Emergency Situations With Diabetic Dogs
In diabetic dogs, the following emergency situations may arise: 1. Hypoglycaemia - extremely low blood sugar 2. Diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome HHNK syndrome) - caused by extremely high blood sugar CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN IMMEDIATELY for possible adjustment of the insulin dose or treatment of additional medical problems if your diabetic dog shows any of these signs: · Excessive drinking for more than 3 days · Excessive urination or inappropriate urination in the house for more than 3 days · Reduction in or loss of appetite · Weakness, seizures or severe depression · Behavioural change, muscle twitching or anxiety · Constipation, vomiting or diarrhoea · Signs of a bladder infection (passing frequent small amounts of urine, straining to urinate, blood in the urine) Swelling of the head or neck Hypoglycaemia in treated diabetic dogs One of the most important complications seen in diabetic dogs on insulin treatment is an unduly low blood glucose level, called hypoglycaemia. Situations that may lead to hypoglycaemia are: 1. Your dog receives the normal dose of insulin but has not received its normal quantity of food - it does not eat, vomits up the meal or has diarrhoea. 2. Your dog is abnormally active, leading to abnormally high energy (glucose) use. 3. Your dog accidentally receives a dose of insulin that is too high. 4. Your dog's insulin requirement has naturally fallen. Signs of low blood glucose Low blood glucose can be fatal, so it is extremely important that you recognize these signs, which are often subtle in the early stages: · restlessness · trembling or shivering · unusual movements or behaviour - some animals become very quiet and stop eating. · muscle twitching · coma What to do If any of the above signs Continue reading >>
Care Of Diabetic And Diabetic Ketoacidotic Patients (proceedings)
Diabetes mellitus is the condition of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and glucosuria (glucose in the urine) caused by absence of the hormone insulin, or failure of the cells of the body to be able to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus is the condition of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and glucosuria (glucose in the urine) caused by absence of the hormone insulin, or failure of the cells of the body to be able to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus in veterinary patients can most often be compared to human adult onset diabetes (type 2), and juvenile onset diabetes is rare in veterinary patients. Patients may present with few clinical signs, in relatively good health (uncomplicated diabetes mellitus), or may be weak and dehydrated with severe electrolyte abnormalities (ketoacidotic diabetes mellitus). The most common clinical signs include weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, increased or decreased appetite, unkempt hair coat, dandruff, sudden onset blindness (in dogs from cataract formation secondary to diabetes), and hind limb weakness (from diabetic neuropathy in cats) . In dogs and cats that have progressed to diabetic ketoacidosis, vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy are common complaints. Physical examination findings can reveal thin body condition, cataracts (dogs), dehydration, and mental dullness. Animals with recent onset diabetes mellitus can have a relatively normal examination. Laboratory testing to diagnose diabetes mellitus is relatively straightforward, and diagnosis can be confirmed at the time of evaluation in some cases with in-house testing. Elevated blood glucose is the mainstay of diagnosis; however keep in mind that hyperglycemia may be from diabetes, or secondary to a stress response, especially in cat. Handheld glucometers that are used by h Continue reading >>
What Is Canine Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a metabolic diseases in which a dog has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, no insulin is produced at all, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. The condition is commonly divided into two types, depending on the origin of the condition: Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called “juvenile diabetes”, is caused by destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. The condition is also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, meaning insulin injections must replace the insulin the pancreas is no longer capable of producing for the body’s needs. Dogs have insulin-dependent, or Type 1, diabetes; research finds no Type 2 diabetes in dogs. Because of this, there is no possibility the permanently damaged pancreatic beta cells could re-activate to engender a remission as may be possible with some feline diabetes cases, where the primary type of diabetes is Type 2. There is another less common form of diabetes, diabetes insipidus, which is a condition of insufficient antidiuretic hormone or resistance to it. This most common form of diabetes strikes 1 in 500 dogs. The condition is treatable and need not shorten the animal’s life span or interfere with quality of life. If left untreated, the condition can lead to cataracts, increasing weakness in the legs (neuropathy), malnutrition, ketoacidosis, dehydration, and death. Diabetes mainly affects middle-age and older dogs, but there are juvenile cases. Although the typical canine diabetes patient is middle-age, female, and overweight at diagnosis any dog can have diabetes. Symptoms Generally there is a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks, and it may escape unnoticed for a while. The main symptoms are: Excessive wate Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Cats And Dogs
