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Most Common Symptoms Of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosisclinical Presentation

Alcoholic Ketoacidosisclinical Presentation

Alcoholic KetoacidosisClinical Presentation Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Patients with alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) almost always are alcoholics who, prior to the development of ketoacidosis, have engaged in a period of very heavy drinking, with subsequent abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption 1-2 days before presentation. Such presentations typically result from physical complaints, such as the following: Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain (each found in 60-75% of patients) Dyspnea, tremulousness, and/or dizziness (10-20% each) Muscle pain, diarrhea, syncope, and seizure (1-8% each) These symptoms usually are attributed to alcoholic gastritis or pancreatitis. Example case of alcoholic ketoacidosis: A 35-year-old man who chronically abuses alcohol presents with abdominal pain and intractable emesis for the past 2 days. The pain and emesis developed after 5 days of heavy drinking. Since their onset, he stopped eating and drinking altogether. He complains of epigastric pain that radiates through to his back. He is afebrile, tachycardic, and borderline hypotensive. He is sleepy, but awakens easily to verbal stimuli. Generally, the physical findings relate to volume depletion and chronic alcohol abuse. Typical characteristics of the latter may include rhinophyma, tremulousness, hepatosplenomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and palmar erythema. The patient might be tachycardic, tachypneic, profoundly orthostatic, or frankly hypotensive as a result of dehydration from decreased oral intake, diaphoresis, and vomiting. The patient's breath may carry the fruity odor of ketosis. Tachypnea in the form of the Kussmaul respiration varieties is usually present when the pH is less than 7.2. [ 9 ] H Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

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Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal.[1] Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover.[2] Ketosis may also give off an odor, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Cause[edit] Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively.[3] In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accomp Continue reading >>

Aarp's Health Tools

Aarp's Health Tools

Cells need glucose (sugar) and insulin to function properly.Glucose comes from the food you eat, and insulin is produced by the pancreas.When you drink alcohol, your pancreas may stop producing insulin for a shorttime. Without insulin, your cells wont be able to use the glucose you consumefor energy. To get the energy you need, your body will start to burn fat. When your body burns fat for energy, byproducts known as ketonebodies are produced. If your body is not producing insulin, ketone bodies willbegin to build up in your bloodstream. This buildup of ketones can produce alife-threatening condition known as ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis, ormetabolic acidosis, occurs when you ingest something that is metabolized orturned into an acid. This condition has a number of causes, including: In addition to general ketoacidosis, there are several specifictypes. These types include: alcoholic ketoacidosis, which is caused by excessive consumptionof alcohol diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which mostly develops in peoplewith type 1 diabetes starvation ketoacidosis, which occurs most often in women whoare pregnant, in their third trimester, and experiencing excessive vomiting Each of these situations increases the amount of acid in the system.They can also reduce the amount of insulin your body produces, leading to the breakdownof fat cells and the production of ketones. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can develop when you drink excessive amountsof alcohol for a long period of time. Excessive alcohol consumption often causesmalnourishment (not enough nutrients for the body to function well). People who drink large quantities of alcohol may not eatregularly. They may also vomit as a result of drinking too much. Not eatingenough or vomiting can lead to periods of starvation. This further reduces t Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Glucose or sugar is the preferred source of fuel for the body. If the body’s cells get insufficient glucose, fat is used as the alternative source of energy. When fat is used as a source of energy, it produces ketones, which are acidic chemicals. A buildup of ketones causes the blood to become too acidic. This leads to chemical derangements called ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis comes in two different forms - diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. Here is more information about alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Alcoholic Ketoacidosis? Alcoholic Ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition that develops in people who drink too much alcohol. This condition results in the increase of Ketones. AKA is common in adults who have a history with alcoholism. Any person showing signs of AKA needs to seek immediate medical attention because it is a potentially fatal condition. If you consume alcoholic beverages excessively without eating a balanced diet, the acidic levels of your blood might rise, causing health complications. Drinking alcoholic beverages in moderation or drinking as you eat can help reduce the likelihood of getting AKA. When the body’s fat cells breakdown after they have been consumed, ketones are formed. Consequently, the amount of acid in the blood dramatically increases and the blood’s pH (potenz Hydrogen) balance drops. While people who drink lots of alcoholic drinks and do not eat sufficient nutrients, or a balanced diet are likely to develop AKA, they are not the only ones. Inexperienced drinkers who binge drink can also develop this condition. What Are the Symptoms of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis? AKA symptoms vary based on the amount of alcohol you consume. Symptoms also depend on the amount of ketones you have in the bloodstream. If any of the following symptoms Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

