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Nervous Ketosis In Cattle

Nervous Ketosis In Buffalo-a Case Report.

Nervous Ketosis In Buffalo-a Case Report.

www.IndianJournals.com Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale Downloaded From IP - 14.139.59.242 on dated 4-Feb-2015 www.IndianJournals.com Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale Downloaded From IP - 14.139.59.242 on dated 4-Feb-2015 www.IndianJournals.com Members Copy, Not for Commercial Sale Downloaded From IP - 14.139.59.242 on dated 4-Feb-2015 Continue reading >>

The Biting Cow, July 2012

The Biting Cow, July 2012

I was called out to Farmer J on Tuesday evening who is running a dairy herd. On the phone the farmer told me he had a poorly cow. Arriving on farm there was a cow frantically licking the wall and the ground. She was absolutely fine that morning in the parlour and started her strange “licking” behaviour in the afternoon. For examination we run her into a race where she started wildly pressing forwards and biting the gate. Overall examination (as far as was possible given her behaviour), she had high fever, 104.5F, 40.3C, her rumen wasn’t working and her faeces were very soft. Except this and the neurological signs, no other clinical signs were observed. The cow wasn’t sensitive to touch but the gate biting became worse and she started to bite anything in her way, even trying to bite the air. Suspected prognosis was an infection that had gone through the blood/brain barrier, or some infection combined with nervous acetonemia. Nervous Acetonemia is an intoxication by circulating ketone bodies. This is caused by energy deficiency. Signs of simple but already clinical ketosis are cows off feed and lethargy, hence also called “slow fever”. In ketosis cases that have become worse, cows can show severe nervous signs like compulsive licking, salivation, biting flanks (or anything in their way as in this case) up to manic behaviour. Not to forget that in case you have cows showing signs of simple ketosis post calving, there might a few more cows with subclinical ketosis. Subclinical ketosis, which is dietary in origin, is becoming more and more of a problem in dairy herds. It can cause (or be caused by milk fever), retained placenta or even LDA’s (stomach displacement) There are many ways to check cows for ketosis: in milk, urine or blood (which we tend to do at the Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

Not In Animal Health Industry

Not In Animal Health Industry

The NADIS data show that the number of cases of acetonaemia (or ketosis) increase significantly during the winter, and the number of cases continue to increase until turnout. So it is particularly important to look out for acetonaemia until at least a month after turn-out. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. What is acetonaemia? Acetonaemia occurs when the cow's energy intake does not match its requirement and the cow is unable to compensate and mobilises its body reserves too quickly. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Clinical Signs 1) Reduced milk yield: Initially a moderate decline, eventually a sudden drop 2) Body condition and weight loss 3) Reduction in appetite (initially non-forage feeds) 4) Dull, stary coat 5) Firm, 'waxy' dung 6) Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath or milk - not always detectable 7) Temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate usually normal 8) A few develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, incoordination, aggression Acetonaemia is more common in the dairy cow, probably because the energy difference of the lactating cow is more difficult to overcome than that of the pregnant cow, which means that most dairy cows in the UK are in negative energy balance during the first few weeks of lactation. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow is not able to cope with this energy deficit, either because Continue reading >>

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

En Español: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Introduction Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessive amounts of energy. A 20% or gr Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Ketosis (or acetonaemia) is a very distinct and frequently occurring metabolic disorder in dairy cows. It is typically found in the first part of lactation period (first six weeks after parturition, in very rare cases later or at late gestation) in high producing cows or cows on a poor diet. Ketosis may be sporadic when only some individuals are affected or endemic when many cows in the herd are affected. Occurrence of this metabolic disorder is gradual, it is related to the increased demand of energy for milk yield, energy (in a form of glucose) absorption is much lower than the demand and hypoglycemia develops in order to compensate that gluconeogenesis and fat in liver is mobilized, these processes increases the ketone body synthesis. Ketosis may be primary and secondary. Causes: In late months of pregnancy glucose is directed to the nutrition of the developing fetus, later when the lactation starts, glucose is also directed to the formation of the milk fat and sugar (lactose). Requirement of the glucose is very high so the blood becomes low in glucose (hypoglycaemia). In ruminants glucose is produced from carbohydrates in food. In order to keep up with the increased demands gluconeogenesis increases, if the amount of suitable carbohydrate in the diet is not enough to meet the glucose needs fat decomposition dominates in organism and by-products of fatty acid oxidation becomes ketones. These ketones and the lack of blood sugar are the main cause of the disease. Primary ketosis occurs if a cow is inadequate carbohydrate in feed, have inadequate feeding space/quantity, eat poor quality silage or high protein feed, have disturbed rumen function, disturbed overall metabolism. When a primary problem or disease causes an upset in the digestion or metabolism of carbohydrate Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis) Of Dairy Cows