Over the last few days the signs have been getting worse. Your pet isn’t doing well; it is depressed, isn’t eating, and may even be vomiting. You thought it would get better, but it hasn’t and in fact your pet looks really sick. So you decide to take your pet into the veterinarian, who runs a bunch of tests. It is most likely that the animal will be whisked away to a treatment room after the veterinarian confirms a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. What is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)? You didn’t even know that your pet was diabetic, so how could it have this problem? Diabetic ketoacidosis most commonly develops in animals with undiagnosed diabetes. However, animals with diabetes can develop this problem as well, if their diabetes gets out of control. The reason that your pet will be quickly taken to the treatment room is because DKA is an emergency. These animals look sick because their whole body is being affected by the problem. If the situation is not addressed quickly, DKA can cause irreversible damage. This doesn’t mean that your pet will be fixed overnight. Even uncomplicated, mild cases of DKA often stay in the hospital for two or three days. Before we explain DKA, let’s review the meaning of diabetes. Diabetes is a situation where the body does not have enough insulin. Insulin is needed for cells to absorb glucose (which is crucial for normal cell function) from the blood stream. When cells don’t have insulin, they don’t absorb enough glucose and the cells starve. This starvation causes the liver to release more glucose into the blood stream. But without insulin, cells cannot absorb the glucose that is in the blood, and they continue to starve. This is how the vicious circle goes on. Usually diabetes is caught at this point, and the pet is star Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs
Overview Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most severe form of Diabetes Mellitus in dogs, results in severe changes in blood chemicals including imbalances in small, simple chemicals known as electrolytes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition in which a deficiency of the hormone insulin impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar. It is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) diseases of dogs. For more information on the basics of diabetes, go to Diabetes mellitus in dogs DKA is a life-threatening condition caused by diabetes mellitus resulting from insulin deficiency that leads to excess production of ketoacids by the liver. Subsequent changes in the blood result that includes metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities producing severe signs of systemic illness. DKA condition can occur in pets with new diabetes or in current diabetics that decompensate. Secondary diseases and/or infections can cause diabetics to decompensate and develop DKA. What to Watch For with Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs associated with DKA depend on the individual pet and the length of time they have been ill. Signs may consist of the classic signs of diabetes including: Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Weight loss despite a good appetite Sudden blindness Additional signs of DKA include: Lethargy Vomiting Weakness Dehydration Some pets will have a strong smell of acetone from their breath Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs Diagnostic tests for DKA in dogs may include: Complete medical history and thorough physical examination. Serum biochemical profile to determine the blood glucose concentration and to exclude other potential causes of the same symptoms such as pancreatitis. Elevated blood glucose is the Continue reading >>
Emergency Situations In Diabetic Dogs
In diabetic dogs, the following emergency situations may arise: Hypoglycaemia - extremely low blood sugar Diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome HHNK syndrome) - caused by extremely high blood sugar It is important to be prepared for the above situations if you own a diabetic dog. CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN IMMEDIATELY for possible adjustment of the insulin dose or treatment of additional medical problems if your diabetic dog shows any of these signs: Excessive drinking for more than 3 days Excessive urination or inappropriate urination in the house for more than 3 days Reduction in or loss of appetite Weakness, seizures or severe depression Behavioural change, muscle twitching or anxiety Constipation, vomiting or diarrhoea Signs of a bladder infection (passing frequent small amounts of urine, straining to urinate, blood in the urine) Swelling of the head or neck Continue reading >>
68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinicianâ€™s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree
