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Metformin Overdose Antidote

Metformin Poisoning: A Complex Presentation

Metformin Poisoning: A Complex Presentation

Metformin poisoning: A complex presentation We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Metformin poisoning: A complex presentation Manish Jagia, Salah Taqi, and Mahmud Hanafi The objective of this case report is to highlight presentation, complications and treatment of metformin poisoning. Patient after ingestion of 45gms of metformin developed colicky abdominal pain, severe tachypnea and vomiting. He developed severe lactic acidosis, cardiac arrest, pancreatitis and hemolytic anemia which was treated with charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, early initiation of high volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and supportive therapy. Metformin poisoning is a rare presentation and we discuss course of events in the management of metformin poisoning and its associated complications. Keywords: Cardiac arrest, haemolytic anemia, lactic acidosis, metformin poisoning, pancreatitis Metformin is a biguanide oral hypoglycemic agent used for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Metformin poisoning can cause fatal complications like severe lactic acidosis, haemolytic anemia and pancreatitis. Early diagnosis can result in successful outcome. Here, we report a case having good recovery despite metformin induced complications and cardiac arrest. A 36-year-old man presented in the Emergency Department after ingestion of 45 g metformin. He presented with colicky abdominal pain, severe tachypnoea and vomiting. He had history of NIDDM Continue reading >>

Overdose Of Oral Antidiabetic Medications And Insulin

Overdose Of Oral Antidiabetic Medications And Insulin

Overdose of Oral Antidiabetic Medications and Insulin Authors: Diana Strasburger, MD, RDMS, Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, IL. Janna H. Villano, MD, Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, IL. Peer Reviewer: Gina Piazza, DO, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA. — Sandra M. Schneider, MD, Editor Treating the hypoglycemia and metabolic derangements caused by antidiabetic medications, especially in massive overdose, are dynamic as new agents are introduced. Emergency physicians should know potential pitfalls in order to effectively and safely manage these patients, avoiding rebound hypoglycemia and premature discharge without appropriate monitoring. This article will review the clinical presentation and management of toxicity from commercially available antidiabetic agents in the United States, including oral hypoglycemic agents such as sulfonylureas and oral antihyperglycemic agents such as biguanides, as well as novel antidiabetic agents and insulin. Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an ever-increasing epidemic facing the current health care system. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide from an estimated 30 million in 1985 to 150 million in 2000, 171 million in 2007, and an anticipated 366 million in 2030.1,2 Medications used to treat diabetes are diverse, and often patients use multiple classes of medications to obtain euglycemia. Oral preparations can be divided into two categories based on their pharmacodynamics and effect or lack of an effect on insulin: hypoglycemic agents such as sulfonylureas and meglitinides; and antihyperglycemic agents such as biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibi Continue reading >>

Ph 6.68surviving Severe Metformin Intoxication

Ph 6.68surviving Severe Metformin Intoxication

Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic agent of the biguanide family, although generally safe, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 holds the risk of developing a potentially lethal acidosis. 5 , 6 The association between lactic acidosis and metformin is well-established but rarely seen in patients taking this medication. 7 Its elimination relies solely on kidneys excretion, 8 so its accumulation is feasible in just two circumstances: renal failure (RF) and acute overdosage. At normal dosage, a toxic accumulation of drug requires time after the development of RF, due to metformin high clearance. About 90% of the drug is eliminated by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion (serum half-life of 1.55 h). Moreover, RF is itself associated with acidosis as it impairs kidneys ability to excrete protons. Acute intoxication on the other hand is a viable option in those cases where renal function is normal and can correlate with a psychiatric disorder. The mechanism thought to be responsible for lactic acidosis is suppression of gluconeogenesis forming lactate, pyruvate, glycerol and amino acids leading to lactate accumulation, 9 a risk that is increased by either chronic or acute RF (ARF). Usually hyperlactatemia is the most common finding leaving lactic acidosis for the most severe intoxications. A 47-year-old, apparently previously fit, non-insulin-dependent diabetic male was brought to the Emergency Department for hypoglycemia, agitation and hyperventilation. Ambulance crew found blood glucose level at 1.33 mmol/l (24 mg/dl) and administered 20 ml of 33% glucose solution followed by other 250 ml at 5%. At the arrival in the Emergency Room, the patient was confused and agitated with no signs of respiratory distress or shock. Arterial blood gases (ABG) and laboratory tests are summarized in Tab Continue reading >>

