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Metabolic Acidosis Pathophysiology Pdf

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Respiratory acidosis #sign and symptoms of Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis ABGs Analyse https://youtu.be/L5MWy1iHacI Plz share n subscribe my chanel is a condition that occurs when the lungs cant remove enough of the Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45).Rinku Chaudhary NSG officer AMU ALIGARH https://www.facebook.com/rinkutch/ Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cant remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: asthma COPD pneumonia sleep apnea TYPES Forms of respiratory acidosis There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. Its a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesnt cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of respiratory acidosis Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: https://www.healthline.com/health/res... sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of respiratory acidosis doesnt typically cause any noticeable symptoms. Signs are subtle and nonspecific and may include: memory loss sleep disturbances personality changes CAUSES Common causes of respiratory acidosis The lungs and the kidneys are the major organs that help regulate your bloods pH. The lungs remove acid by exhaling CO2, and the kidneys excrete acids through the urine. The kidneys also regulate your bloods concentration of bicarbonate (a base). Respiratory acidosis is usually caused by a lung disease or condition that affects normal breathing or impairs the lungs ability to remove CO2. Some common causes of the chronic form are: asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acute pulmonary edema severe obesity (which can interfere with expansion of the lungs) neuromuscular disorders (such as multiple sclerosis or muscular dystrophy) scoliosis Some common causes of the acute form are: lung disorders (COPD, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia) conditions that affect the rate of breathing muscle weakness that affects breathing or taking a deep breath obstructed airways (due to choking or other causes) sedative overdose cardiac arrest DIAGNOSIS How is respiratory acidosis diagnosed? The goal of diagnostic tests for respiratory acidosis is to look for any pH imbalance, to determine the severity of the imbalance, and to determine the condition causing the imbalance. Several tools can help doctors diagnose respiratory acidosis. Blood gas measurement Blood gas is a series of tests used to measure oxygen and CO2 in the blood. A healthcare provider will take a sample of blood from your artery. High levels of CO2 can indicate acidosis.

Metabolic Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

The Terrible Effects of Acid Acid corrosion is a well-known fact. Acid rain can peel the paint off of a car. Acidifying ocean water bleaches and destroys coral reefs. Acid can burn a giant hole through metal. It can also burn holes, called cavities, into your teeth. I think I've made my point. Acid, regardless of where it's at, is going to hurt. And when your body is full of acid, then it's going to destroy your fragile, soft, internal organs even more quickly than it can destroy your bony teeth and chunks of thick metal. What Is Metabolic Acidosis? The condition that fills your body with proportionately too much acid is known as metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis refers to a physiological state characterized by an increase in the amount of acid produced or ingested by the body, the decreased renal excretion of acid, or bicarbonate loss from the body. Metabolism is a word that refers to a set of biochemical processes within your body that produce energy and sustain life. If these processes go haywire, due to disease, then they can cause an excess production of hydrogen (H+) ions. These ions are acidic, and therefore the level of acidity in your body increases, leading to acidem Continue reading >>

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  1. j

    Keto diet while nursing

    My SIL is doing the Ketogenic Diet (low carb/high fat) and is having great results. I was overweight before getting pregnant, and now have even more to lose. I'm thinking of trying the diet but am wondering how it will affect breastfeeding. I've heard it might not be good for baby if your body is in ketosis, but I'm having a hard time finding solid info either way. Anyone have any experience with this?

  2. Mareeena

    I'm doing something similar but a breastfeeding friendly variation... Basically Atkins 20 is not safe for breastfeeding but Atkins 40 is. I think it's important while nursing to eat balanced so I still eat the recommended servings of fruit a day and some whole grains. I try for lower sugar fruits like berries. For grains I do oats and then a small bowl of kashi go lean cereal (the cinnamon crunch kind is amazing)
    So basically I try and eat balanced for the sake of my milk and just reduce my net carbs while trying to eat as much protein and fiber as possible.
    As for your question is keto specifically safe? I don't personally think so.
    I'm not counting carbs and I'm eating a good amount of fat (meats, eggs, cheese)

    I've lost 7lbs the past 9 days and haven't exercised much during that time (baby is teething I'm tired)

  3. Mareeena

    Sorry when I said I'm not counting carbs I meant I'm not counting calories!!'