Acetonaemia (ketosis) Of Dairy Cows

Note Number: AG0210 A very distinct problem for dairy cows is the disease of ketosis (or acetonaemia). The occurrence of this disease in dairy cows is related to an increased demand for glucose by the animal. Ketosis also occurs in other animals and the problem is known by various names, eg, pregnancy toxaemia in ewes. Most commonly, ketosis is seen either in high producing cows or cows on a poor diet. Signs of the disease can be seen before calving, but they occur most commonly in the first month after calving and occasionally in the second month. In a herd, ketosis can either be sporadic with only individuals affected, or endemic with many cows affected over a period. Cause The disease is an extension of a normal metabolic process that occurs in most heavily producing dairy cows. The basic problem in ketosis is a deficiency of glucose (or sugar) in the blood and body tissues. Glucose is produced by the cow from carbohydrates which are a major constituent of pastures and other supplementary feeds in varying degrees. In late pregnancy, glucose is directed from normal bodily functions to the nutrition of the developing calf. As lactation starts, glucose is essential for the formation of lactose (milk sugar) and milk fat. The requirement for glucose is at such high levels that the blood becomes low in glucose (hypoglycaemia). Fifty grams of glucose is required for each litre of milk with a 4.8% lactose test and 30 grams for each litre of milk with a 4% fat test. Cows (and other ruminants) cannot be fed glucose in their diet; it has to be made in the rumen from suitable carbohydrates in the diet. If the amount of suitable carbohydrate in the diet is not enough to meet the glucose needs of the cow in full milk, the liver starts to manufacture glucose from other basic compou Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

Nervous Ketosis

Nervous Ketosis

Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (174K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Continue reading >>

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

Sudden Drops In Milk Production

This page contains information about conditions that may cause sudden drop in milk production. Many conditions affecting sudden drop in milk production do not have obvious clinical signs. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Diagnosis Ketosis is diagnosed by clinical signs; sodium nitroprusside tablets or ketosis dipsticks may be used to identify ketones in the urine or plasma. In dairy cattle, blood glucose is typically less than 40 mg/dl, total blood ketones >30 mg/dl, and milk ketones >10 mg/dl. In small ruminants, blood glucose levels found to be below 25 mg/dl and ketonuria are good diagnostic indicators. Often ketones can be smelled in the cow’s breath and milk. In prepartum cattle and in lactating cows, blood levels of NEFA greater than 1000 uEq/l and 325–400 uEq/l are abnormal (Gerloff and Herdt, 2009). Triglyceride analysis of liver biopsy specimens is useful. 1 Bovine Ketosis Bovine ketosis is actually at least three different syndromes that occur in cows during lactation (Kronfeld, 1980; Kronfeld et al., 1983). The syndromes are characterized by anorexia, depression (usually), ketonemia, ketolactia, keton-uria, hypoglycemia, and decreased milk production. The three syndromes are underfeeding ketosis, alimentary ketosis, and spontaneous ketosis. Underfeeding ketosis occurs when a dairy cow receives insufficient calories to meet lactational demands plus body maintenance. This version of ketosis can be conveniently divided into nutritional underfeeding ketosis and secondary (or complicated) ketosis. The former occurs when the cow has a normal appetite but is given an insufficient quantity of feed or a diet with low metabolic energy density. The latter occurs when a cow has some other disease, such as hypocalcemia, mastitis, and metritis, which suppresses appetite and causes the cow to consume insufficient nutrients. In most respects, underfeeding ketosis resembles starvation ketosis explained earlier, except that there is the additional caloric and glycemic burden of milk produc Continue reading >>

Plasma Metabolic Profiling Of Dairy Cows Affected With Clinical Ketosis Using Lc/ms Technology

Plasma Metabolic Profiling Of Dairy Cows Affected With Clinical Ketosis Using Lc/ms Technology

Background: Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. Objective: To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Animals and methods: Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7–21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Results: Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Conclusion: Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows. Continue reading >>

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