6 Pearls About Metformin And Lactic Acidosis

6 Pearls About Metformin And Lactic Acidosis

Metformin accumulation: Lactic acidosis and high plasmatic metformin levels in a retrospective case series of 66 patients on chronic therapy. Vecchio S et al. Clin Toxicol 2014 Feb;52:129-135. Metformin is frequently used alone or in combination to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis, predominantly by inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. The drug is eliminated mainly by the kidneys, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency may allow accumulation of the drug with increasing levels. A small percentage of patients on metformin develop severe lactic acidosis. There has been an ongoing controversy as whether this acidosis is metformin-associated or metformin-induced. This paper, from the Pavia Poison Control Centre in Northern Italy, helps shed light on this question. The authors retrospectively reviewed patients admitted to their toxicology unit over a 5-year period. Eligible patients were on chronic metformin therapy at the time of admission, had lactic acidosis (pH < 7.35, arterial lactate > 5 mmol/L), and elevated metformin levels (plasma metformin > 4 mcg/ml). Cases of acute overdose were excluded. The study objective was to correlate the metformin levels with measured pH, lactate levels, renal function, and mortality rate. Sixty-six eligible patients were identified. All patients presented with acute renal failure and severe lactic acidosis (mean pH 6.91, mean lactate 14.36 mmol/L). About half the patients had a pre-existing contraindication to metformin therapy, predominantly renal failure and/or heart disease. Approximately 75% presented after several days of a mild gastrointestinal prodrome with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; this may either have represented the initial manifestations of metformin po Continue reading >>

Fatal Metformin Overdose Presenting With Progressive Hyperglycemia

Fatal Metformin Overdose Presenting With Progressive Hyperglycemia

Go to: CASE REPORT A 29-year-old man ingested metformin in a suicide attempt. The patient consumed the entire remaining contents of his father’s prescription metformin bottle that originally contained 100 tablets of 850 mg each. The father stated that the bottle had contained at least three-quarters of its original contents, putting the ingested dose between 64 and 85 grams. The patient also consumed ethanol, but denied any other co-ingestants. The parents discovered the overdose around 6:30 a.m., about 5 ½ hours post-ingestion, when the patient began complaining of vomiting, diarrhea, thirst, abdominal pain and bilateral leg pain. Paramedics were called, who found the patient to be agitated with a fingerstick glucose level of 180 mg/dL. The patient had a history of psychosis and depression, including prior suicide attempts by drug ingestion. He was not taking any prescribed medications, having discontinued olanzapine and sertraline several months earlier. The patient had no personal history of diabetes, despite the family history of type II diabetes in his father, who was taking no other anti-diabetic medications than metformin. The patient admitted to daily ethanol and tobacco use, but denied any current or past use of illicit drugs. He had no surgical history or known allergies. Vital signs on arrival to the Emergency Department (ED) were temperature of 35.2°C (rectal), pulse of 113 beats/min, blood pressure of 129/59 mmHg, respirations at 28 breaths/min with 100% saturation via pulse oximetry on room air. The patient was awake and oriented x4, but agitated and slightly confused (GCS=14). Pupils were equal and reactive at 4mm and the oral mucous membranes were dry. Other than tachycardia, the heart and lung exams were unremarkable. The abdomen was mildly tender t Continue reading >>

Metformin Overdose Symptoms And Treatment: What You Should Know

Metformin Overdose Symptoms And Treatment: What You Should Know

What is Metformin? It is a type of medication called a biguanide, which is used to treat people with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition where the body cannot make enough insulin or use it properly. Most people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugar levels through regular exercise and healthy diet. In case this does not work, metformin is the first oral diabetes medication that is prescribed to people with type 2 diabetes. It can also be used together with insulin or other diabetes medication to reduce blood glucose levels when it is too high. Controlling high blood sugar is important because it prevents the risk of health complications such as loss of limbs, kidney damage and nerve problems. However, this medicine should not be used to treat type 1 diabetes, a condition where the body produces little or no insulin. This is because metformin works by helping the body respond better to the insulin it already makes. The drug works by reducing the amount of glucose that is produced by your liver and by decreasing insulin that is absorbed by the intestines. This helps to control blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Dosage The dosage of metformin depends on your medical condition, response to treatment and kidney function. Do not change your dosage without your doctor’s permission. Your doctor may ask you to start at a lower dose, then gradually increase the dosage to reduce the risk of side effects like stomach upset. This medication is supposed to be taken by mouth, usually 1 to 3 times every day with meals. You should drink plenty of fluids as you take this medication unless directed otherwise by your healthcare provider. Metformin overdose symptoms and treatment Although not common, a metformin overdose can result in seri Continue reading >>

