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My Cat Has Ketoacidosis

Diabetes In Cats Part 2 – Things You Should Know About Diagnosis & Treatment

Diabetes In Cats Part 2 – Things You Should Know About Diagnosis & Treatment

3 53 Remember Stephen? Stephen is having a cat nap. So I guess it’s up to me to tell you all a little bit more about diabetes in cats. In my previous article – What Does a Cat With Diabetes Look Like? I talked about what diabetes mellitus actually is, what I think about people who taste urine to check for its sweetness, and gave some pointers on signs to watch out for that might indicate your cat has this disease. Now it’s time to have a quick look at how diabetes in cats is diagnosed and most importantly, what the heck we can do about it. How Can My Veterinarian Tell if My Cat has Diabetes? There are two main test results required for a vet to be able to diagnose diabetes in a symptomatic cat: A high fasting blood glucose (i.e. loads of glucose floating around in their blood even when they haven’t eaten recently) Testing these parameters is a piece of cake! See what I did there? But here’s where it gets tricky. Cats can get enormously stressed out by a visit to the vet (kind of like I feel about sitting in the dentist’s chair), and a really important effect of this stress can be a transient elevation in their blood glucose, which can even be significant enough to see glucose spilling over into the urine. What this means is that cats who do not have diabetes may have a high blood glucose reading, and even occasionally glucose in their urine. These tests aren’t always diagnostic on their own. It is best to run a full blood profile rather than just checking the glucose alone. This assists us with detecting any other illnesses that may either be the sole cause of your cat’s problems or could just be lurking around complicating the situation. If there is any doubt about the diagnosis of diabetes, a good test to do next is a plasma fructosamine level. This te Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

's Experience With Ketoacidosis.

's Experience With Ketoacidosis.

Signs Treatment Zama's experience Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by a lack of insulin or an insufficient amount of insulin. Since the lack of insulin means that glucose in not able to be used, the body searches for a new source of energy. In this condition, the diabetic breaks down body fat (lipolysis) to use as energy. During lipolysis, waste products called ketones are produced. Ketones are eliminated in the urine and through the lungs. Under normal conditions, the body can tolerate and eliminate ketones. But in diabetic ketoacidosis, fats are being broken down at such a high rate that the body can not eliminate the ketones fast enough and they build up in the blood. In high amounts, ketones are toxic to the body. They cause the acid-base balance to change and serious electrolyte and fluid imbalances result. Some of the signs of ketoacidosis include polyuria polydipsia lethargy anorexia weakness vomiting dehydration There will probably be ketones in the urine (ketonuria) The breath may have a sweet chemical smell similar to nail polish remover. However, some owners have said that even during documented ketoacidosis, their pet's breath did NOT have any unusual odor. Treatment Mildly ketoacidotic animals can be alert and well hydrated. After your pet is stabilized, your pet can return home and be treated with proper diabetes management techniques including insulin therapy, diet, and exercise. "Sick" ketoacidotic animals require intensive medical management in the vet hospital. This is a life-threatening emergency that requires complex medical management and monitoring. It may take several days for the animal to be out of danger. Treatment involves injections of regular insulin, intravenous fluids, electrolytes, and frequent monitoring of blood glucose, blood chemistry, Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Cat: Recognition And Essential Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Cat: Recognition And Essential Treatment

Review Article Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a not uncommon emergency in both newly diagnosed and poorly regulated diabetic cats. When there is a heightened metabolic rate and energy requirement due to concurrent illness, an increase in the release of glucose counter-regulatory hormones causes insulin receptor resistance, lipolysis, free fatty acid release and ketogenesis. This necessitates not only treatment to eliminate the ketosis and control blood glucose, but also investigation of concurrent illnesses. Continue reading >>

