Metformin Side Effects And How To Deal With Them
Metformin side effects include diabetic neuropathy, brain fog, and digestive issues. You can address them through diet, Vitamin B12, CoQ10, and exercise. Let us understand the drug Metformin in detail and study different forms of metformin, its uses and common metformin side effects along with how to deal with them. Metformin: What Is It Used For? Metformin is an old warhorse in the pharma battle against diabetes. It has been the mainstay in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes for more than fifty years, often matching or outperforming newer drugs. In fact, many new combination drugs are often created with metformin as one of the main ingredients. Thanks to its long run in the pharmaceutical world, the side effects of Metformin are also well known. The Metformin-PCOS connection has been studied extensively since a majority of health complications associated with PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) are due to hyperinsulinemia (high amounts of insulin in the blood stream). Metformin is known to reduce circulating insulin levels. The use of this drug in women with PCOS has shown highly encouraging results. RELATED: 10 Easy Breakfast Ideas For Diabetics Most Prescribed Names in Metformin Category Include: Fortamet: It is an extended-release formulation that contains metformin hydrochloride. The tablets are designed for once-a-day administration. They deliver either 500 mg or 1000 mg of metformin. The tablet is made using a patented technology called SCOTTM that delivers the active compound slowly and at a constant rate. Glucophage: Glucophage tablets contain metformin hydrochoride. They contain either 500 mg, 850 mg or 1000 mg of the active compound. Glucophage tablets do not contain any special covering and need to be taken multiple times a day until the prescribed dosage is me Continue reading >>
Nightmare And Abnormal Dreams: Rare Side Effects Of Metformin?
Nightmare and Abnormal Dreams: Rare Side Effects of Metformin? Theo Audi Yanto ,1 Ian Huang ,2 Felicia Nathania Kosasih ,2 and Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito 1 1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jalan Jendral Sudirman Boulevard No. 20, Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten 15811, Indonesia 2Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jalan Jendral Sudirman Boulevard No. 20, Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten 15811, Indonesia Correspondence should be addressed to Ian Huang Received 18 October 2017; Accepted 19 December 2017; Published 17 January 2018 Copyright 2018 Theo Audi Yanto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background. Metformin is widely known as an antidiabetic agent which has significant gastrointestinal side effects, but nightmares and abnormal dreams as its adverse reactions are not well reported. Case Presentation. Herein we present a case of 56-year-old male patient with no known history of recurrent nightmares and sleep disorder, experiencing nightmare and abnormal dreams directly after consumption of 750 mg extended release metformin. He reported his dream as an unpleasant experience which awakened him at night with negative feelings. The nightmare only lasted for a night, but his dreams every night thereafter seemed abnormal. The dreams were vivid and indescribable. The disappearance and occurrence of abnormal dreams ensued soon after the drug was discontinued and rechallenged. The case was assessed using Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) probability scale and resulted as probable causality. Conclusion. Metformin might be the Continue reading >>
Side Effects Of Metformin 500 Mg Tablets
Metformin is a prescription medication used primarily in the management of type 2 diabetes. This pill is sold under brand names such as Glucophage and Riomet. A member of the drug group known as biguanides, this drug’s 500 mg tablet is the smallest available pill -- and a common starting dose for this first-line diabetes medication. This widely used medication is an effective tool to help lower blood glucose levels, used alone or in conjunction with other pills or insulin. However, metformin can also produce adverse effects. Video of the Day The most common side effects from metformin use include gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, gas and abdominal pain. A diabetes prevention trial, published in the April 2012 issue of “Diabetes Care,” noted that over a 4-year period, 9.8 percent of metformin users reported GI side effects, while only 1.1 percent of those using placebo had these adverse effects. These side effects usually occur at the beginning of metformin therapy and go away as the body becomes adjusted to the medication. Taking the metformin with food and having the dose gradually increased also helps minimize these adverse effects. Extended-release tablets, such as metformin XR (Glucophage XR, Glumetza or Fortamet) may be easier on the stomach -- and an option for anyone who has these common metformin side effects. Other Less Common Side Effects As with most medications, the potential list of side effects is lengthy. Insight into the adverse reactions experienced by metformin users was noted in an analysis of multiple studies published in the February 2012 issue of “Diabetes Care.” While less common than GI discomfort, other potential metformin side effects include dizziness, headache, palpitations, urinary tract infect Continue reading >>
The Evaluation Of Risk Factors Associated With Adverse Drug Reactions Bymetformin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