Metformin Overdose

Metformin Overdose

Tweet Save As with any medication, it is possible to overdose on metformin. Some of the effects of a metformin overdose may include low blood sugar or lactic acidosis. Symptoms of low blood sugar include blurred vision, shakiness, and extreme hunger. Some symptoms of lactic acidosis can include an irregular heartbeat, trouble breathing, and feeling tired. There are some treatment options for a metformin overdose, including dialysis or using a sugar solution to increase blood sugar levels. Metformin Overdose: An Overview Metformin (Glucophage®) is a prescription medication that has been licensed to treat type 2 diabetes. As with all medicines, it is possible to take too much metformin. Effects of a metformin overdose will vary depending on a number of factors, including how much metformin was taken and whether it was taken with any other medicines, alcohol, and/or drugs. If you happen to overdose on metformin, seek medical attention immediately. Symptoms of a Metformin Overdose The effects of a metformin overdose may include: Possible symptoms of low blood sugar include: Sweating Shakiness Extreme hunger Dizziness Cold sweats Blurry vision. More severe low blood sugar symptoms include: Changes in behavior, such as irritability Loss of coordination Difficulty speaking Confusion Loss of consciousness Coma Lactic acidosis symptoms include: Feeling tired or weak Muscle pain Trouble breathing Abdominal pain (or stomach pain) Feeling cold Dizziness or lightheadedness A slow or irregular heartbeat Loss of life. Tweet Our free DiscountRx savings card can help you and your family save money on your prescriptions. This card is accepted at all major chain pharmacies, nationwide. Enter your name and email address to receive your free savings card. Treatment for a Metformin Overdose Continue reading >>

Toxicology Of Oral Antidiabetic Medications

Toxicology Of Oral Antidiabetic Medications

Toxicology of Oral Antidiabetic Medications Am J Health Syst Pharm.2006;63(10):929-938. In 1996, the Food and Drug Administration approved the labeling for metformin (dimethylbiguanide), the only biguanide currently available in the United States. Phenformin, the other previously available biguanide, was withdrawn from the market in 1977 because of an association with lactic acidosis. Buformin, another biguanide, is not available in the United States. The complex of mechanisms of action of metformin is multifaceted but appears to include delayed glucose absorption, increased intestinal glucose utilization, increased intestinal lactate production, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreased lipid oxidation, decreased free fatty acid concentration, and increased peripheral insulin-related glucose uptake.[ 70 ] Metformin absorption is incomplete, with 20-30% found in the feces. Oral bioavailability is 40-60%, depending on the dose ingested, with greater doses producing lower bioavailability.[ 71 ] The reduced bioavailability may result from the drug binding by the intestinal wall.[ 72 ] The rate of absorption is slower than the rate of elimination, which makes absorption a rate-limiting step in the elimination half-life.[ 73 , 74 ] Absorption, in therapeutic doses, is expected to be complete in 6 hours. In an overdose situation involving massive doses, absorption may be prolonged. About 90% of the absorbed metformin is eliminated through the kidneys within the first 24 hours in patients with normal renal function.[ 72 ] Metformin has no metabolites. Metformin is the second most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic medication in both monotherapy and combination therapy.[ 11 ] In 2004, metformin had the highest number of reports to U.S. poison control centers and the Continue reading >>

Toxicology Case Of The Month: Oral Hypoglycaemic Overdose

Toxicology Case Of The Month: Oral Hypoglycaemic Overdose

Toxicology case of the month: oral hypoglycaemic overdose J Soderstrom, L Murray, M Little, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia L Murray, F F S Daly, M Little, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia L Murray, F F S Daly, M Little, New South Wales Poison Information Centre, New Children's Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia F F S Daly, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia Copyright 2006 Emergency Medicine Journal. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A teenager ingests 375 mg of glipizide and 14.5 g of melformin intentionally in a small country town. She presents to the local medical facility with symptoms and signs of hypoglycaemia. Using a risk assessment based approach, the management of suiphonylurea and metformin overdose is discussed. Sulphonylurea overdose invariably results in profound hypoglycaemia that requires resuscitation with IV dextrose and the use of octreotide as an antidote. Metfonnin overdose rarely causes problems. Keywords: glipizide, hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis, metformin, overdose This is the first in a series of cases presented by the Western Australian Toxicology Service. The cases are selected for their relevance to emergency medicine practice and emphasise the importance of risk assessment in formulating a coherent management plan for the acutely poisoned patient (boxes 1 and 2). These principles were discussed in depth in the introductory article for this series. 1 A 15 year old female presents to the hospital of a small remote town 2600 km north east of Perth. Some 4 h ago, following a family dispute, she ingested all of her diabetic father's medications. Her family are unable to account for 755 mg glipizide and 29500 mg metformin tablets. On arrival, she is vomiting and appears anxious Continue reading >>

