What Are The Long-term Effects Of Metformin?
Metformin is a prescription drug that is used to help control blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is commonly sold under the brand names Glucophage and Fortamet and is available in regular and slow-release tablets. Metformin works by acting on the liver and intestines to decrease secretion and absorption of glucose into the blood. It also increases the insulin sensitivity of muscles and tissues of the body so that they take up glucose more readily. MayoClinic.com underlines that as with any medication, metformin can cause unwanted side effects that may be common or more serious. Video of the Day Patients taking metformin, particularly women may experience general malaise, fatigue, and occasional achiness. Malaise may be caused by other effects of metformin on the liver, kidneys, stomach and intestines, as noted by Drugs.com. Vitamin B12 Malabsorption Vitamin B12 malabsorption may also occur in some patients on metformin treatment. MayoClinic.com explains that a chemical in the stomach called intrinsic factor is required for the body to absorb vitamin B12. Metformin can interfere with this chemical, causing decreased absorption of the vitamin. Over the long term, a vitamin B12 deficiency can cause significant health risks as this essential vitamin is important for synthesis of DNA, red blood cell production and other biochemical functions in the body. Decreased vitamin B12 in the blood can lead to megoblastic anemia in which the bone marrow cannot adequately manufacture red blood cells. Though this type of anemia is not common, it can occur from long-term use of metformin, causing decreased vitamin B12 levels. Long-term metformin use can cause liver or kidney problems in some individuals, according to MayoClinic.com, because the medicati Continue reading >>
Metformin And The Gastrointestinal Tract
Go to: Introduction Metformin—dimethylbiguanide—is an oral glucose-lowering agent. Its origins can be traced to Galega officinalis, also known as French lilac or goat’s rue . In the early 20th century it was noted to lower blood glucose concentrations in animals, but it was not until the 1950s that Jean Sterne studied dimethylbiguanide and subsequently developed ‘Glucophage’ . Over the last 15 years, metformin has become the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, as noted in several international guidelines, including the ADA-EASD guidelines . Metformin has had a chequered history—it was initially eclipsed by phenformin, which was withdrawn in the late 1970s after it was discovered to be associated with lactic acidosis . The lower propensity of metformin for hyperlactataemia  and success in several large randomised controlled clinical trials, such as the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) , confirmed its clinical benefit. It is widely recognised that metformin improves glycaemic control with a good safety profile, weight neutrality or weight loss, lack of associated hypoglycaemia, reduced cardiovascular mortality and low cost . However, a large proportion of patients cannot tolerate the medication in adequate amounts because of its associated side effects. Up to 25% of patients suffer metformin-associated gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, with approximately 5% unable to tolerate metformin at all . In addition to this interindividual variation in side effects, there is variability in the efficacy of metformin. There are likely to be a number of factors to account for this variability in efficacy, for example, our group (Zhou et al) recently established that the glycaemic response to metformin is moderately heritabl Continue reading >>
Side Effects Of Metformin
Metformin ("Glucophage") has a broad array of possible side effects and implications for your health. Has your doctor discussed with you all of the possible problems associated with metformin? Malaise Did you know that 10%- 25% of women who take Glucophage just don't feel well? They experience a general malaise, fatigue and occasional achiness that lasts for varying lengths of time. Malaise a warning signal for your doctor to closely monitor your body systems, including liver, kidneys, and GI tract. GI Disturbance About one third of women on metformin experience gastrointestinal disturbances, including nausea, occasional vomiting and loose, more frequent bowel movements, or diarrhea. This problem occurs more often after meals rich in fats or sugars, so eating a healthier diet will help. The symptoms lessen over time, so if you can tolerate the GI upset for a few weeks, it may go away. Some women have found it helps to start with a very low dose and gradually increase it. Vitamin B12 Malabsorption Most people think that aside from possible gastrointestinal upset, there are no side effects from taking metformin, and thus you can take it for a very long time. This is not true! The sneakiest side effect of all is a vitamin B12 insufficiency. A substance formed in the stomach called "intrinsic factor" combines with B12 so that it can be transferred into the blood. Metformin interferes with the ability of your cells to absorb this intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex.(12) Over the long term, vitamin B12 insufficiency is a significant health risk. B12 is essential to the proper growth and function of every cell in your body. It's required for synthesis of DNA and for many crucial biochemical functions. There is also a link between B12 insufficiency and cardiovascular disease. Continue reading >>
Told To Stop Metformin For Ten Days As Having Bowel Problems. Concerned Bg Will Increase?