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes is a very serious issue – and not just in people either. That’s right, this chronic and potentially debilitating condition also affects cats (and dogs). And while it’s difficult to know the exact incidence of diabetes in cats, best estimates put it somewhere in the range of 1 cat in every 100-200 cats will become diabetic. What’s even sadder is that this incidence seems to be on the increase. Fortunately, armed with some good information, important tips, and a good working relationship with your veterinarian, you can give your cats the best chance at avoiding this frustrating condition. And if they’ve already developed it, know that these same tools can help you best manage your cat’s diabetic state; avoiding the potential complications and perhaps even getting them into diabetic remission. What is diabetes? In the most basic sense, diabetes mellitus is a disorder where blood sugar, or glucose, cannot be effectively utilized and regulated within the body. There are several hormones within the body that play important roles in glucose metabolism. Insulin is one of the most important, if not the most important, and it’s the hormone most central to the development and control of the diabetic state. Glucose fuels the body and insulin is the hormone that helps to get it into most cells within the body. Diabetes is often easily diagnosed and controllable. However, when undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can be devastating. Diabetes can absolutely be managed and your cat can still lead a long and happy life. Routine veterinary care and evaluation are important, as is achieving and maintaining an appropriate weight in your cat and feeding him an appropriate diet. There are two types of diabetes – Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

ON THIS PAGE: Risk Factors Home > Related Diseases > Diabetes It is not uncommon for a CKD cat to also have or develop diabetes. The dietary needs of a diabetic cat may seem incompatible with the needs of a CKD cat but the diabetes must take precedence. What is Diabetes Mellitus? Insulin is a hormone which enables the body to process food and to produce energy from it. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which: not enough insulin is produced by the pancreas; or the cat’s body cells do not properly process insulin which the pancreas has produced. As a result, the cat develops high blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia), which eventually lead to high sugar levels in the urine (glucosuria). Diabetes may present as: uncomplicated; or diabetes with ketoacidosis (DKA) Cats with the former may only have mild symptoms, at least in the early stages, but cats with ketoacidosis are usually very ill, and may die if not treated promptly. There is another, much rarer form of diabetes called diabetes insipidus which is beyond the scope of this website. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has a good general overview of diabetes in cats. Feline diabetes mellitus: from diagnosis to therapy (2009) is a helpful article by Dr DL Zoran. Feline Diabetes provides detailed answers to frequently asked questions. Risk Factors Increasing age is a factor (as it is for CKD cats). Steroid-induced diabetes in cats (2013) Peterson ME Veterinary Endocrinology says "The average age at diagnosis for feline diabetes is 10 years, with a peak incidence between 9 and 13 years." Obesity in cats, as in humans, is a strong predisposing factor for diabetes. For some reason, male cats and neutered cats are more at risk of diabetes. Burmese cats in the UK and Australasia (but not the USA) appear to be mo Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Cvc Highlight: What Influences Diabetic Remission In Cats

Cvc Highlight: What Influences Diabetic Remission In Cats

A look at which factors might make spontaneous normalization of glycemic control more likely in one of your feline patients. A unique feature of diabetes mellitus in cats is that some cats become non-insulin-dependent after treatment has been initiated. From 17% to 67% of cats with diabetes mellitus have been reported to go into spontaneous clinical remission after insulin treatment is initiated.1-4 Diabetic remission is usually defined as normoglycemia that persists for more than four weeks without the use of exogenous insulin,2 although some studies have defined it as euglycemia for only two weeks.5,6 The duration of remission varies, with some cats requiring insulin treatment again within a few weeks to months and other cats remaining in remission for months to years. Factors that have been hypothesized to influence the likelihood of diabetic remission include the duration of diabetes mellitus, whether the cat initially presented in a ketoacidotic crisis, the carbohydrate content of the diet, the type of insulin used for treatment, the cat’s breed, the presence of underlying disease, and how closely the blood glucose concentration is maintained within the normal range with insulin treatment. Stimulation tests with secretagogues such as glucagon and arginine have also been investigated to identify cats that have residual insulin secretion from the pancreas, but the presence of glucose toxicosis in cats complicates the interpretation of these tests, and they have not proved useful in predicting the likelihood of remission.7,8 In a study of factors influencing diabetic remission in cats, remission was found to be more likely with increasing age and increasing cholesterol concentration.2 Overall, 21 cats treated with insulin glargine and 23 cats treated with Lente insu Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Go to site For Pet Owners Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that must be swiftly and aggressively treated. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on the presence of ketonuria with clinical signs. Management guidelines Goals of treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis include correcting fluid deficits and acid-base and electrolyte imbalances, reducing blood glucose and ketonuria, initiating insulin therapy, and treating concurrent diseases. The use of intravenous fluid therapy with isotonic fluids to correct fluid deficits and acid-base and electrolyte imbalances is recommended. Many protocols for treatment of DKA exist but IV fluids and rapid-acting insulin (regular) must be administered first to quickly decrease hyperglycemia. Once the blood glucose has decreased to 250 mg/dL using regular insulin, it is important to add dextrose to the fluids and continue with regular insulin until the cat is no longer vomiting, is eating, and no longer has ketones in the urine. At this point, the regular insulin along with the dextrose in the fluids can be discontinued and Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) therapy can be initiated. Evaluation of treatment When evaluating the regulation of insulin therapy, it is important to consider several areas including the evaluation of glycemia, urine monitoring, routine rechecks and glycated protein evaluations. Evaluation of the glycemia Creating a blood glucose curve is the most accurate way to evaluate glycemia to adjust the Vetsulin dose. Indications for creating a blood glucose curve are: First, to establish insulin dose, dosing interval, and insulin type when beginning regulation. Second, to evaluate regulation especially if problems occur. Third, when you suspect rebound hyperglyc Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

