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Metabolic Acidosis Results In Quizlet

Acid/base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid/base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Alkalosis or alkalemia - arterial blood pH rises above 7.45 Acidosis or acidemia - arterial pH drops below 7.35 (physiological acidosis) the body is said to be in a state of alkalosis. Respiratory aci- dosis and respiratory alkalosis are the result of the respira- tory system accumulating too much or too little carbon diox- ide in the blood. Respiratory acidosis is the result of impaired respiration, or hypoventilation, which leads to the accumulation of too much carbon dioxide in the blood. The causes of impaired respira- tion include airway obstruction, depression of the respiratory center in the brain stem, lung disease, and drug overdose. Because hypoventilation results in elevated carbon diox- ide levels in the blood, the H levels increase, and the pH value of the blood decreases. Respiratory alkalosis is the condition of too little car- bon dioxide in the blood. It is commonly the result of travel- ing to a high altitude (where the air contains less oxygen) or hyperventilation, which may be brought on by fever or anxi- ety. Hyperventilation removes more carbon dioxide from the blood, reducing the amount of H in the blood and thus in- creasing the blood's pH level. pH drops dramatically b/c the body takes in CO2 that was previously expelled, thereby increasing H+ and lowering pH As respiration increases, PCO2 _____ and pH levels _________ As respiration increases, PCO2 decrease and pH levels rise As respiration decreases, PCO2 _____ and pH levels _________ As respiration decreases, PCO2 increase and pH levels fall renal system compensation for respiratory acidosis It excretes H+ and retains HCO3- in an effort to raise pH body's response to respiratory acidosis/alkalosis Renal compensation is the body's primary method of compensating for conditions of respiratory a Continue reading >>

Exam 4: Lab #10

Exam 4: Lab #10

Sort B Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following? A) conserving bicarbonate ion in the renal system B) excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system C) conserving bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system D) retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system E) excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis & Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis & Alkalosis

Respiratory Acidosis & Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis & Alkalosis

INGESTION/INFUSION OF EXCESS SODIUM BICARBONATE. what 2 things cause RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS? whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS caused by DRUGS? whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS caused by DISEASE? whats the rationale for METABOLIC ACIDOSIS caused by DIABETES MELLITUS? Inability to use glucose can lead to an accumulation of acids. Excess bicarbs may be excreted whats the rationale for METABOLIC ACIDOSIS caused by INGESTION OF AMMONIUM? Ammonium ions (NH4+) salts can donate H+s whats the rationale for METABOLIC ACIDOSIS caused by DIARRHEA? loss of bild and bicarbs from pancreas and intestine what 2 things cause RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS? Emotional disorders or aspirin (salicylate) poisoning whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS caused by HIGH ALTITUDE EXPOSURE? Prolonged exposure above 13,000ft may stimulate hyperventilation whats the rationale for RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS caused by EMOTIONAL DISORDERS OR ASPIRIN (SALICYLATE) POISONING? Ingestion of excess alkali (bicarb or antacids) whats the rationale for METABOLIC ALKALOSIS caused by INGESTION OF EXCESS ALKALI (BICARB OR ANTACIDS)? May cause excess bicarb ions in body fluids whats the rationale for METABOLIC ALKALOSIS caused by PROLONGED VOMITING OF GASTRIC CONTENTS? Loss of chloride from stomach lowers acid levels leaving excess alkaline bicarb whats the rationale for METABOLIC ALKALOSIS caused by SOME DIURETICS? Stimulate Cl- and Na+ excretion or loss thus leaving excess bicarb Physiological pH must be maintained at what level? 1. Physiological pH must be maintained between the range of 7.35-7.45. What are the reasons pH must be maintained There are many reasons that pH must be maintained. For one imbalances in distribution of hydrogen ions (H+) cause shifts in other ions such as sodium and pota Continue reading >>