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Told to stop metformin for ten days as having bowel problems. Concerned BG will increase? I was prediabetic on 1500 normal metformin a day. Turned diabetic had metformin increased to 2G per day and put on slow release. Was working well with LC diet as well went from Hba1c of 53 to 40 in 3 months. Always had constipation problems, but just recently changed to 5 days constipation then stools normal and then 2 days roughly of diarrhea then constipated again. Gp thought diarrhea was overflow and I was told to take cosmocol which is basically like fibergel. But it didn't improve Gp has now advised to stop metformin for ten days to see if diarrhea stops. I presume if so he will stop it all together, if not then he will investigate further. My concern is if I stop metformin will my blood sugars go up again? Does anyone have any experience of any of it? Or can anyone advise whats liable to happen? Feel rather in the dark and scarred of stopping it to be honest. Any advise would be appreciated. I was prediabetic on 1500 normal metformin a day. Turned diabetic had metformin increased to 2G per day and put on slow release. Was working well with LC diet as well went from Hba1c of 53 to 40 in 3 months. Always had constipation problems, but just recently changed to 5 days constipation then stools normal and then 2 days roughly of diarrhea then constipated again. Gp thought diarrhea was overflow and I was told to take cosmocol which is basically like fibergel. But it didn't improve Gp has now advised to stop metformin for ten days to see if diarrhea stops. I presume if so he will stop it all together, if not then he will investigate further. My concern is if I stop Continue reading >>
Introduction Bowel incontinence is an inability to control bowel movements, resulting in the involuntary passage of stools. It is also sometimes known as faecal incontinence. The experience of bowel incontinence can vary from person to person. Some people feel a sudden, urgent need to go to the toilet, and incontinence occurs because they are unable to reach a toilet in time. This is known as urge bowel incontinence. Other people may experience no sensation before passing a stool, known as passive incontinence or passive soiling, or they may pass a small piece of stool while passing wind. Some people experience incontinence on a daily basis, whereas for others the problem only occurs from time to time. Who is affected Bowel incontinence is much more common than most people realise: it's thought 1 in 10 people will be affected by it at some point in their life. It can affect people of any age, although the problem is more common in elderly people. It is more common in women than men. Why bowel incontinence happens Bowel incontinence is not a condition in itself. It is a symptom of an underlying problem or medical condition. Many cases are caused by diarrhoea, constipation, or weakening of the ring of muscle that controls the opening of the anus. Bowel incontinence can also be caused by long-term conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis and dementia. Read more about the causes of bowel incontinence. Seeking advice and treatment Bowel incontinence can be extremely upsetting and hard to cope with, but effective treatments are available and a cure is often possible, so make sure you see your doctor. It is important to remember that: Bowel incontinence is not something to be ashamed of – it is simply a medical problem that is no different from diabetes or asthma. It Continue reading >>
How To Treat Diabetic Diarrhea?
I have a problem that I never see addressed. I've had type 1 diabetes for 36 years and been diagnosed as having diabetic diarrhea. Numerous tests have ruled out all other gastrointestinal problems. Is there any treatment for this problem? Continue reading >>
Does Metformin Cause Constipation
Question Originally asked by Community Member roanokebill Does Metformin Cause Constipation I have been taking 1000 mg Metformin with supper for diabetes. The last refill the dr changed the instructions to bedtime. I have tried taking the Met at that time but without food. About the same time I started having some loose bowels then constipation. I noticed today the label said take with food. Does this make a difference? Answer Make sure you take it with food. Whether taken with food or not Metformin can cause constipation. You might try drinking more water, eating more fiber (vegetables, whole grains), taking psyllium seed fiber and walking regularly. Each of those can help. Of course, there is always the laxative option but it’s best to try the others first. Good luck. You should know Answers to your question are meant to provide general health information but should not replace medical advice you receive from a doctor. No answers should be viewed as a diagnosis or recommended treatment for a condition. Answered By: Cort Continue reading >>
Diabetes Drugs: Metformin