This article is about diabetes mellitus in cats. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in cats, whereby either insufficient insulin response or insulin resistance lead to persistently high blood glucose concentrations. Diabetes could affect up to 1 in 230 cats,[1] and may be becoming increasingly common. Diabetes mellitus is less common in cats than in dogs. 80-95% of diabetic cats experience something similar to type-2 diabetes, but are generally severely insulin-dependent by the time symptoms are diagnosed. The condition is treatable, and treated properly, the cat can experience a normal life expectancy. In type-2 cats, prompt effective treatment may lead to diabetic remission, in which the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death. Symptoms[edit] Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks or months, and it may escape notice for even longer.[citation needed] The first outward symptoms are a sudden weight loss (or occasionally gain), accompanied by excessive drinking and urination; for example, cats can appear to develop an obsession with water and lurk around faucets or water bowls. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous (up to three-times normal) or absent. These symptoms arise from the body being unable to use glucose as an energy source. A fasting glucose blood test will normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in humans are used on cats, usually by obtaining blood from the ear edges or paw pads. As the disease progresses, ketone bodies will be present in the urine, which can be detected with the same urine stri Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an emergency. DKA develops due to: Long standing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus Insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetics Reduced insulin action - caused by obesity , concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two-thirds of cases of DKA. What causes DKA? Due to a lack of insulin , glucose cannot be used by the body cells as an energy source. Instead fat is broken down to provide energy. When fat is used as an energy source, acids known as ketones are produced. Ketones circulating in the blood cause signs of DKA - anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Diagnosis The diagnosis of DKA is based on detecting ketones in the urine and sometimes in the blood along with signs of illness. See Urine Monitoring for more information. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. Your veterinary surgeon will administer intravenous fluids and insulin and correct any underlying disorders to stabilise your cat. Once your cat is stabilised it will be started on long term insulin therapy again. Continue reading >>

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

W - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat - If You Would Like To See How Diabetes Effects My Body, Click Here. Controlling diabetes in your cat is considerably harder than doing so in us humans. Keeping your cat at a healthy weight is essential . Read a 2014 article about how really difficult it can be here. Never allow a glucose meter to be used on more than one pet . The meters are hard to disinfect(ref) Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Some Information About Your Cat’s Pancreas Your cat’s pancreas is a small, pinkish organ that is nestled in the folds of its small intestine. You can see it if you enlarge the fanciful image I put at the top of this page. Although it is quite small, the pancreas has two very important functions. One is to produce enzymes that allow your cat to digest food. The other is to produce a hormone (insulin) that regulates how your cat’s body utilizes sugar (glucose). Glucose is the main fuel of all animal cells. Most of it is manufactured in the pet’s liver or released from recent carbohydrate meals. The process by which the pancreas regulates your cat’s blood sugar level is actually much more complicated than my explanation and not yet fully understood. But my explanation should do for this article. Should you wish to know more, go here . Many types of cells form the pancreas. The ones that are important in understanding diabetes occur in small islands scattered throughout the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). These particular insulin-secreting cells are called ß (beta) cells. What Is Diabetes? There are several forms of diabetes. But Continue reading >>