Anatomy And Physiology 25.6

Anatomy And Physiology 25.6

Occurs when the buffering capacity of chemical buffering systems is exceeded and there is a transient or temporary change in blood hydrogen concentration response of physiologic buffering systems to acid-base disturbances that results in the return of blood pH to normal If these physiologic buffering systems are not effective in returning the pH to normal When an uncompensated, temporary pH disturbance results in a persistent pH change respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and metabolic alkalosis Most common acid-base disturbnance due to impaired elimination of carbon dioxide form the respiratory system Occurs when carbon dioxide concentration goes above 45mmHG Disorders of the nerves or muscles involved with breathing Airway obstruction (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Decreased gas exchange due to reduced respiratory surface area or thickened width of the respiratory membrane (these two conditions are associated with emphysema or pulmonary edema, respectively) Why are infants more susceptible to respiratory acidosis their smaller lungs and lower residual volume do not eliminate CO2 occurs when the Pco2 decreases to levels below 35 mm Hg due to an increase in respiration Any condition in which an individual is not receiving sufficient oxygen (e.g., as might occur when climbing to a high altitude where there is a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen [Po2]; during congestive heart failure; as a result of severe anemia; or due to low blood pressure) Aspirin overdose (a condition that stimulates the respiratory center) Respiratory balance equation for metabolic rate Most common metabolic acid-base disturbance as a result of a decrease in bicarbonate ion occurs when arterial blood levels of HCO3- fall below 22 mEq/L Increased p Continue reading >>

Anps 20 Lab #10

Anps 20 Lab #10

Sort e Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following? a. retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system b. conserving bicarbonate ion in the renal system c. excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system d. conserving bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system e. excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system Continue reading >>

Emt B Flashcards | Quizlet

Emt B Flashcards | Quizlet

Normal Systolic Blood Pressure 90 to 150 mmHg Normal Diastolic Blood Pressure 60 to 90 mmHg Normal Respiratory Rate 12 to 20 breaths/minute Anxiety, Altered, Tachycardia, Rapid/thread pulse, Decreased BP, Rapid/shallow respiratory rate, pale/cool/clammy skin, poor cap refill, narrow pulse pressure (los systolic, high diastolic b/c of vasoconstriction), Dilated, sluggish pupils Decreased mental status, paralysis, unequal pupils, vomiting, Any condition that increases Carbonic Acid or decreases Bicarbonate base causes acidosis Any condition that increases Bicarbonate base or decreases Carbonic acid causes alkalosis Metabolic disturbances tend to affect the Bicarbonate side Respiratory disturbances tend to affect the Carbonic acid side. Retention of Carbon Dioxide, leading to an increase in pCO2. Hyperventilation may cause decreased pCO2 b/c of excessive CO2 elimination, resulting in elevated blood pH. Treat hyperventilation to treat. Results from an accumulation of acid or loss of a base. including lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, acidosis from renal failure, and acidosis from ingestion of toxins. Results from loss of hydrogen ions including IV injection of base, diuretics, or vomiting. Treatment involves correcting underlying problem. What solution is D50 and sodium bicarbonate? what do these solutions do? Hypertonic solution- solutions that has higher solute concentration than that of a cell causing water molecules to move out of cell and shrink. What type of solution are D2.5W and .45 % normal saline? Hypotonic solution- solution that has lower solute concentration than that of the cell, causing water molecules to be drawn into the cell. What type of solution are 0.9% normal saline and lactated ringers? Isotonic solution- solution that has the same solution ins Continue reading >>

N235 Acidosis Alkalosis

N235 Acidosis Alkalosis

Imbalance in which arterial blood pH is below normal (< 7.35) What term describes (lit.) "too much carbon dioxide in the blood"? 1) increase in acids ( increase in H+) due to overproduction 2) increase in acids due to under-elimination 1) deficit in bases (esp bicarbonate) due to over-elimination 2) deficit in bases due to underproduction Early manifestations of acidosis appear first in what systems? Musculoskeletal, cardiac, respiratory, CNS What type of acidosis results from an acid-base imbalance NOT related to CO2? 2 ions involved in metabolic acidosis, and how: H+ overproduction or under-elimination; HCO3-- (bicarbonate) underproduction or over-elimination 6 conditions arising from metabolic acidosis: How does diabetes mellitus result in metabolic acidosis? Overproduction of hydrogen ions (body breaks down fat instead of glucose for energy production of ketones (acidic chemicals) increased production of H+) How does renal failure result in metabolic acidosis? Under-elimination of hydrogen ions & bicarbonate (bicarbonate made in kidneys; hydrogen eliminated in urine through kidneys) How does strenuous exercise result in metabolic acidosis? Overproduction of hydrogen ions, due to accumulation of lactic acid How does (short-term) diarrhea and vomiting result in metabolic acidosis? How does malnutrition/starvation result in metabolic acidosis? Over-production of hydrogen ions (body breaks down fat b/c protein not available increased production of H+) What single mechanism leads to respiratory acidosis? What is the impact of an increase in CO2 on blood? Results in directly proportional increase in H+ lowers pH What conditions might give rise to respiratory acidosis r/t respiratory depression? Use of anesthetic agents, drugs (opioids), poisons What conditions might give Continue reading >>

