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Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis Made Easy

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This video describes a little about our method of teaching the physical exam at the bedside. Our goal is not only to teach the exam, but also to teach others to teach the technique of physical diagnosis! Here is a link to the document describing our teaching methods (shown in the video): http://stanford25blog.stanford.edu/20... More about us: The Stanford Medicine 25 program for bedside medicine at the Stanford School of Medicine aims to promote the culture of bedside medicine to make current and future physicians and other healthcare provides better at the art of physical diagnosis. Visit us: Website: http://stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu/ Blog: http://stanford25blog.stanford.edu/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/StanfordMedic... Twitter: https://twitter.com/StanfordMed25

Blood Gas Analysis For Bedside Diagnosis

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India Address for correspondence: Dr. Virendra Singh, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Pt. B.D. Sharma University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana - 124 001, India. E-mail: [email protected] Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright : National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Arterial blood gas is an important routine investigation to monitor the acid-base balance of patients, effectiveness of gas exchange, and the state of their voluntary respiratory control. Majority of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons find it difficult to interpret and clinically correlate the arterial blood gas report in their everyday practice. This has led to underutilization of this simple t Continue reading >>

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  1. kim

    I see a lot of newbies struggle to get under 20 g carbs.
    I was one of these people. But month by month it gets easier. To the point that it's not hard at ALL (unless you go on a baking spree... under which you want it to be "hard" to keep it under 20 so you don't go nuts)
    Our lifetime of carb eating teaches us to eat in a way that includes a lot of carbs. This meant at the beginning I was using things like spaghetti squash, lots of onion, etc. that are good "Low carb" choices, but hard to navigate with keto.
    Over time you just find yourself being happy with less and less of these. I still use onion etc, I just use so much less! A tablespoon chopped onion in a recipe vs the half I'd have used before.... things like that just become second nature.

    So to all of you totally baffled how to make this work, I just wanna say, keep working at it and soon it will be easy peasy. (no you can't have peas.)


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  2. Scatter

    ANOTHER thing to love about Keto......NO PEAS (I hate those little green bastards)

  3. BaconNectar

    kim:


    I see a lot of newbies struggle to get under 20 g carbs.

    My Strategy is when in doubt eat BACON

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Acid-base Imbalance - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Ahmad Bilal Faridi, Lawrence S. Weisberg, in Critical Care Medicine (Third Edition) , 2008 Acid-base disorders are revealed most commonly through the basic metabolic chemistry panel, when the plasma bicarbonate concentration is noted to be outside the normal range. If the bicarbonate is low and if the anion gap is clearly elevated on that sample, a diagnosis of high anion gap metabolic acidosis can be made with some confidence, keeping in mind the pitfalls in the interpretation of the anion gap mentioned earlier.7 If the bicarbonate is low and the anion gap normal, two possibilities exist: either a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis or a respiratory alkalosis with metabolic compensation. These two entities can be distinguished by examination of the blood pH and blood gases, a low pH being diagnostic of the former. If the bicarbonate concentration is high, again there are two alternative diagnoses, requiring blood pH measurement for their differentiation: either a metabolic alkalosis or metabolic compensation for a respiratory acidosis. Once the primary disturbance has been identified, the astute clinician, recognizing the possibility of a mixed disturbance, is obligated to ask, Is Continue reading >>

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  1. Alisonjane10

    Hello folks
    I've been following a low carb diet, moderate fat intake for 2 months now. After asking tons of questions on this marvellous forum, I've learnt how this way of eating works. Via testing, I know I am consistently in nutritional ketosis. I am currently losing about a 1LB a day in weight...which is great. But, is it normal? I'm aware other members have achieved huge weight loss whilst eating LCHF. But I'm unsure of the overall timescale. Recent blood screening shows I don't have thyroid problems. All advice gratefully received.
    Ali. X

  2. jack412

    do you want to slow it down?
    how are you feeling, do you see any diet like symptoms?
    how much more weight do you want to lose?
    it is a lot a week and twice that is recommended
    www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KYYnEAYCGk

  3. AndBreathe

    Alisonjane10 said: ↑
    Hello folks
    I've been following a low carb diet, moderate fat intake for 2 months now. After asking tons of questions on this marvellous forum, I've learnt how this way of eating works. Via testing, I know I am consistently in nutritional ketosis. I am currently losing about a 1LB a day in weight...which is great. But, is it normal? I'm aware other members have achieved huge weight loss whilst eating LCHF. But I'm unsure of the overall timescale. Recent blood screening shows I don't have thyroid problems. All advice gratefully received.
    Ali. X
    Click to expand... So, in two months you have lost 4 stones? At the outset, how much did you have to lose, and how close are you now to your target?