Clinical Signs Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs And Cats

Clinical Signs Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs And Cats

Clinical signs are useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of canine and feline diabetes. Other laboratory tests are also necessary for diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus and the monitoring of treated diabetic pets. There are three distinct clinical pictures in diabetes mellitus: Uncomplicated diabetes mellitus The classical signs are polyuria,polydipsia, polyphagia, cachexia and increased susceptibility to infections (e.g. urinary tract infections). In long term diabetes complications due to protein glycosylation can be seen: cataracts (mainly in dogs) and peripheral neuropathy (mainly in cats). Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA develops due to long standing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetics and impaired insulin action and/or resistance, caused by obesity, concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two thirds of cases of DKA. Due to the lack of insulin, glucose cannot be used as an energy source. Fats are broken down to provide energy. During lipolysis, high levels of ketones are produced. Ketosis and acidosis develop and are accompanied by electrolyte imbalances. Ketosis causes anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. The goals of treatment are to correct fluid deficits, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance, lower blood glucose and ketone concentrations and recognize and correct underlying and precipitating factors. Therapy includes intravenous fluid therapy with isotonic fluids, e.g. 0.9% saline, and intravenous administration of rapid-acting insulin. If possible the electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance should be measured and corrected. Caninsulin is an intermediate-acting insulin and is not suitable for intravenous administration. W Continue reading >>

Can Cats Get Diabetes?

Can Cats Get Diabetes?

Can cats get diabetes? Unfortunately, the answer is yes, and it’s a condition that’s becoming increasingly common. The form of diabetes that cats are most prone to developing is diabetes mellitus type 2. Feline diabetes cannot be cured, but it can be managed. With a portion-controlled diet and regular exercise, diabetes in cats can be prevented, delayed, or its effects mitigated. Let’s learn more about diabetes in cats and what can be done about it! What is diabetes in cats? Any definition of diabetes mellitus must begin with understanding the role of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps to convert food into energy that can be absorbed and used by the cells that comprise a cat’s body. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not create enough insulin. In type 2, more common in cats, the body is unable to make sufficient use of the insulin that is present. Left untreated, type 2 diabetes can develop into type 1, which is more severe. Diabetes mellitus is also called “sugar diabetes,” because the energy that a cat needs is derived from glucose, a sugar that can be processed by cells. A diabetic cat can be well fed and well cared for but still feel like he’s being starved because that food is not being converted to energy the cat needs to function. Although any cat can become diabetic, the cat demographic most frequently diagnosed with diabetes are older, overweight males. How do cats get diabetes? Regardless of gender, overweight and obese cats are at greatest risk of developing diabetes. While obesity is not causally linked to diabetes, obesity creates the conditions under which a cat’s digestion and filtration systems are overtaxed. Pancreatitis in cats, or inflammation of the pancreas, can limit or inhibit insulin productio Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Cats

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most severe form of Diabetes Mellitus, results in severe changes in blood chemicals including imbalances in small, simple chemicals known as electrolytes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition in which a deficiency of the hormone insulin impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar. It is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) diseases of cats. For more information on the basics of diabetes, go to Diabetes mellitus in cats DKA is a life-threatening condition caused by diabetes mellitus resulting from insulin deficiency that leads to excess production of ketoacids by the liver. Subsequent changes in the blood result that includes metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities producing severe signs of systemic illness. DKA condition can occur in pets with new diabetes or in current diabetics that decompensate. Secondary diseases and/or infections can cause diabetics to decompensate and develop DKA. What to Watch For Signs associated with DKA depend on the individual cat and the length of time they have been ill. Signs may consist of the classic signs of diabetes including: Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Weight loss despite a good appetite Sudden blindness Additional signs of DKA include: Lethargy Vomiting Weakness Dehydration Some pets will have a strong smell of acetone from their breath Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Cats Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests to determine level of blood sugar, the presence of ketones, and electrolyte concentrations to help guide subsequent treatment recommendations. Some of these tests include: Complete medical history and thorough physical examination. Serum biochemical profile to determine the blood glucose concentration Continue reading >>

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