What is alcoholic ketoacidosis? Cells need glucose (sugar) and insulin to function properly. Glucose comes from the food you eat, and insulin is produced by the pancreas. When you drink alcohol, your pancreas may stop producing insulin for a short time. Without insulin, your cells won’t be able to use the glucose you consume for energy. To get the energy you need, your body will start to burn fat. When your body burns fat for energy, byproducts known as ketone bodies are produced. If your body is not producing insulin, ketone bodies will begin to build up in your bloodstream. This buildup of ketones can produce a life-threatening condition known as ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis, or metabolic acidosis, occurs when you ingest something that is metabolized or turned into an acid. This condition has a number of causes, including: shock kidney disease abnormal metabolism In addition to general ketoacidosis, there are several specific types. These types include: alcoholic ketoacidosis, which is caused by excessive consumption of alcohol diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which mostly develops in people with type 1 diabetes starvation ketoacidosis, which occurs most often in women who are pregnant, in their third trimester, and experiencing excessive vomiting Each of these situations increases the amount of acid in the system. They can also reduce the amount of insulin your body produces, leading to the breakdown of fat cells and the production of ketones. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can develop when you drink excessive amounts of alcohol for a long period of time. Excessive alcohol consumption often causes malnourishment (not enough nutrients for the body to function well). People who drink large quantities of alcohol may not eat regularly. They may also vomit as a result of drinking too Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis – A Case Report

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis – A Case Report

Summarized from Noor N, Basavaraju K, Sharpstone D. Alcoholic ketoacidosis: a case report and review of the literature. Oxford Medical Case Reports 2016; 3: 31-33 Three parameters generated during blood gas analysis, pH, pCO2 and bicarbonate, provide the means for assessment of patient acid-base status, which is frequently disturbed in the acutely/critically ill. Four broad classes of acid-base disturbance are recognized: metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis and respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by primary reduction in pH and bicarbonate, and secondary (compensatory) decrease in pCO2, has many possible causes including the abnormal accumulation of the keto-acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. This particular form of metabolic acidosis, called ketoacidosis, has three etiologies giving rise to three quite separate conditions with common biochemical features: diabetes (diabetic ketoacidosis); excessive alcohol ingestion (alcoholic ketoacidosis) and severe starvation (starvation ketoacidosis). Diabetic ketoacidosis, which is the most common of the three, is the subject of a recent review (discussed below) whilst alcoholic ketoacidosis is the focus of this recent case study report. The case concerns a 64-year-old lady who presented to the emergency department of her local hospital with acute-onset abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and shortness of breath. Blood gas results (pH 7.10, bicarbonate 2.9 mmol/L) confirmed metabolic acidosis, and the presence of raised ketones (serum ketones 5.5 mmol/L) allowed a diagnosis of ketoacidosis. Initially, doctors caring for the patient entertained the possibility that the lady was suffering diabetic ketoacidosis, but her normal blood glucose concentration (5.8 mmol/L) and pr Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Damian Baalmann, 2nd year EM resident A 45-year-old male presents to your emergency department with abdominal pain. He is conscious, lucid and as the nurses are hooking up the monitors, he explains to you that he began experiencing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting about 2 days ago. Exam reveals a poorly groomed male with dry mucous membranes, diffusely tender abdomen with voluntary guarding. He is tachycardic, tachypneic but normotensive. A quick review of the chart reveals a prolonged history of alcohol abuse and after some questioning, the patient admits to a recent binge. Pertinent labs reveal slightly elevated anion-gap metabolic acidosis, normal glucose, ethanol level of 0, normal lipase and no ketones in the urine. What are your next steps in management? Alcoholic Ketoacidosis (AKA): What is it? Ketones are a form of energy made by the liver by free fatty acids released by adipose tissues. Normally, ketones are in small quantity (<0.1 mmol/L), but sometimes the body is forced to increase its production of these ketones. Ketones are strong acids and when they accumulate in large numbers, their presence leads to an acidosis. In alcoholics, a combination or reduced nutrient intake, hepatic oxidation of ethanol, and dehydration can lead to ketoacidosis. Alcoholics tend to rely on ethanol for their nutrient intake and when the liver metabolizes ethanol it generates NADH. This NADH further promotes ketone formation in the liver. Furthermore, ethanol promotes diuresis which leads to dehydration and subsequently impairs ketone excretion in the urine. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis: How do I recognize it? Typical history involves a chronic alcohol abuser who went on a recent binge that was terminated by severe nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. These folk Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a common reason for admission of alcohol dependent persons in hospitals emergency rooms. The term refers to a metabolic acidosis syndrome caused by increased ketone levels in serum . Glucose concentration is usually normal or a little lower. In 1940, Drs Edward S. Dillon, W. Wallace, and Leon S. Smelo, first described alcoholic ketoacidosis as a distinct syndrome . They stated that "because of the many and complex factors, both physiologic and pathologic , which influence the acid-base balance of the body, a multitude of processes may bring about the state of acidosis as an end result." [1] In the 1971, David W. Jenkins and colleagues described cases of three nondiabetic patients with a history of chronic heavy alcohol misuse and recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis . This group also proposed a possible underlying mechanism for this metabolic disturbance, naming it alcoholic ketoacidosis. [2] Patients regularly report nausea , vomiting, and pain in abdomen which are the most commonly observed complaints. This syndrome is rapidly reversible and, if taken care of has a low mortality. Other patients present tachypnoea , tachycardia , and hypotension . [3] The main differences between patients with diabetic ketoacidosis is that patients with alcoholic ketoacidosis are usually alert and lucid despite the severity of the acidosis and marked ketonaemia. [4] However, there are cases where alcoholic ketoacidosis can cause death of the patient if not treated with administration of dextrose and saline solutions. [5] Dillon, E.; Dyer, W. Wallace; Smelo, L. S. (November 1940). "Ketone Acidosis in Nondiabetic Adults". Medical Clinics of North America. 24 (6): 18131822. doi : 10.1016/S0025-7125(16)36653-6 . Jenkins, David W.; Eckel, Robert E.; Craig, James W. Continue reading >>