Toxicology Brief: Metformin Overdose In Dogs And Cats

Toxicology Brief: Metformin Overdose In Dogs And Cats

Metformin is an antihyperglycemic prescription medication labeled for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus in people. Metformin belongs to the biguanide group of oral antidiabetic agents and is the only biguanide currently available in the United States. Other biguanides, such as phenformin and buformin, were withdrawn from the U.S. market because of their higher risk of serious adverse effects (increased risk of lactic acidosis).1 Metformin has also been studied in cats as a potential treatment for diabetes mellitus.2,3 Most cases of metformin toxicosis reported to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) involve dogs that have ingested their owners' medication. Metformin is available in single-ingredient preparations as well as in combination with other antidiabetic agents. Under the trade name Glucophage (Bristol-Myers Squibb) and in several generic formulations, metformin is available as tablets containing 500, 850, or 1,000 mg of metformin hydrochloride. Glucophage XR, the extended-release formulation, contains 500 or 750 mg of metformin hydrochloride. Two other metformin-only products available in the United States are Riomet (Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals), a liquid oral formulation containing 500 mg/5 ml of metformin hydrochloride, and Fortamet (First Horizon Pharmaceutical) 500- or 1,000-mg extended-release tablets. MECHANISM OF ACTION AND PHARMACOKINETICS Biguanides are thought to lower postprandial glucose concentrations in diabetic patients by increasing glucose uptake and decreasing glucose production. Although the precise mechanisms by which metformin exerts its antihyperglycemic effects are not entirely certain, they are largely attributed to a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis, a decrease in intestinal glucose absorption, an Continue reading >>

Extracorporeal Treatment For Metformin Poisoning: Systematic Review And Recommendations From The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning Workgroup

Extracorporeal Treatment For Metformin Poisoning: Systematic Review And Recommendations From The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning Workgroup

Background:Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. Methods:A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on voting statements and RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymized votes and opinions were compiled and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. Results:One hundred seventy-five articles were identified, including 63 deaths: one observational study, 160 case reports or series, 11 studies of descriptive cohorts, and three pharmacokinetic studies in end-stage renal disease, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. The workgroup concluded that metformin is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence C) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D), and decreased level of consciousness (2D). Extracorporeal treatment should be continued until the lactate concentration is less than 3 mmol/L (1D) and pH greater than 7.35 (1D), at which time close monitoring is warranted to determine the need for additional courses of extracorporeal Continue reading >>

A Pediatric Suicide Attempt By Ingestion Of Metformin, Glimepiride And Sulpiride: A Case Report And Literature Review

A Pediatric Suicide Attempt By Ingestion Of Metformin, Glimepiride And Sulpiride: A Case Report And Literature Review

1Medical Biological Laboratory Service, Regional Hospital of Kasserine, 1200 Kasserine, Tunisia 2Toxicology Laboratory Service, hospital Farhat Hached of Sousse, 4000 Sousse, Tunisia 3Internal Medicine Service, Regional Hospital of Kasserine, 1200 Kasserine, Tunisia *Corresponding Author: Gharsalli Tarek Medical Biological Laboratory Service Regional Hospital of Kasserine, 1200 Kasserine, Tunisia Tel: +21697070320 Fax: +21677473777 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Tarek G, Kais G, Ramzi G (2016) A Pediatric Suicide Attempt by Ingestion of Metformin, Glimepiride and Sulpiride: A Case Report and Literature Review. J Clin Toxicol 6:310. doi:10.4172/2161-0495.1000310 Copyright: © 2016 Tarek G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical Toxicology Abstract A case of a pediatric patient poisoning after ingestion of metformin, glimepiride and sulpiride, he was presented to the emergency service with symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia. Using a risk assessment based approach, the management of glimepiride and metformin overdose is discussed. Glimepiride overdose invariably results in profound hypoglycemia that requires resuscitation with IV dextrose and the use of octreotide as an antidote. Metformin overdose rarely causes problems. The acute sulpiride poisoning is poorly reported in the medical literature. Keywords Pediatric; Suicide attempt; Poisoning; Metformin; Glimepiride; Sulpiride Introduction Children suffering from physical, mental or psychological problems are being increasingly evaluated and treated in ped Continue reading >>