Acid/base Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid/base Flashcards | Quizlet

Measure of the hydrogen concentration of the solution? pH -log[H+] where [H+] is usually expressed in moles/L An increase in hydrogen ion concentration will cause the pH value to be An acid is any substance that will release "free" hydrogen ions? A weak acid will have only a small percentage of its molecule dissociated in aqueous solution the likelihood of the hydrogen ions re-associated is about equal the likelihood of dissociation? Any substance that accepts free hydrogen ions? A Base; will make the solution less acid. pKa refers to the "dissociation" constant for a particular walk acid or base? A weak acid and its conjugate based can be used together to make a _______: similarly, so can a weak base and its conjugated acid. If a buffered solution suddenly has a lot of acid dumped into it_____ the weak base in the buffer could quickly bind the excess hydrogen ions and prevent drastic changes in the pH of the solution. A similar effect would be seen if s strong base were added: the weak acid in the solution would donate hydrogen ions and these would bind to the excessive hydroxyl radicals to form H2O. The buffer works best if its pHa is closely matched to the desired pH? We pick the buffer whose pKa is closest to the pH we want. what are the 3 major physiological buffer system in our body to maintain the ph of the blood: Can act as buffers b/c proteins are long chains of amino acids. Each amino acid has a variable R group we have neutral, acidic and basic R groups. Basic amino acids have an R group that can pick up a H+, to a certain degree, can act as a buffer. Too much of an acid/base change will end up denaturing the proteins (they will unravel)? The best buffering proteins have many________ in them because _________ have an optimal pH that is closest to that of blo Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis Flashcards | Quizlet

Metabolic Acidosis Flashcards | Quizlet

three major toxic alcohols that produce an anion gap and an osmolar gap toxic alcohol that does NOT produce an anion gap but DOES cause an osmolar gap substance that causes BOTH anion gapped metabolic acidosis AND respiratory alkalosis created by an unmeasured osmole in the bloodstream = measured osmolality - calculated osmolality - > 10 may be indicative of an alcohol intoxication calculated osmolality = 2Na+ + Glc/18 + BUN/2.8 + ethanol/4.8 What happens to anion gap and osmolar gap when methanol is converted to formic acid overtime? pyruvic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, propionaldehyde non anion-gapped metabolic acidosis mnemonic "HARDUP" helps to decipher b/w renal causes (RTA) and non-renal causes of non anion-gapped metabolic acidosis 1. serum HCO3- is low (< 22 - 26 depending on lab) 2. check ABG for pH to confirm acidosis present (< 7.35) 4. use Winter's formula to assess respiratory compensation 5. use delta/delta to look for additional disturbance five major steps to interpreting acid base disorders equation that determines if appropriate respiratory compensation or if a respiratory process also present - if greater than range --> respiratory acidosis (hypoventilation) - if less than range --> respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation) Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Normal range of pH and compatible with life range Slower to adjust. Regulates bicarbonate level in ECF. Takes longer but lasts for days. Under control of medulla, control the CO2, and carbonic acid content of ECF. Start immediately and trigger hypo/hyperventilation. Only lasts about 24 hours More ECF then ICF. Immature kidneys. Not able to acidify urine as well as older peope. Higher risk for imbalance As people age, kidneys shrink. GFR decreases. Susceptinle to imbalace, especially sick elderly. What system is last to mature? Why is this relevant? Respiratory. This puts the preterm new born at greater risk for respiratory complications. Problems include: surfactant deficiency which leads to respiratory distress syndrome, unstable chest wall, and immature respiratory control centers. The renal system of a preterm new born is immature, reducing the baby's ability to concentrate urine and slowing the gfr. What does this result with? And what can be done to identify metabolic inconsistencies? Risk for fluid retention with fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Limited ablility to clear drugs from system. Close monitoring of preterm baby's acid base balance and electrolyte can identify metabolic inconsistencies. An enzyme in the kidneys that speeds the combining of carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid which then immediately dissociates. What happens when the carbonic acid immediately dissociates in the kidneys? Sodium bicarbonate is formed using a sodium iron from the renal tubule and a free hydrogen ion. The hydrogen ion remains in the filtrate (causing urine to be acidic) and the bicarbonate is stored in the renal tubule as the body's alkaline reserve for when the body needs a buffer. Adjusts sodium levels in the filtrate. Released in response to high potassium le Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis And The Anion Gap

