Metabolic Acidosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management. Pdf

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Pathophysiology And Management Of Rhabdomyolysis : Oxford Textbook Of Critical Care

Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome characterized by the breakdown of skeletal muscle. It is associated with myalgia, muscle tenderness, swelling, and/or stiffness, accompanied by weakness and raised levels of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin, phosphate and potassium, sometimes with acute kidney injury (AKI). There are multiple causes of this syndrome, traumatisms and myotoxic effect of drugs being the most frequent in developed countries. The pathophysiology involves direct trauma, as well as energy (ATP) depletion with disruption of sarcolemma integrity and muscle destruction. The sequestration of plasma water leads to hypovolaemic shock, while the release of muscle content, mainly myoglobin and potassium lead to the most severe complications of this syndrome, acute kidney injury/hyperkalaemia. The kidney injury is driven both by renal ischaemia due to vasoconstriction and to the toxic effects of myoglobin. The local oedema produced by the release of muscle content remains trapped within the fascia and can lead to compartment syndrome. Volume repletion with saline is essential to avoid hypovolaemic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI). With respect to compart Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. BillNyeDeGrasseTyson

    I'm getting ready to take the jump, and I've written off bread and pasta. I've got a sous-vide circulator to make awesome meats. Potatoes and Rice are going to be a little harder to give up, but I think I can do it.
    There's only one challenge left to conquer, and that's the morning routine. I don't eat breakfast (other than the occasional muffin out of the vending machine that is no more), but I need caffeine. I don't like coffee, and if I do it has cream/sugar in it, so I usually go with a Pepsi Max or a Mtn Dew Kickstart in the morning, and another after lunch. It's 0 calories, but I've read that aspartame is essentially net carbs on Keto.
    I've also read that there's some complications of caffeine and Keto, but haven't seen anything definitive.
    So what's your guys pick-me-up in the morning and after lunch? If I didn't work a desk job it wouldn't be an issue, but I live a busy lifestyle and on an average of ~6 hours sleep I'll fall asleep at my desk without it.

  2. Gazzy7890

    If you need some sort of creamer, try unsweetened almond milk. For the afternoons, try drinking some tea for caffeine.

  3. Major_Fudgemuffin

    Caffeine doesn't significantly affect keto.
    I drink my coffee with a tablespoon or so of heavy cream and some liquid sucralose (ez-sweetz)
    Diet soda is fine for most. But some do see changes in cravings and stalls in weight loss, so make sure you listen to your body.

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WATCH FULL VIDEO: https://goo.gl/APNPrA?92495

Phenformin-associated Lactic Acidosis: Pathogenesis And Treatment

Phenformin-Associated Lactic Acidosis: Pathogenesis and Treatment Article, Author, and Disclosure Information Author, Article, and Disclosure Information Requests for reprints should be addressed to Robert I. Misbin, M.D.; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Box J-226, JHM Health Center, University of Florida; Gainesville, FL 32610. Since phenformin's introduction into clinical medicine, a total of 552 cases of lactic acidosis have been reported in patients taking this hypoglycemic agent. In 306 cases, sufficient documentation was available to establish the diagnosis with reasonable certainty (blood lactate, 6 meq/litre or greater, and blood pH, 7.33 or less). The mortality rate among insulin-treated patients (15%) was considerably less than the mortality rate in the group as a whole (42%). Taken together with results from animal studies, these data suggest that insulin is the treatment of choice for phenformin-associated lactic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate should be administered to patients with severe acidosis, but should be withheld from patients with mild acidosis. Overly aggressive administration of sodium bicarbonate can be deleterious and should be avoided. Although d Continue reading >>

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  1. BabyJJ

    Active Low-Carber Forums

    Hi, i was thinking of starting a thread for pp from Singapore who's on Atkins so tat we can exchange ideas abt wat food is permissible while eating out and on induction and where to find LC products, ketostix here and so on.. :)

  2. Juliegilla

    Hi BabyJJ
    This is the first time I've posted on this board, although I've been reading it for a while.
    I started Atkins 3 weeks ago, and thought was the only one in Singapore trying to follow it!
    I'm British but have been working here in Singapore for about a year now.
    I find eating out in the food courts here a bit of trial - I tend to just buy 2 meals (because it's quite cheap) and discard the rice/noodles element of each.
    Would certainly be interested hearing about any ideas you've got for a support group.