Poisoning - Hypoglycaemic Agent - Kids Health Wa (pmh Ed Guidelines)

Poisoning - Hypoglycaemic Agent - Kids Health Wa (pmh Ed Guidelines)

Oral hypoglycaemic agents are used for type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent diabetes) Sulfonylurea agents increase pancreatic insulin secretion and are the most important cause of hypoglycaemic toxicity Modified-release preparations may delay onset of symptoms for up to 8-18 hours Metformin is a biguanide agent that acts by decreasing carbohydrate absorption from the gut, increasing glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in the presence of insulin, and reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis The thiazolidinedione agents act at a nuclear receptor to improve insulin sensitivity in adipose tissues, skeletal muscles and the liver. Minimal information is available regarding overdose. The sulfonylurea agents may cause prolonged and profound life-threatening hypoglycaemia after accidental paediatric ingestion or deliberate self-poisoning Large overdoses may require treatment for several days A single tablet in a toddler has the potential to cause life-threatening hypoglycaemia. The onset of hypoglycaemia may be delayed up to 18 hours after ingestion. Admission for a minimum of 12- 24 hours is indicated for blood glucose monitoring. Discharge from hospital should only occur in the daylight hours. Metformin ingestion is not associated with hypoglycaemia in normal patients, but may cause life-threatening lactic acidosis in large overdoses or in the presence of renal or cardiac failure, or when there are co-ingestants which impair renal perfusion. Haemodialysis resolves the acidosis as well as removing metformin from the blood Nausea and vomiting may occur in smaller overdoses Asymptomatic patients following accidental exposure to metformin do not require referral to hospital, decontamination or investigation Children who have taken an unintentional ingestion of up to 1700 mg Continue reading >>

Metformin

Metformin

Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,[4][5] particularly in people who are overweight.[6] It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.[4] Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular disease and cancer complications of diabetes.[7][8] It is not associated with weight gain.[8] It is taken by mouth.[4] Metformin is generally well tolerated.[9] Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain.[4] It has a low risk of causing low blood sugar.[4] High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses.[10] It should not be used in those with significant liver disease or kidney problems.[4] While no clear harm comes from use during pregnancy, insulin is generally preferred for gestational diabetes.[4][11] Metformin is in the biguanide class.[4] It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues.[4] Metformin was discovered in 1922.[12] French physician Jean Sterne began study in humans in the 1950s.[12] It was introduced as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995.[4][13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[14] Metformin is believed to be the most widely used medication for diabetes which is taken by mouth.[12] It is available as a generic medication.[4] The wholesale price in the developed world is between 0.21 and 5.55 USD per month as of 2014.[15] In the United States, it costs 5 to 25 USD per month.[4] Medical uses[edit] Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly be Continue reading >>

The Toxicology Takedown #2 January 2015

The Toxicology Takedown #2 January 2015

The Toxicology Takedown #2 January 2015 A 15-Year-old female presents to the hospital 4 hours after ingestion of her diabetic fathers medication following a family dispute. Her family is unable to account for 75 x 5 mg glipizide and 29 x 500 mg metformin tablets. On arrival, she is vomiting and appears anxious and slightly sweaty with Glasgow Coma Score of 14/15. Her vital signs are pulse rate 90 bpm, blood pressure 110/75 mmHg, respiratory rate 18/min, and temperature of 36.8 C. A bedside blood glucose level is 54 mg/dl. Whats the immediate threat to life for this patient? Whats the mechanism of action of sulfonylurea medications, and how is it problematic in the management in toxicity? What are the antidotes for sulfonylurea toxicity? Whats concerning about metformin toxicity? What is the name of the syndrome that can develop in overdose and how it is managed? With respect to the ingestion of a potentially toxic amount of sulfonylureas, the immediate threat to life for this patient is hypoglycemia with potential progression to seizures and coma. This patient requires an IV line and administration of a bolus of 50 ml of 50% dextrose solution for correction of hypoglycemia and administration of another medication of minimize recurrent hypoglycemia. Glipizide is one of many sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents. It exerts its effect by stimulating insulin release from the beta islet cells of the pancreas. All sulfonylureas inhibit ATP-sensitive K+ channels. This inhibition increases the membrane potential and depolarizes the cell. A subsequent influx of extracellular calcium ions through voltage-dependent calcium channels Occurs. An increase in the free intracellular calcium level is the signal, or second messenger, that triggers exocytosis and the release of insulin. F Continue reading >>

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