Metabolic Acidosis And The Anion Gap

Decrease in pH due to decrease in serum HCO3- Related to either loss of HCO3- or gain of H+ caused by: -Exogenous acid=e.g. ethylene glycol overdose -Kidneys=e.g. proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type 2 RTA) 3. Inability to excrete normal daily acid production by kidneys-e.g. advanced kidney disease, distal renal tubular acidosis (Type 1 RTA) Laboratory Findings in Metabolic Acidosis Decreased pCO2 (to compensate for low HCO3-) Clinically divide metabolic acidoses based on whether patient has elevated anion gap or normal anion gap Anion Gap=difference between measured cations and anions What are the common circulating cations and anions? Cations: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Proteins Anions: Chloride, Bicarbonate, Sulfates, Phosphates, Albumin, Other proteins Not practical to measure all of these, so the ones easiest to measure/in greatest abundance are measured=Sodium, Chloride, and Bicarbonate Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis (Hypercholermic metabolic acidosis) Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis characterized by decrease in bicarbonate and increase in chloride =HCl+NaHCO3-> NaCl +H2CO3-> CO2+ H2O+ NaCl H+ +Cl- +HCO3- -> Cl- + H2CO3-> H2O+CO2 +Cl- Net result=loss of bicarbonate and gain of chloride HCO3- replaced by measured anion (Cl-), so sum of Cl- + HCO3- remains unchanged=no change in anion gap What are the main causes of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis? Decreased ability to excrete H+ by kidney What are metabolic consequences of diarrhea or renal HCO3- wasting? 2. In response to volume loss and to maintain electroneutrality the kidney will hold on to Cl- 3. Sum result is loss of HCO3- and gain of Cl- What are metabolic consequences of the kidneys inability to excrete adequate H+? 2. Is buffered by HCO3- (H+ +HCO3- ->H2CO3-> H2O+CO2) Occurs when Continue reading >>

Acid-base Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Flashcards | Quizlet

What condition can cause underproduction of bicarbonate Kidney failurepancreatitisliver failuredehydration What condition causes overelimination of bicarbonate Respiratory acidosis results from only one cause; what is it Name four types of respiratory problems that lead to overproduction of hydrogen ions Respiratory depressioninadequate chest expansionairway obstructionalveolar- capillary block Anesthetics, drugs (especially opioids)electrolyte imbalanceshead or neck trauma [intracranial pressure is increased causing edema, which presses on the respiratory centers located in the brain stem] What should be assessed first In any patient at risk for acidosis what are the nursing priorities for metabolic acidosis Continuously monitor patient for changes of improvements or worsening (cardiovascular system and skeletal system are most important systems to monitor) What are the interventions for respiratory acidosis Drug therapy, oxygen therapy, pulmonary hygiene, ventilatory support, prevention of complications What are the major categories of drugs useful for respiratory problems that lead to acidosis Bronchodilators, anti-inflammatories, and mucolytics Why should we use caution when giving oxygen to patients with COPD Giving too much oxygen to these patients decrease their respiratory drive and may lead to respiratory arrest What is the nursing priority for respiratory acidosis Preventing Complications, monitor breathing status and intervene assessed breathing status at least every two hours, listen to breath sounds and assess how easily air moves into and out of lungs, check for any muscle retractions, the use of accessory muscles (especially the neck muscles) and whether breathing produces a sound like a grunt or a we that can be heard without a stethoscope Name some con Continue reading >>