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Chemical bonding introduction video shows how covalent bond means 2 hydrogen atoms can stick together to form a hydrogen molecule, H2. The video also explains why helium cannot form bonds and hence is called a noble gas. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8p... About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's do a thought experiment. Imagine a box filled with hydrogen atoms. Like billiard balls on a pool table, atoms actually move, and they do it in straight lines until they hit something like another hydrogen atom. Oh! See that? They stuck together. Theyre not separate hydrogen atoms any more, but a pair of hydrogen atoms moving together. There goes another pair. 4.1 When atoms join up like this, scientists call it a molecule. And they call the join between them a chemical bond. Here comes another hydrogen atom crashing into the hydrogen molecule. But this time it doesnt stick. Instead it just bounces off. Hydrogen atoms bond once, and thats it. Theyre just like that. Pretty quickly all the hydrogen atoms will collide and pair off into molecules. They will keep hitting each other, but they'll just bounce off. Scientists like to have a shorthand way of writing this molecule thingi. Heres one way to show it, with the hydrogen symbols joined by a stick to show the chemical bond between the atoms. Another way is to write H2, with the little 2 after the H and a bit lower. A number written this way is called a subscript. What do you think the 2 stands for? It counts the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Easy, heh! So when we have a balloon filled with hydrogen gas, it really contains trillions of trillions of H2 molecules. Let's do another thought experiment. We'll go back to our box filled with hydrogen atoms, but this time put an oxygen atom in there too. When a hydrogen atom crashes into an oxygen atom, they stick together. But wait, when another hydrogen atom hits, it also sticks to the oxygen. What about a third hydrogen atom? No, thats if for oxygen. It can only make 2 bonds and then its done.

Why Measure Blood Gases? A Three-part Introduction For The Novice. Part 2.

Why measure blood gases? A three-part introduction for the novice. Part 2. Why measure blood gases? A three-part introduction for the novice. Part 2. Arterial blood gases (ABG), a clinical test that involves measurement of the pH of arterial blood and the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood, is routinely used in the diagnosis and monitoring of predominantly critically/acutely ill patients being cared for in hospital emergency rooms and intensive care units. The test allows assessment of two related physiological functions: pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base homeostasis. This is the second of three articles intended to explain the clinical value of ABG to those with little or no experience of the test. The first article focused on the physiological aspects that underpin an understanding of patient ABG results. The concepts of pH, acid, base and buffer were explained, and the parameters generated during ABG were defined and related to pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base homeostasis. In this second article attention turns to the clinical significance of abnormal ABG results, specifically abnormality in three ABG parameters (pH, pCO2(a) and bicarbonate) Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Christian

    I read conflicting views about whether or not the human body can create glucose out of fat. Can it?

  2. David

    Only about 5–6% of triglyceride (fat) can be converted to glucose in humans.
    This is because triglyceride is made up of one 3-carbon glycerol molecule and three 16- or 18-carbon fatty acids. The glycerol (3/51-to-57 = 5.2–5.9%) can be converted to glucose in the liver by gluconeogenesis (after conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate).
    The fatty acid chains, however, are oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which cannot be converted to glucose in humans. Acetyl-CoA is a source of ATP when oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but the carbon goes to carbon dioxide. (The molecule of oxaloacetate produced in the cycle only balances the one acetyl-CoA condenses with to enter the cycle, and so cannot be tapped off to gluconeogenesis.)
    So triglyceride is a poor source of glucose in starvation, and that is not its primary function. Some Acetyl-CoA is converted to ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate) in starvation, which can replace part — but not all — of the brain’s requirement for glucose.
    Plants and some bacteria can convert fatty acids to glucose because they possess the glyoxylate shunt enzymes that allow two molecules of Acetyl-CoA to be converted into malate and then oxaloacetate. This is generally lacking in mammals, although it has been reported in hibernating animals (thanks to @Roland for the last piece of info).

  3. blu potatos

    To be more detailed it is the irreversibly of the reaction carried by Pyruvate dehydrogenase that makes the conversion of the fatty acid chains to glucose impossible. The fatty acids chains are converted to acetyl-CoA.
    Acetyl-CoA to be converted into pyruvate need an enzyme that can do the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase's inverse reaction (in humans there is no such enzyme). Than the pyruvete inside the mitochondria is converted into glucose(gluconeogenesis).

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