The evaluation of risk factors associated with adverse drug reactions bymetformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Okayasu S(1), Kitaichi K, Hori A, Suwa T, Horikawa Y, Yamamoto M, Takeda J, Itoh Y. (1)Department of Pharmacy, Gifu University Hospital, Japan. Metformin is a drug to improve glycemic control by reducing insulin resistanceand is currently considered to be one of the first-choice drugs for type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, during metformin use, adverse drug reactions(ADRs) including gastrointestinal adverse events were frequently observed. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the incidence of ADRs induced by metformin and further analyzed risk factors for ADRs in Japanese patients with type 2diabetes mellitus who initially administered metformin (500-750 mg). One hundred and one hospitalized patients receiving metformin during September 1, 2009 andAugust 31, 2010 were studied. The incidence of ADRs and changes in laboratorydata including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were monitored retrospectively. Theanti-glycemic effect of metformin was successfully observed as indicated bydecreased HbA1c. Among ADRs, diarrhea was most frequently occurred duringmetformin use (26.7% of patients) although the symptom of diarrhea was mild inmost cases and disappeared within 3 d after the initial use. A logisticregression analysis showed the existence of six risk factors, including initialdose (750 mg), female, age (65), body mass index (25), aspartateaminotransferase (30 IU/L) and alkaline phosphatase (270 IU/L). The incidenceof diarrhea increased linearly as the number of risk factors increased. Inconclusion, in order to avoid ADRs, especially diarrhea, subsequently improvingthe quality of life during metformin use, the optimization of the dose ofmetformin by considering Continue reading >>
Metformin - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics
Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) is an orally administered drug used to lower blood glucose concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).104 It is antihyperglycemic in action, and increases sensitivity to insulin by inhibiting hepatic glucose production and by increasing glucose uptake and utilization in muscle. Alison E. Bretnall, Graham S. Clarke, in Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients , 1998 Metformin hydrochloride formulations have the principal tradenames of Diabefagos®, Diabetosan®, Diabex®, Glucophage®, Haurymellin®, Meguan®, Metaguanide®, and Metiguanide®. The p-chlorophenoxyacetate salt formulation has the tradename of Glucinan®, and the embonate salt formulation tradename is Stagid®. The CAS Registry number for metformin free base is 657-24-9, and the CAS Registry number for metformin hydrochloride is 1115-70-4. The elemental composition of metformin hydrochloride is C = 29.0%, H = 7.3%, Cl = 21.4%, and N = 42.3%. The elemental composition of metformin free base is C = 37.2%, H = 8.6%, and N = 54.2%. Metformin hydrochloride is a white hygroscopic crystalline powder, which is odorless and has a bitter taste. R.C.L. Page, in Side Effects of Drugs Annual , 2010 Metformin crosses the placenta, but it is not thought to increase the risk of congenital abnormalities (35R). In a randomized comparison of metformin and insulin in pregnancy in 733 women with gestational diabetes at 20–33 weeks, 195 women used metformin alone, 168 metformin + insulin, and 370 insulin (36C). The initial dosage of metformin was 500 mg once or twice daily and it was titrated to a maximum of 2.5 g/day. Insulin was added if blood glucose targets were not met. Information was not given about the insulin regimens used. Severe hyp Continue reading >>
Metformin, Oral Tablet
Metformin oral tablet is available as both a generic and brand-name drug. Brand names: Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fortamet, and Glumetza. Metformin is also available as an oral solution but only in the brand-name drug Riomet. Metformin is used to treat high blood sugar levels caused by type 2 diabetes. FDA warning: Lactic acidosis warning This drug has a Black Box Warning. This is the most serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A black box warning alerts doctors and patients to potentially dangerous effects. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious side effect of this drug. In this condition, lactic acid builds up in your blood. This is a medical emergency that requires treatment in the hospital. Lactic acidosis is fatal in about half of people who develop it. You should stop taking this drug and call your doctor right away or go to the emergency room if you have signs of lactic acidosis. Symptoms include tiredness, weakness, unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, unusual sleepiness, stomach pains, nausea (or vomiting), dizziness (or lightheadedness), and slow or irregular heart rate. Alcohol use warning: You shouldn’t drink alcohol while taking this drug. Alcohol can affect your blood sugar levels unpredictably and increase your risk of lactic acidosis. Kidney problems warning: If you have moderate to severe kidney problems, you have a higher risk of lactic acidosis. You shouldn’t take this drug. Liver problems warning: Liver disease is a risk factor for lactic acidosis. You shouldn’t take this drug if you have liver problems. Metformin oral tablet is a prescription drug that’s available as the brand name drugs Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fortamet, and Glumetza. Glucophage is an immediate-release tablet. All of the other brands are extended-r Continue reading >>
Metformin: Side-effects & Benefits
Editor’s Note: Metformin is considered one of the safest and most effective treatments for type 2 diabetes. Although you should be aware of the side effects below, metformin is typically safe and well-tolerated. Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body’s response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. I’m also beginning to see where metformin is used in addition to insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). How about the associated long term side effects of metformin? Lets take a closer look! *Be sure to read this article: Patients Share their Experience on Metformin. Metformin and Lactic Acidosis: Although rare, lactic acidosis is potentially the most serious of the metformin side effects. The uptake of lactate by the liver is effected by metformin in a negative way. If the kidneys do not process the excess lactate the blood of the patient will acidify which can lead to a whole slew of problems. Most of which are similar to the feeling one gets after an intense workout. For example: anxiety, hyperventilation, irregular heart rate nausea and in some cases vomiting. This is the reason that metformin is generally only prescribed to people with a healthy kidney function. This side e Continue reading >>
Metformin Side Effects
