urine excretion of citrates, is to supplement with potassium citrate. It's been tested in epilepsy studies and resulted in a very high reduction in stone formation incidents (0.9% of patients compared to the 25% Paul mentions in his article):
    Successful empiric administration of Polycitra K at KD onset resulted in a kidney-stone incidence of 0.9% (1 of 106) compared with administration only because of hypercalciuria, 6.7% (13 of 195; P = .02).
    McNally MA, et al. "Empiric use of potassium citrate reduces kidney-stone incidence with the ketogenic diet." Pediatrics. 2009 Aug;124(2):e300-4. Epub 2009 Jul 13.
    You probably need to talk to your doctor about that as potassium is usually limited to ~99 mg for OTC tablets.
    Anecdotaly another thing sometimes used is sodium (or potassium) bicarbonate, as it also reduces urine acidity. I haven't seen any studies on it, but WebMD has some articles on it, "Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) for Kidney Stones". It's probably a good idea to discuss this with your doctor before starting taking any.

  3. [deleted]

    I had kidney stones about 3 years ago and from what I understand is that there are two different types. Calcium stones and uric acid stones.
    Calcium stones are more often than not a result of not enough fluid intake or an over abundance of calcium in your diet. Were talking multiple Tums a day, a wheel of cheese, gallons of cream - for most people. Others can just be an increase in calcium intake that the body is not used to. Such as going from little to no calcium intake, to hitting well over the suggested daily amount. This could very well be the case with you.
    From what I understand as well, uric acid stones are likely hereditary.
    At the end of the day, no, your keto diet is not the cause of your Kidney stones.
    Personally, I would never wish the pain of a kidney stone onto my worst enemy. So your best course of action is to be sure you're drinking plenty of water. Make sure your pee is always crystal clear. Increase your magnesium intake, either via supplements or more easily, eat an avocado every day. You also have to make sure you supplement your magnesium with calcium. This sounds counterintuitive to what I just stated, but the two work in conjunction with each other ( i dont know the exact science of it). I would suggest chewing on 1 or 2 Tums a day (depending on how much cheese and other dairy products you're already eating).
    Hope this helps!

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Ketosis, Cognitive Defect, Metabolic Acidosis: Causes & Diagnoses | Symptoma.com

Causes: Metabolic Acidosis and Elevated Anion Gap (Mnemonic: "MUD PILERS") Methanol , Metformin Uremia Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Alcohol ic ketoacidosis or starvation ketosis [fpnotebook.com] Causes of metabolic acidosis There are many causes. [patient.info] Lactic Acidosis Lactic acidosis is a high anion gap metabolic acidosis due to elevated blood lactate. [merckmanuals.com] Causes: Metabolic Acidosis and Elevated Osmolal Gap Toxic Alcohol ingestion Eythylene glycol Methanol Serum K etone increase (ketosis) Alcohol ic ketoacidosis Diabetic Ketoacidosis [fpnotebook.com] Correlation between anion gap and causes of metabolic acidosis Elevated AG metabolic acidoses Lactic acidosis caused by L-lactate, due to state of hypoperfusion, carbon monoxide [patient.info] Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. [merckmanuals.com] Causes: Metabolic Acidosis and Elevated Anion Gap (Mnemonic: "MUD PILERS") Methanol , Metformin Uremia Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Alcohol ic ketoacidosis or starvation ketosis [fpnotebook.com] Causes of metabolic acidosis There are many causes. [patient.info] metabolic acidosis in Medicine metabolic acidosis n. [d Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. survivn

    Keto while nursing?

    Hey fitnessman, is it a good idea to try a keto diet while nursing?, I have a friend that just had a baby and she would like to try keto to lose the "baby" fat. thanks for your help

  2. fitforlife

    I am not fitnessman, and probably will get jumped on for this, but I would say DEFINETLY NOT!!!!! Keto is a GREAT fat loss program, but it does deny you of some vitamins and minerals, even if you do take multi-vitamins and eat vegis, that your baby MUST have. I would tell her just to eat healthy and reasonable proportions and to exercise. That baby is taking a LOT out of her that she doesnt realize. Shoot, nursing a baby burns about 500 calories extra a day for women. I learned a lot about breast feeding because my wife just had a baby and we went to all these pre-baby classes.

  3. fitnessman

    That I'd jump you on this one
    A quick story. Well over 5 years ago the first I even heard of a high fat diet was from my wife. Being a nutritionist, I thought the diet was just plain silly. Also being a diet researcher at jeart, I set out to prove that the crap she trying was wrong.
    Well guess who was wrong?....ME! 5 years later the rest is hisorty. I have become a ketogenic diet guru to many. Just a story for ya all.
    Now on with the meat. All of my children have been breast fed. So Survivn, kudos to your friend for breasting! That is how babies were designed to eat. There still are 100's of componetes in breast milk that researchers cant even identify.
    My wife loves the Ketogenic lifestlye. While pregnant she does not do the diet due to such really odd cravings(nor would I stand in her way). Our last two children had been fed from her while being on the diet. She has found that the milk production is greater and has less trouble expressing milk than with the older ones, when she was on a carb based diet.
    The big key here while breast feeding(with any diet) is to take into account that more calories are needed for the milk production. How many really depends on metabolism. For my wife it works out to 13 or so per pound of TOTAL bodyweight.
    She will get plently of nutrients from the green veggies and low GI fruits in the diet.
    So yes, it is fine to breast feed on a ketogenic diet. You MUST eat greens and some low GI fruits.
    Also keep in mind that the female body will not release fat very well while breast feeding. HOWEVER the over all health and well being of the mother and baby will be much better. Not to fret the slow fat loss, because after the baby is weened(about 18 months) her metabolism will be already amped and ready to go!
    I have #6 coming in Dec. I can guarantee you my wife will be on a ketogenic diet. She is already looking forward to it!
    Have her pick up Protein Powers Lifesplan by the Eades doctors, this is a perfect diet for a lactating female.

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