The Syndrome Of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis.

The Syndrome Of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis.

Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. PURPOSE: To further elucidate the clinical spectrum of alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case series of 74 patients with AKA defined as a wide anion gap metabolic acidosis unexplained by any other disorder or toxin, including any patient with a history of chronic alcohol abuse. The setting was the Medical Emergency Department at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, a university-affiliated inner-city hospital. RESULTS: AKA is a common disorder in the emergency department, more common than previously thought. The acid-base abnormalities are more diverse than just a wide-gap metabolic acidosis and often include a concomitant metabolic alkalosis, hyperchloremic acidosis, or respiratory alkalosis. Lactic acidosis is also common. Semiquantitative serum acetoacetate levels were positive in 96% of patients. Elevated blood alcohol levels were present in two thirds of patients in whom alcohol levels were determined, and levels consistent with intoxication were seen in 40% of these patients. Electrolyte disorders including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia were common on presentation. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The most common physical findings were tachycardia, tachypnea, and abdominal tenderness. Altered mental status, fever, hypothermia, or other abnormal findings were uncommon and reflected other underlying processes. CONCLUSIONS: AKA is a common disorder in chronic malnourished alcoholic persons. The acid-base abnormalities reflect not only the ketoacidosis, but also associated extracellular fluid volume depletion, alcohol withdrawal, pain, sepsis, or severe liver disease Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Go to: CHARACTERISATION In 1940, Dillon et al1 described a series of nine patients who had episodes of severe ketoacidosis in the absence of diabetes mellitus, all of whom had evidence of prolonged excessive alcohol consumption. It was not until 1970 that Jenkins et al2 described a further three non‐diabetic patients with a history of chronic heavy alcohol misuse and recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis. This group also proposed a possible underlying mechanism for this metabolic disturbance, naming it alcoholic ketoacidosis. Further case series by Levy et al, Cooperman et al, and Fulop et al were subsequently reported, with remarkably consistent features.3,4,5 All patients presented with a history of prolonged heavy alcohol misuse, preceding a bout of particularly excessive intake, which had been terminated several days earlier by nausea, severe vomiting, and abdominal pain. Clinical signs included tachypnoea, tachycardia, and hypotension. In 1974, Cooperman's series of seven ketoacidotic alcoholic patients all displayed diffuse epigastric tenderness on palpation.4 In contrast to patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, the patients were usually alert and lucid despite the severity of the acidosis and marked ketonaemia. When altered mental status occurred, this was clearly attributable to other causes. Laboratory results included absent blood alcohol with normal or low blood glucose level, no glycosuria, and a variably severe metabolic acidosis with a raised anion gap. This acidosis appeared to result from the accumulation in plasma of lactate and ketone bodies including beta‐hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc).3 Cooperman et al found that near patient testing for ketone bodies using nitroprusside test (Acetest, Ketostix) produced a low to moderate result in th Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis

Ketoacidosis is a medical condition in which the food that is ingested by an individual is either metabolized or converted into acid. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis is a condition in which there is development of Ketoacidosis as a result of excessive alcohol intake for a long period of time and less ingestion of food resulting in malnutrition. Drinking excessive alcohol causes the individual to be able to eat less food. Additionally, if excess alcohol is ingested then it may lead to vomiting which further worsens the nutritional status of the individual which results in formation of excess acids resulting in Alcoholic Ketoacidosis. The symptoms caused by Alcoholic Ketoacidosis include abdominal pain, excessive fatigue, persistent vomiting, and the individual getting dehydrated due to frequent vomiting episodes and less fluid intake. If an individual has a history of alcohol abuse and experiences the above mentioned symptoms then it is advised that the individual goes to the nearest emergency room to get evaluated and if diagnosed treated for Alcoholic Ketoacidosis. As stated above, the root cause of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis is drinking excessive amounts of alcohol for a prolonged period of time. When an individual indulges in binge drinking he or she is not able to take in enough food that is required by the body to function. This eventually results in malnourishment. Additionally, vomiting caused by excessive drinking also results in loss of vital nutrients and electrolytes from the body such that the body is not able to function normally. This results in the insulin that is being produced by the body becoming less and less. All of these ultimately results in the development of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis. An individual may develop symptoms within a day after binge drinking, dependin Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Increased production of ketone bodies due to: Dehydration (nausea/vomiting, ADH inhibition) leads to increased stress hormone production leading to ketone formation Depleted glycogen stores in the liver (malnutrition/decrease carbohydrate intake) Elevated ratio of NADH/NAD due to ethanol metabolism Increased free fatty acid production Elevated NADH/NAD ratio leads to the predominate production of β–hydroxybutyrate (BHB) over acetoacetate (AcAc) Dehydration Fever absent unless there is an underlying infection Tachycardia (common) due to: Dehydration with associated orthostatic changes Concurrent alcohol withdrawal Tachypnea: Common Deep, rapid, Kussmaul respirations frequently present Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are the most common symptoms): Usually diffuse with nonspecific tenderness Epigastric pain common Rebound tenderness, abdominal distension, hypoactive bowel sounds uncommon Mandates a search for an alternative, coexistent illness Decreased urinary output from hypovolemia Mental status: Minimally altered as a result of hypovolemia and possibly intoxication Altered mental status mandates a search for other associated conditions such as: Head injury, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or intracranial hemorrhage Hypoglycemia Alcohol withdrawal Encephalopathy Toxins Visual disturbances: Reports of isolated visual disturbances with AKA common History Chronic alcohol use: Recent binge Abrupt cessation Physical Exam Findings of dehydration most common May have ketotic odor Kussmaul respirations Palmar erythema (alcoholism) Lab Acid–base disturbance: Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis hallmark Mixed acid–base disturbance common: Respiratory alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis secondary to vomiting and dehydration Hyperchlorem Continue reading >>

Emergent Treatment Of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Emergent Treatment Of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Emergent Treatment of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Author: Adam Blumenberg, MD, MA; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD more... Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is an acute metabolic acidosis seen in persons with a recent history of binge drinking and little or no nutritional intake. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is characterized by high serum ketone levels and an elevated anion gap (see the Anion Gap calculator). A concomitant metabolic alkalosis is also common, resulting from vomiting and volume depletion. Although AKA most commonly occurs in adults with alcoholism, alcoholic ketoacidosis has been reported in less-experienced drinkers of all ages. [ 1 , 2 ] Go to Alcoholic Ketoacidosis , Metabolic Alkalosis , and Pediatric Metabolic Alkalosis for complete information on these topics. Assess the patient's airway and manage as clinically indicated. Administer oxygen as indicated. Obtain intravenous access and administer fluid resuscitation for volume depletion and/or hypotension. Consider and treat hypoglycemia. [ 3 ] If the patient's mental status is diminished, consider administration of naloxone and thiamine . Note information about the patient's social situation and the presence of intoxicating agents besides alcohol. Suspect alcoholic ketoacidosis in any patient with recent binge drinking and an elevated anion gap. A history of alcoholism is not necessary for the development of alcoholic ketoacidosis. One episode of heavy alcohol intake combined with inadequate carbohydrate intake is sufficient to generate this disease state. Presenting symptoms may include nausea & vomiting, malaise, abdominal pain, dizziness, tremulousness, tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypotension. [ 4 ] Urine tests for ketones may be falsely negative or only trace positive in alcoholic ketoacidosis. This is because Continue reading >>

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