Tweet Metformin does have several common side effects. Like almost all medication, Metformin will affect different people in different ways. The following lists details Metformin side effects, but this does not mean that all people taking Metformin will experience any or all of the following side effects. To make it easier to understand the frequency of the side effects of Metformin, we have divided them by how often they occur. Very common - affecting over 1 in 10 people taking Metformin Disturbance to the gut Nausea Vomiting Diarrhoea Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Common - affecting between 1 in 10 and 1 in 100 people taking Metformin Taste disturbance, usually a metallic taste Very rare - affecting under 1 in 10,000 people taking Metformin Elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis) Decreased absorption of vitamin B12 during long-term use Skin reactions such as rash, itching or flushing To find out more about Metformin side effects, people with diabetes should discuss the medication with their doctor and read the information provided by the manufacturer. The list of side effects above does not purport to be a full list of all recognised side effects of Metformin. What should I do if I experience Metformin side effects? All medicines take some getting used to. You should speak to your doctor if any of the side effects become troublesome or painful. If you find your breathing is being affected, along with drowsiness, dizziness and confusion you should stop taking Metformin at once and seek urgent medical attention. These are the symptoms of lactic acidosis, a rare but very serious condition that can be caused by Metformin. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body Continue reading >>
Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis (blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment); a coma; or heart or liver disease. Taking certain other medications with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you are taking acetazolamide (Diamox), dichlorphenamide (Keveyis), methazolamide, topiramate (Topamax, in Qsymia), or zonisamide (Zonegran). Tell your doctor if you have recently had any of the following conditions, or if you develop them during treatment: serious infection; severe diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; or if you drink much less fluid than usual for any reason. You may have to stop taking metformin until you recover. If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, or any major medical procedure, tell the doctor that you are taking metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you plan to have any x-ray procedure in which dye is injected, especially if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or have or have had liver disease or heart failure. You may need to stop taking metformin before the procedure and wait 48 hours to restart treatment. Your doctor will tell you exactly when you should stop taking metformin and when you should start taking it again. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking metformin and call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, or discomfort; nausea; vomiting; stomach pain; decreased appetite; deep and rapid breathing or shortness of breath; dizzi Continue reading >>
Metformin: Current Knowledge
Go to: Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the blood glucose is higher than normal levels, due to insufficiency of insulin release or improper response of cells to insulin, resulting in high blood pressure. The resultant hyperglycemia produces sever complications. Metformin drug has been shown to prevent diabetes in people who are at high risk and decrease most of the diabetic complications. Recent reports on metformin, not only indicate some implications such as renoprotective properties have been suggested for metformin, but some reports indicate its adverse effects as well that are negligible when its benefits are brought into account. We aimed here to review the new implications of metformin and discuss about the concerns in the use of metformin, referring to the recently published papers. Keywords: Diabetes, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, glucose, metformin, new applications, polycystic ovary syndrome, renoprotection Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which the blood glucose is higher than normal levels, due to insufficiency of insulin release or improper response of cells to insulin, resulting in high blood pressure. The resultant hyperglycemia produces the classical symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. It may also cause nerve problems, kidney problems, and blindness, loss of limbs, and sexual dysfunction, increase in heart attack or stroke. Metformin (a biguanide derivative), by controlling blood glucose level decreases these complications. Metformin works by helping to restore the body's response to insulin. It decreases the amount of blood sugar that the liver produces and that the intestines or stomach absorb. Metformin, other than hypoglycemic activity, has b Continue reading >>
Diabetes Drugs: Metformin
Editor’s Note: This is the second post in our miniseries about diabetes drugs. Tune in on August 21 for the next installment. Metformin (brand names Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Riomet, Fortamet, Glumetza) is a member of a class of medicines known as biguanides. This type of medicine was first introduced into clinical practice in the 1950’s with a drug called phenformin. Unfortunately, phenformin was found to be associated with lactic acidosis, a serious and often fatal condition, and was removed from the U.S. market in 1977. This situation most likely slowed the approval of metformin, which was not used in the U.S. until 1995. (By comparison, metformin has been used in Europe since the 1960’s.) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required large safety studies of metformin, the results of which demonstrated that the development of lactic acidosis as a result of metformin therapy is very rare. (A finding that has been confirmed in many other clinical trials to date.) Of note, the FDA officer involved in removing phenformin from the market recently wrote an article highlighting the safety of metformin. Metformin works primarily by decreasing the amount of glucose made by the liver. It does this by activating a protein known as AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK. This protein acts much like an “energy sensor,” setting off cellular activities that result in glucose storage, enhanced entry of glucose into cells, and decreased creation of fatty acids and cholesterol. A secondary effect of the enhanced entry of glucose into cells is improved glucose uptake and increased storage of glycogen (a form of glucose) by the muscles. Additionally, the decrease in fatty acid levels brought about by metformin may indirectly improve insulin resistance and beta cell func Continue reading >>
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Metformin?
Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with metformin. Just because a side effect is stated here does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect. Very common (affect more than 1 in 10 people) Disturbances of the gut such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or abdominal pain. Loss of appetite. The above side effects are most likely to occur when you first start taking metformin and tend to improve over time. They can be prevented or minimised by taking the medicine during or after meals, and by increasing the dose gradually when treatment is started. Follow the instructions given by your doctor. Common (affect between 1 in 10 and 1 in 100 people) Taste disturbance, usually a metallic taste. Very rare (affect fewer than 1 in 10,000 people) Lactic acidosis - a potentially serious condition where there is too much acid in the blood. Symptoms may include breathing difficulties and non-specific symptoms such as feeling weak, sick or generally unwell, vomiting, abdominal pain, or unusual muscle pains or discomfort. It's important to consult your doctor straight away if you experience these symptoms. Kidney problems, dehydration, prolonged fasting and drinking excessive amounts of alcohol increase the risk. Skin reactions such as rash, itching or flushing. If you want any more information about the possible side effects of metformin you should talk to your doctor or pharmacist, or read the leaflet that comes with the medicine. If you think you have experienced a side effect, did you know you can report this using the yellow card website? Last updated: 16/06/2016 Continue reading >>
How Much Do You Know About Metformin?
Metformin is a drug commonly used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. It is sold as a generic and under several brand names, including Glucophage, Glumetza, Riomet, and Fortamet. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) recommend metformin as a cornerstone of therapy for Type 2 diabetes when exercise and dietary changes aren’t enough to keep blood glucose levels in target range. The low cost of the generic forms along with a long history of use make it a good choice for many individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Although metformin has helped many people lower their blood glucose levels, it does have some potential side effects that are worth knowing about. Understanding the risks and benefits of metformin is key to using it successfully. Take this quiz to test your knowledge of this popular diabetes medicine. (You can find the answers later in the article.) Q 1. How does metformin work to lower blood glucose levels? A. It stimulates the pancreas to make more insulin. B. It decreases the amount of glucose produced by the liver and makes it easier for cells to accept glucose from the bloodstream. C. It slows the digestive system’s breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, allowing more time for insulin to work. D. It suppresses appetite, slows stomach emptying, and inhibits the release of glucagon (a hormone that raises blood glucose levels). 2. In addition to lowering blood glucose, metformin sometimes causes moderate weight loss. TRUE FALSE 3. In research studies, metformin use was associated with which of the following benefits in people with Type 2 diabetes? A. Reduced risk of morning high blood glucose. B. Reduced neuropathy (nerve damage). C. Reduced retinopathy (damage to the retina, a membrane in Continue reading >>
Uses Metformin is used with a proper diet and exercise program and possibly with other medications to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Metformin works by helping to restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce. It also decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. How to use Metformin HCL Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking metformin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1-3 times a day with meals. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same times each day. If you are already taking another diabetes drug (such as chlorpropamide), follow your doctor's directions carefully for stopping/continuing the old drug and starting metformin. Check your blood sugar regularly a Continue reading >>
Metformin (oral Route)
Description and Brand Names Drug information provided by: Micromedex US Brand Name Fortamet Glucophage Glucophage XR Glumetza Riomet Descriptions Metformin is used to treat high blood sugar levels that are caused by a type of diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes called type 2 diabetes. With this type of diabetes, insulin produced by the pancreas is not able to get sugar into the cells of the body where it can work properly. Using metformin alone, with a type of oral antidiabetic medicine called a sulfonylurea, or with insulin, will help to lower blood sugar when it is too high and help restore the way you use food to make energy. Many people can control type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise. Following a specially planned diet and exercise will always be important when you have diabetes, even when you are taking medicines. To work properly, the amount of metformin you take must be balanced against the amount and type of food you eat and the amount of exercise you do. If you change your diet or exercise, you will want to test your blood sugar to find out if it is too low. Your doctor will teach you what to do if this happens. Metformin does not help patients does not help patients who have insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes because they cannot produce insulin from their pancreas gland. Their blood glucose is best controlled by insulin injections. This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms: Tablet Tablet, Extended Release Solution Before Using In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ev Continue reading >>