Med-surg-chap 14-acid Base Imbalances

Med-surg-chap 14-acid Base Imbalances

How does acidosis manifest itself in the cardiovascular system Hypotensionthready peripheral pulsesdelayed electrical conduction: ranges from bradycardia to heart block How does acidosis manifest itself in the central nervous system Depressed activity (lethargy, confusion, stupor, coma) How does acidosis manifest itself in the neuromuscular system Hyporeflexiaskeletal muscle weaknessflaccid paralysis How does acidosis manifest itself in the respiratory system Kussmaul respirations (in metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation)variable respirations (generally ineffective in respiratory acidosis) How does acidosis manifest itself in the integumentary system Warm, Flushed, dry skin in metabolic acidosispale to cyanotic and dry skin in respiratory acidosis What are interventions for metabolic acidosis Hydration and drugs or treatments to control the problem e.g. for ketoacidosis, give insulin to correct hyperglycemia and halt the production of ketone bodies.Prolonged diarrhea - rehydrate and administer antidiarrheal drugs what are the nursing priorities for metabolic acidosis Continuously monitor patient for changes of improvements or worsening (cardiovascular system and skeletal system are most important systems to monitor) What are the interventions for respiratory acidosis Drug therapy, oxygen therapy, pulmonary hygiene, ventilatory support, prevention of complications What are the major categories of drugs useful for respiratory problems that lead to acidosis Bronchodilators, anti-inflammatories, and mucolytics Why should we use caution when giving oxygen to patients with COPD Giving too much oxygen to these patients decrease their respiratory drive and may lead to respiratory arrest What is the nursing priority for respiratory acidosis Preventing Complications, Continue reading >>

Biol 2402 Ex 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Biol 2402 Ex 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

Metabolic acidosis can further be categorized according to Metabolic Acidosis with normal anion gap results from loss of bicarbonate as in diarrhea, lower intestinal fistulas, ureterostomies, and the use of diuretics, early renal insufficiency, excessive administration of chloride, or the administration of parenteral nutrition without bicarb or bicarb producing solutes (e.g. lactate) Metabolic Acidosis with high anion gap results from ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, late phase of salicylate poisoning, uremia, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, and ketoacidosis with starvation. Common causes of metabolic acidosis include Starvation, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), lactic acidosis, shock, severe diarrhea, renal failure. Clinical Manifestations of metabolic acidosis include Headache, confusion, drowsiness, increased resp. rate and depth, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, cold clammy skin, dysrhythmias. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis involves Hyperventilation to increase CO2 excretion by the lungs Management of metabolic acidosis involves May give potassium supplementation as acidosis is reversed. Administer calcium supplement for hypocalcemia. Administration of Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors. Administration of Tagamet in metabolic alkalosis resulting gastric suction serves to to reduce production of gastric acid and its subsequent loss. Administration of Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors in metabolic alkalosis serves to increase Hydrogen losses in urine in patients unable to tolerate rapid volume infusion. Pathophysiology of Respiratory Acidosis involves CO2 retention from inadequate ventilation. Common causes of Respiratory Acidosis include COPD, sedative overdose, chest wall abnormality, severe pneumonia, atelectasis, respiratory muscle weakness, mechanical hypov Continue reading >>

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

fixed by the secretion of hydrogen, buffers in the tubular fluid, the removal of carbon dioxide, and the reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate fixed by the decreased production of hydrogen, decreased buffers in the tubular fluid, the transport of bicarbonate into the tubular fluid, and the release of hydrochloric acid into the peritubular fluid disorders resulting from the mismatch between carbon dioxide generation in the peripheral tissues and carbon dioxide excretion by the lungs disorders resulting from the generation of organic acids or fixed acids or conditions affecting the concentration of bicarbonate low pH, increased hydrogen ions, decreased bicarbonate, and low carbon dioxide pressure low pH, increased carbon dioxide, hypoventilation, and high carbon dioxide pressure high pH, decreased hydrogen ions, increased bicarbonate, and high carbon dioxide pressure high pH, decreased carbon dioxide, hyperventilation, and low carbon dioxide pressure the primary sign of respiratory acidosis is ____ the primary cause of respiratory acidosis is ____ the primary sign of respiratory alkalosis is ____ the primary cause of respiratory alkalosis is ____ metabolic acidosis results from high/low levels of bicarbonate metabolic alkalosis results from high/low levels of bicarbonate respiratory acidosis results from high/low levels of carbon dioxide respiratory alkalosis results from high/low levels of carbon dioxide respiratory disorders result from abnormal ____ ____ levels metabolic disorders result from abnormal ____ ____ levels acidosis is corrected by removing ____ ____ alkalosis is corrected by conserving ____ metabolic acidosis is corrected with ____ ____ respiratory alkalosis is corrected by the ____ diabetic metabolic acidosis is caused by ____ Continue reading >>

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