1. IV Isotonic Crystalloid Therapy â€¢ Shock fluid therapy is warranted if cardiovascular instability is present: Full shock dose of fluids is 90 mL/kg; start with Â¼ to 1/3 dose and reassess until stable â€¢ Correct dehydration, provide maintenance needs, and replace ongoing losses over 6 to 24 hours: - % dehydration Ã— body weight (kg) Ã— 1000 plus - 20 mL/kg/day (insensible losses) plus - 20 to 40 mL/kg/day (maintenance sensible losses) plus - Account for vomiting, diarrhea, & polyuria (ongoing sensible losses) Alice Huang, VMD, & J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Vet MB, MS, MA, Diplomate ACVIM & ECVIM Purdue University Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis D i a gno s t i c Tre e / ENDOCRINOLOGY Peer Reviewed Physical Examination â€¢ Polyuria â€¢ Weight loss â€¢ Polydipsia â€¢ Vomiting â€¢ Polyphagia â€¢ Lethargy Patient may have only 1 or more of these signs. Laboratory Results â€¢ Blood glucose (BG): Hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL) â€¢ Blood gas (venous or arterial): Metabolic acidosis â€¢ Urine dipstick: Glucosuria; ketonuria or ketonemia Serum ketones can be measured if urine is unavailable. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment 2. Electrolyte Supplementation (see Table 1, page 70) â€¢ Monitor serum potassium Q 4â€“6 H until within reference interval and stable; then Q 12â€“24 H â€¢ Monitor serum phosphorus Q 4â€“6 H until > 1.5; then Q 6â€“24 H â€¢ When supplementing potassium and phosphorus concurrently, take into account the amount of potassium contained in the potassium phosphate â€¢ Consider magnesium supplementation in instances of refractory hypokalemia 3. Regular Insulin â€¢ Continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol:1 - Add 2.2 U/kg of regular insulin to 250 mL of 0.9% saline - Allow 50 Continue reading >>
Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs
Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Dogs Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. The term “ketoacidosis,” meanwhile, refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies”. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. This condition typically affects older dogs as well as females. In addition, miniature poodles and dachshunds are predisposed to diabetes with ketoacidosis. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the dog's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azo Continue reading >>
What Can You Do That Nobody Else Can Do? How Is Your Ability Unique?
Simple, Take a Notebook and Write down from Age 5 to the Age now , what were the things that you did that made you extremely happy ( only happiness ) in each page for each age and the level of happiness that it gave. Example: ( The below is to give an idea. Please go in details filling each page) Age 5: Playing with cars and toys , watching tom and jerry Age 6: Playing with cars and toys, watching popeye , Playing with water Age 7: Playing cricket, watching cartoons, Doing Maths Age 8: Studying Maths, Travelling, Listening to fantasy stories from daddy, Age 9: Playing football, Travelling, watching Captain Planet Age 10: Roller skating , Doing Abacus , watching Swat cats Age 11: Dancing, Roller skating and Sketching cartoons Age 12: Dancing and Playing shuttle badminton, Reading Books Age 13: harry Potter Books , Playing video games in computer , Portrait paintings Age 14: Winning competitions in Roller skating and Playing Video Games (Fantasy) Age 15: Playing football with friends in the evening , Watching WWE, Sketching Age 16: Watching WWE, Seeing Disney Animation Movies ( Finding Nemo, I luvd it) Age 17: Hanging out with friends, Crush and Listening to Music Age 18: Reading History books and Techie Stuffs , Watching Pokemon and Anime Age 19: Learning android programming , and design softwares like Photoshop Age 20: Watching Dragon ball Z and Anime, Design softwares and Games Age 21: Playing Games , Programming and Designing, Playing Pokemon Go From the above you can easily find out the major chunk that has come along your life in keeping you happy to extremes. Passion is not about a job or a designations. Passion is the field/thing that has always kept you happy and is gonna keep you happy no matter whatever struggles will come in the way. All these years it was som Continue reading >>
How Often Do Dogs Die From Normal Vaccines?
Q: How often do dogs die from normal vaccines? Just took my eldest dog to a new vet yesterday where he got his basic vaccines updated. An hour later he’s at home, near death. On return they said he was in shock and had a blood sugar of 560. He died this morning from it. Can anyone explain what could have happened? Should I be looking into this? A: I want to say how very sorry I am for your loss. I am not able to find hard verifiable statistics on the adverse reactions to vaccines related to veterinary care. In the US, there is no mandatory reporting system like the federal Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Nor is there a compensation fund like the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). I did find this: A study of more than 2,000 cats and dogs in the United Kingdom by Canine Health Concern showed a 1 in 10 risk of adverse reactions from vaccines. This contradicts what the vaccine manufacturers report for rates of adverse reactions, which is “less than 15 adverse reactions in 100,000 animals vaccinated” (0.015 percent). This is quoted from a website called Dr. Becker’s Bites. But I do not see proper accreditation for this claim. So, I would expect that the number of instances would be somewhere between the two claims. But, that does not mean that you cannot report it. You should. How to Report Animal Drug Side Effects and Product Problems is one place to report it. Adverse Event Reporting is another place to report it. Vaccine adverse events are underreported in the US. There is no push and you are basically required to trust your veterinarian’s judgement on whether your pet is safe with a vaccine. In my case, I have an absolutely wonderful vet. Dr. Shurtz has experience with animals that have had adverse reactions to vaccines. In fac Continue reading >>
My Dog Has Acute Kidney Failure And Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Should We Put Her To Sleep?