  3. sweetjane

    Me Singaporean now livign in japan. I'm going back to SG in Jan 2003 & i'm wondering if they sell low carb products in the healthstores now in sg?

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management

Recommendations for the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis Gunnerson, K. J., Saul, M., He, S. & Kellum, J. Lactate versus non-lactate metabolic acidosis: a retrospective outcome evaluation of critically ill patients. Crit. Care Med. 10, R22-R32 (2006). Eustace, J. A., Astor, B., Muntner, P M., Ikizler, T. A. & Coresh, J. Prevalence of acidosis and inflammation and their association with low serum albumin in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 65, 1031-1040 (2004). Kraut, J. A. & Kurtz, I. Metabolic acidosis of CKD: diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and treatment. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 45, 978-993 (2005). Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Mehrotra, R., Fouque, D. & Kopple, J. D. Metabolic acidosis and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome in chronic renal failure. Semin. Dial. 17, 455-465 (2004). Kraut, J. A. & Kurtz, I. Controversies in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis. NephSAP 5, 1-9 (2006). Cohen, R. M., Feldman, G. M. & Fernandez, P C. The balance of acid base and charge in health and disease. Kidney Int. 52, 287-293 (1997). Rodriguez-Soriano, J. & Vallo, A. Renal tubular acidosis. Pediatr. Nephrol. 4, 268-275 (1990). Wagner, C. A., Devuyst, O., Bourgeois, S. & Mohebbi, N. R Continue reading >>

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  1. Ana Gretu

    I was diagnosed with diabetes type 1insulino dependent on the age of 22 years. In the beginning I was very scared, now I have a little girl of 2 years and lead a life like everybody, but take into account diet , exercise . etc.
    There are 4 types of diabetes.
    ♦ Type 1 diabetes affects children and young adults, and is due to a major defect of the pancreas not producing insulin. Before the discovery of insulin (1920 s), people with type 1 diabetes lived one year. Today, insulin treatment allows a life where nothing is forbidden activities that may have a person with type 1 diabetes are the same as those without diabetes.
    ♦ The second main type of diabetes, and most frequently (5-6 times more common than type 1), is type 2 diabetes, also called adult diabetes, or diabetes obese after an older name due to very frequent association of diabetes type 2 and obesity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that obesity is one of the reasons for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, which explains the onset of the epidemic of Type 2 diabetes with obesity epidemic today. Type 2 diabetes differs from Type 1 diabetes in that it occurs most often along with a group of diseases, which also includes, alongside obesity, and hypertension, fatty liver...
    ♦ A third type of diabetes is diabetes that occurs along or due to other diseases (diabetes specific or secondary). This type of diabetes takes many forms, and treated with a disease that accompanies it.

    ♦ The last category is a special category, called gestational diabetes, a carbohydrate metabolism disorder that first appears during pregnancy, which can result in the absence of treatment, the risks, especially for children. This condition is different from the situation in which a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant.

  2. Dianne DeCook

    Yes. My son was diagnosed with Type One Diabetes which means he requires insulin injections to maintain normal blood sugars. Type One Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which causes the immune system to attack the Pancreatic Beta cells, destroying them and stopping the body’s ability to produce Insulin. You need insulin to live. Without it a T1D patient will not be able to metabolize carbohydrates (sugar) so their body will live off their protein (muscle mass) which often brings on Diabetic KetoAcidosis which, without insulin, is fatal.

  3. Pippi M. R. Groving

    If someone in my household has diabetes and I stated that, I would know which kind it were.
    After all most of my education is about human diseases, so I usually know the specifics of any diseases in my household.

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