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DKA diabetic ketoacidosis nursing management pathophysiology & treatment. DKA is a complication of diabetes mellitus and mainly affects type 1 diabetics. DKA management includes controlling hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acdidosis. Signs & Symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, hyperglycemia greater than 300 mg/dL, Kussmaul breathing, acetone breath, and ketones in the urine. Typically DKA treatment includes: intravenous fluids, insulin therapy (IV regular insulin), and electrolyte replacement. This video details what the nurse needs to know for the NCLEX exam about diabetic ketoacidosis. I also touch on DKA vs HHS (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (please see the other video for more details). Quiz on DKA: http://www.registerednursern.com/diab... Lecture Notes for this video: http://www.registerednursern.com/diab... Diabetes NCLEX Review Videos: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-... Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nurs... Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/Register... Popular Playlists: "NCLEX Study Strategies": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Fluid & Electrolytes Made So Easy": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Skills Videos": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Study Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing School Tips & Questions": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Types of Nursing Specialties": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Healthcare Salary Information": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "New Nurse Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Nursing Career Help": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "EKG Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Personality Types": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Dosage & Calculations for Nurses": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... "Diabetes Health Managment": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may Continue reading >>

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  1. marlobean

    Hello all! I am looking for the literature on being in fast mode and feast mode. I know @meganjramos speaks about it. but i am looking on how exactly that works? i searched the forum to no avail.
    also would like to see how you all practice 'feast and famine'? how do you define it?

    thanks for reading!

  2. collaroygal

    Here is the link to the podcast she did with the 2dudes. She explains it pretty well. Eat extra fat the day before your fast to rev up your metabolism, then fast, and after a little fat to break the fast, eat as you normally eat at the next meal.
    It is feasting or fasting. You are either eating or you are fasting. Keep it simple.
    Carl wrote about his experience with really feasting before and after fasting here:
    Fast/Feast cycling


    I can tell you, this is really working for me after a week of cycling. Here's my data so far: Before I started, I was eating keto to satiety and slowly gaining weight. I was eating a lot at night, eating lots of macadamias, and drinking wine (prolly too much) at night, also. My first day of a 3-day fast started with keto coffee (lots of coconut oil and a pinch of cayenne). I don't measure or count calories, either. Mid-day I had a mug of bone broth with a Tbsp of butter melted in it. At ni…

  3. marlobean

    Have you tried it?

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis by alkali therapy is usually indicated to raise and maintain the plasma pH to greater than 7.20. In the following two circumstances this is particularly important. When the serum pH is below 7.20, a continued fall in the serum HCO3- level may result in a significant drop in pH. This is especially true when the PCO2 is close to the lower limit of compensation, which in an otherwise healthy young individual is approximately 15 mm Hg. With increasing age and other complicating illnesses, the limit of compensation is likely to be less. A further small drop in HCO3- at this point thus is not matched by a corresponding fall in PaCO2, and rapid decompensation can occur. For example, in a patient with metabolic acidosis with a serum HCO3- level of 9 mEq/L and a maximally compensated PCO2 of 20 mm Hg, a drop in the serum HCO3- level to 7 mEq/L results in a change in pH from 7.28 to 7.16. A second situation in which HCO3- correction should be considered is in well-compensated metabolic acidosis with impending respiratory failure. As metabolic acidosis continues in some patients, the increased ventilatory drive to lower the PaCO2 m Continue reading >>

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  1. Manicarrie

    Hi, was just admitted with severe dka due to a stomach bug and poor sick day education. Now I am home am doing nothing but sleep and feel generally weak, is this normal?

  2. Redkite

    Sorry to hear this. I would say that recovery from a stomach bug leaves you exhausted and washed out even without the DKA. Have you now been given some sick day advice?
    My son has had numerous gastro bugs, as is typical with young children, but a nightmare when they have type 1. I have had to deal with them when he was on mixed insulins, MDI, and a pump, and it is definitely easier with a pump. What type of insulin regimen are you on? The key thing is that even if you are vomiting and not eating, you still need some insulin.
    When my son has been vomiting, I have tested his BG hourly, and also tested his blood ketones. Do you have a blood ketone meter? If not I would recommend it, as you can then see instantly if your ketones are rising to dangerous levels, whereas with the urine ketone strips, you are only seeing what the ketones were several hours before. If his BGs are high, obviously I can correct with more insulin, but usually with a stomach bug he runs at very low BG levels, with lots of hypos, and ketones begin to creep in. We try to tackle these with by getting him to have small sips of lucozade, teaspoons of full-sugar jelly, sugary ice lollie, anything he can bear to have, accompanied by tiny boluses of insulin. If, despite this, his ketones continue to rise, and/or we can't keep his levels out of the hypo range, we know we'd have to go into hospital.
    Do you live alone or is there someone who could help you with overnight testing when you are ill?
    One other thing - after this type of illness it takes the gut 2-3 weeks to heal, and during this time you may find your food absorbs more slowly, and you may find it helpful to take your insulin after eating.
    Hope you feel better soon

  3. Manicarrie

    Yeah they weren't letting me out without sick day advice!!! Had already started to recover from bug the day before I to really ill, should have asked hospital about recovery before I left. Stupid me, assumed that once fluids sorted and ketones down I would be back to normal.

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