First of all, you have my heart felt sympathies for what you are going through. I know how painful this time must be for you and your family. That decision to put your furry kid to sleep is yours and only yours to make. I am in a position to only share my experience with my own GSD's AKD. My Dash was affected by Acute Kidney disease at the age of 9 months. Within 3-4 hours of fluid therapy, our vet told us upfront that it's not working as the creatinine level had spiked from 5 at the time of reaching the vet to 9. We were proactive in asking her what can we do to save Dash. She told us that prompt dialysis is the only chance he has, no assurances / guarantee, just a chance; and directed us to the only private facility in the city where he could be given dialysis. Unfortunately, Dash couldn't be given dialysis there due to some last minute technical glitch. During this time, his creatinine had shot up to 11. Then, as the last resort, we took him to the government Veterinary hospital (which each and every one of our contact was against) as it has the only other canine dialysis unit in the city. As our luck would have it, the dialysis unit there too got stuck at the last minute. The vet there assured us she would stabilise Dash till the next morning and then have him go through dialysis. Sure enough, Dash did pull through the night and we were back the next morning for dialysis. The unit was fixed, however, Dash was found to be unfit for dialysis as his electrolyte levels had dropped substantially as well as his blood clotting was taking longer than normal. It took us almost 2 weeks to get him fit for dialysis. During this period, his creatinine had stayed above 10, fluctuating now and then; in addition, Dash had not eaten a single morsel of food in all this time. He was b Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an emergency. DKA develops due to: Long standing undiagnosed canine diabetes Insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetic dogs Reduced insulin action - caused by obesity, concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two-thirds of cases of DKA. What causes diabetic ketoacidosis? Due to a lack of insulin, glucose cannot be used by the body cells as an energy source. Instead fat is broken down to provide energy. When fat is used as an energy source, acids known as ketones are produced. Ketones circulating in the blood cause signs of DKA - anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Diagnosis The diagnosis of DKA is based on detecting ketones in the urine and sometimes in the blood along with signs of illness. See Urine Monitoring for more information. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. Your veterinary surgeon will administer intravenous fluids and insulin and correct any underlying disorders to stabilise your dog. Once your dog is stabilised it will be started on long term insulin therapy again. Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs
My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>
Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)
Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>
Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Canine diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes known as DKA, is a potentially fatal disease that most commonly occurs in dogs with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, although in rare cases it has been known to appear in nondiabetic dogs. This condition symptomatically resembles that of diabetes but usually goes unnoticed until a near-fatal situation is at hand. For this reason, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and treatment options. How Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis Develops Under normal conditions, the pancreas is responsible for producing insulin, which helps to regulate the level of glucose in the blood cells. When the pancreas is ineffectively able to create enough insulin, a dog becomes diabetic. By default, a dog's body will begin looking for alternative fuel sources, such as fat. The problem is that when too much fat is consumed by the body, the liver then begins to produce ketones. This excessive level of ketones causes the condition known as canine diabetic ketoacidosis. There are two scenarios in which this can occur: in dogs with poorly controlled diabetes and in dogs with undiagnosed diabetes. Recognizing the Symptoms Because of the potentially deadly side effects, it is crucially important that dog owners be aware of the symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis. One of the more common problems associated with this illness is the extreme similarity of the warning signs to a diabetic condition. While both conditions are harmful, canine diabetic ketoacidosis represents the last step taken by the body before it surrenders to the condition. The following are some of the recognizable symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis: Drinking or urinating more than usual Sudden, excessive weight loss attributed to loss of appetite General fatigue Vomiting Sudden on Continue reading >>