Editor’s Note: This is the second post in our miniseries about diabetes drugs. Tune in on August 21 for the next installment. Metformin (brand names Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Riomet, Fortamet, Glumetza) is a member of a class of medicines known as biguanides. This type of medicine was first introduced into clinical practice in the 1950’s with a drug called phenformin. Unfortunately, phenformin was found to be associated with lactic acidosis, a serious and often fatal condition, and was removed from the U.S. market in 1977. This situation most likely slowed the approval of metformin, which was not used in the U.S. until 1995. (By comparison, metformin has been used in Europe since the 1960’s.) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required large safety studies of metformin, the results of which demonstrated that the development of lactic acidosis as a result of metformin therapy is very rare. (A finding that has been confirmed in many other clinical trials to date.) Of note, the FDA officer involved in removing phenformin from the market recently wrote an article highlighting the safety of metformin. Metformin works primarily by decreasing the amount of glucose made by the liver. It does this by activating a protein known as AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK. This protein acts much like an “energy sensor,” setting off cellular activities that result in glucose storage, enhanced entry of glucose into cells, and decreased creation of fatty acids and cholesterol. A secondary effect of the enhanced entry of glucose into cells is improved glucose uptake and increased storage of glycogen (a form of glucose) by the muscles. Additionally, the decrease in fatty acid levels brought about by metformin may indirectly improve insulin resistance and beta cell func Continue reading >>
Metformin In Bowel Movement - Medhelp
Common Questions and Answers about Metformin in bowel movement The last 3 days she has been trembling, fighting constipation(she hasn't had a bowel movement in over a week-taking Correctol, sipping prune juice-about 4 oz a day and tried an enema)and unable to leave her bed but the quick trips to the bathroom which is right by her room. She has an appointment on Tuesday to check her potassium levels and after what I have read I want to request a check of the metformin levels in her blood as well. I'm also experiencing a capsule looking object in my stools from time to time. I've had a colonoscopy done and tested positive for H.pylori about 10 months ago. I did mention this to my Gastroenterologist and I also provide stool specimens and he didn't say that he found anything. This object does not appear often. It also seems as if the object have grown since the last time I noticed this in my bowel movement. Please advise me which direction to take. But my endorcrinologist said that he believes i am Insulin Resistant, more blood tests will tell in a few weeks, and he may put me on Metformin ... He did say it 'should' help with weight loss, i am stuck stuck stuck as of now... Please keep me posted on your progress! Good Luck! It has been almost two weeks since I started the medication.....for the past couple of days I noticed something in my bowel movement .....its in my morning stool it looks kinda orangish an kinda like a small carrot that has white stuff in the middle. I know this is totally disgusting but I need some advice! Could it be the metformin being released in my stool?? If so, does that mean I'm not getting my medication like I should?? and he switched me to Letrozole in Mar and did an IUI with it. He also put me on Metformin and Synthroid and said I have mild P Continue reading >>
I Am Suffering Bad ! Metformin = Constipation
I am suffering bad ! Metformin = constipation Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. I am suffering bad ! Metformin = constipation Oh goodness, just when everything was turning for the better, now back to feeling horrible. I have been badly constipated and bloated for 2 weeks straight, I can hardly breathe, move, and just feel awful. I've tried stomach massage, eating less, more veggies, prune juice, more water, touch toe exercises, and no bowel movement. I was taken off met for bad constipation in the past, then doctor tries extended metformin. Prior to med, if I became constipated or bloated, I would have relief in a matter of hours, from methods above, especially prune juice. I need instant relief !!! Even a small glass of water bloats me beyond belief, first thing in the morning. Met has helped decrease my sugar levels, but constipation/bloating discomfort, is going to have me quit again. Even when I drank 6-12 pack soda a day, I never felt this horribly constipated/bloated. Please help, before I give up and go back to my soda diet, eating meals once a day. Everything was going so well with routine low carb diet. Reason, I know it's metformin. One time, I had minor bowel movement, my digestive system swelled right back up. Feels like my intestines are swollen. But, I am not producing any gas. None, zip, zero !! If anyone has a solution, please chime in. If, as you say you were doing well with low-carbing, why did you add the Metformin? If its side-effects are as horrible as you describe perhaps you better consider either different medication or insulin or attempt to "finish the job" with diet. Thanks for feedback. I want to sl Continue reading >>
Metformin As A Cause Of Late-onset Chronic Diarrhea.
Abstract Metformin is an effective and commonly administered drug for controlling plasma glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Gastrointestinal adverse effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia, anorexia, and diarrhea are common and widely accepted when occurring at the start of metformin therapy. Diarrhea occurring long after the dosage titration period is much less well recognized. Our patient began to experience nausea, abdominal cramping, and explosive watery diarrhea that occasionally caused incontinence after several years of stable metformin therapy A trial of metformin discontinuation resolved all gastrointestinal symptoms. A review of the literature revealed two reports that suggest diarrhea occurring long after the start of metformin therapy is relatively common, based on surveys of patients with diabetes. Metformin-induced diarrhea is differentiated from diabetic diarrhea, which is clinically similar, except diabetic diarrhea is rare in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking metformin and experience diarrhea deserve a drug-free interval before undergoing expensive and uncomfortable diagnostic tests, even when the dosage has been stable over a long period. Continue reading >>
Metformin (glucophage) Side Effects & Complications
The fascinating compound called metformin was discovered nearly a century ago. Scientists realized that it could lower blood sugar in an animal model (rabbits) as early as 1929, but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that a French researcher came up with the name Glucophage (roughly translated as glucose eater). The FDA gave metformin (Glucophage) the green light for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in 1994, 36 years after it had been approved for this use in Britain. Uses of Generic Metformin: Glucophage lost its patent protection in the U.S. in 2002 and now most prescriptions are filled with generic metformin. This drug is recognized as a first line treatment to control blood sugar by improving the cells’ response to insulin and reducing the amount of sugar that the liver makes. Unlike some other oral diabetes drugs, it doesn’t lead to weight gain and may even help people get their weight under control. Starting early in 2000, sales of metformin (Glucophage) were challenged by a new class of diabetes drugs. First Avandia and then Actos challenged metformin for leadership in diabetes treatment. Avandia later lost its luster because it was linked to heart attacks and strokes. Sales of this drug are now miniscule because of tight FDA regulations. Actos is coming under increasing scrutiny as well. The drug has been banned in France and Germany because of a link to bladder cancer. The FDA has also required Actos to carry its strictest black box warning about an increased risk of congestive heart failure brought on by the drug. Newer diabetes drugs like liraglutide (Victoza), saxagliptin (Onglyza) and sitagliptin (Januvia) have become very successful. But metformin remains a mainstay of diabetes treatment. It is prescribed on its own or sometimes combined with the newer d Continue reading >>
Metformin And Frequent Bowel Movements - From Fda Reports
Frequent bowel movements is found among people who take Metformin, especially for people who are female, 60+ old , have been taking the drug for < 1 month, also take medication Byetta, and have High blood pressure. This review analyzes which people have Frequent bowel movements with Metformin. It is created by eHealthMe based on reports of 199,020 people who have side effects when taking Metformin from FDA , and is updated regularly. What to expect? If you take Metformin and have Frequent bowel movements, find out what symptoms you could have in 1 year or longer. You are not alone! Join a support group for people who take Metformin and have Frequent bowel movements Personalized health information On eHealthMe you can find out what patients like me (same gender, age) reported their drugs and conditions on FDA since 1977. Our tools are simple to use, anonymous and free. Start now >>> * Approximation only. Some reports may have incomplete information. Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Bladder And Bowel Control
This fact sheet has been developed to assist people looking for more information about diabetes and bladder and control People with diabetes commonly experience problems with controlling their bladder and bowel. The incontinence refers to bladder and bowel control problems. This can involve accidental leakage, incomplete emptying, passing urine frequently (frequency) or feeling the need to rush to the toilet (urgency). Poor control of the bladder and bowel is an important health problem. It can interfere with work, social activities or sexual and personal relationships. It is important that you seek help because these problems can be cured, treated or better managed. Talk to your doctor or call the Continence Helpline 0800 650 659. Normal bladder and bowel control Knowing how the bladder and bowel normally work will help you understand the problems you may be experiencing. The bladder and bowel store and expel body waste. The bladder stores and passes urine (wee) regularly throughout the day. On average we should pass urine 4-6 times during the day and once over night. This will vary depending upon how much you drink, what you drink and how much you exercise and perspire. Your bladder should easily hold 350 – 500 mls. When it is around about half full you will start to become aware of your bladder filling. You should not go to the toilet at this point but put it off until the urge is stronger but not yet urgent. The lower bowel stores and expels faeces (poo). The normal range for bowel movements is anywhere from 3 times per day to 3 times per week. The faeces you pass should be soft formed and easily passed with no straining. The pelvic floor muscles play an essential role in giving us control over the bladder and bowel. When we hold on to go to the toilet we are rely Continue reading >>
Saxagliptin And Metformin (oral Route)
Side Effects Drug information provided by: Micromedex Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur: More common Anxiety bladder pain bloody or cloudy urine blurred vision body aches or pain chills cold sweats confusion cool, pale skin cough depression difficult, burning, or painful urination difficulty with breathing dizziness ear congestion fast heartbeat fever frequent urge to urinate headache increased hunger loss of voice lower back or side pain nasal congestion nausea nightmares runny nose seizures shakiness slurred speech sneezing sore throat unusual tiredness or weakness Rare Cough or hoarseness Incidence not known Black, tarry stools bleeding gums blood in the urine or stools constipation darkened urine difficulty with swallowing hives or skin rash indigestion large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs loss of appetite pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back pinpoint red spots on the skin puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue tightness in the chest unusual bleeding or bruising vomiting yellow eyes or skin Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them: More co Continue reading >>