Metabolic Acidosis Pathophysiology

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What is ALKALOSIS? What does ALKALOSIS mean? ALKALOSIS meaning - ALKALOSIS pronunciation - ALKALOSIS definition - ALKALOSIS explanation - How to pronounce ALKALOSIS? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to acidemia (serum pH 7.35 or lower), alkalemia occurs when the serum pH is higher than normal (7.45 or higher). Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/metabolic alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related excretion of bicarbonate, both of which lower blood pH. Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome. Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by rep

Acidosis And Alkalosis Pathophysiology

This video is to help understand the difference between Acidosis and Alkalosis. Acidosis is excessive blood acidity caused by an overabundance of acid in the blood or a loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis), or by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from poor lung function or slow breathing (respiratory acidosis). Blood acidity increases when people ingest substances that contain or produce acid or when the lungs do not expel enough carbon dioxide. People with metabolic acidosis have nausea, vomiting, and fatigue and may breathe faster and deeper than normal. People with respiratory acidosis have headache and confusion, and breathing may appear shallow, slow, or both. Tests on blood samples show there is too much acid. If an increase in acid overwhelms the bodys pH buffering systems, the blood will become acidic. As blood pH drops, the parts of the brain that regulate breathing are stimulated to produce faster and deeper breathing. Breathing faster and deeper increases the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled. The kidneys also try to compensate by excreting more acid in the urine. However, both mechanisms can be overwhelmed if the body continues to Continue reading >>

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  1. p-bromonitrobenzene

    Why isn't this molecule named 2-fluorocyclopent-1-one?

  2. Lighthart

    The 1-specification for the ketone function is superfluous, there is no information obscured by omitting the '1'. It is the most important functional group in molecule, and therefore establishes the 1-position.
    Also, cyclopentone is not a proper name. You are missing the 'ane' suffix to indicate saturation. It would be a cyclopentanone.
    Final name:

  3. Loong

    According to the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book), names of cyclic ketones are formed substitutively by using the suffix ‘one’.
    The terminal letter ‘e’ in names of parent hydrides (here: cyclopentane) is systematically elided when followed by a suffix beginning with ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘i’, ‘o’, ‘u’, or ‘y’.
    Therefore, the name of the unsubstituted cyclic ketone given in the question is cyclopentanone.
    Note that the locant ‘1’ is omitted in monosubstituted homogeneous monocyclic rings.
    However, if any locants are essential for defining the structure, then all locants must be cited in preferred IUPAC names (PINs).
    Therefore, the omission of the locant ‘1’ in 2-fluorocyclopentanone, while permissible in general usage, is not allowed in PINs, thus the name 2-fluorocyclopentan-1-one is the PIN.

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

A Comprehensive Review Of Metabolic Acidosis

A comprehensive review of metabolic acidosis Summarized from Kraut J, Madias N. Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology diagnosis and management. Nat Rev Nephrol 2010; 6: 274-85 Arterial blood gas analysis is used to assess and monitor patient acid-base status. Disturbance of acid-base balance is classified to one of four main types depending on the pH, pCO2(a) and bicarbonate results generated during blood gas analysis; the four types are respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. A recent review article focuses on one of these disturbances, metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by primary decrease in bicarbonate and compensatory decrease in pCO2(a). pH may be either reduced (if compensation is incomplete) or normal (if compensation is complete). This wide-ranging, comprehensive review includes discussion of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical consequences and management of metabolic acidosis. The authors distinguish acute metabolic acidosis (lasting hours/days) from the much less common, chronic metabolic acidosis, which can last for years. Acute metabolic acidosis is a common feature of serious illness; a study quoted in the re Continue reading >>

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  1. MrMaggs

    Hi all,
    I hope you had a great weekend. I`m an entrepreneur based in Japan developing smart sensors for advanced ketone detection. I got involved in this area after one of my friends was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. I`d be very grateful to ask a few questions on checking ketones:
    1. Roughly how many times a week would you say you check your ketone levels, and how? (test strips/blood reader/breath analyzer)
    2. If you don`t check your *blood* ketones, why? Is it because urine strips are good enough, or because of the cost, or because you are already drawing blood for glucose checking and don't want to do this again for ketones?
    3. If there was a convenient way to test the same ketones as a blood reader (BHB) through your urine for significantly less cost, would that be of interest? Why/why not?
    Thank you so much!

  2. Garr

    Hi Daniel, I haven't checked my ketones for a few years. I have a Glucomen LX plus glucose meter which doubles as a ketone meter. If your sugars are over 13.5 it gives an alarm and tells you to check ketones, you then just load a ketone testing strip into the same meter and test a drop of blood. My sugars are never that high so I haven't tested.

  3. AndyS

    I tend only to test ketones when I am sick or have especially high blood sugars (greater than 14mmol/l) and use an optium exceed with a ketone test strip to check blood level.
    I prefer the blood tester since it is much more precise and there is no time lag which you can get with urine testing.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mamma

Metabolic Acidosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management

Abstract | Metabolic acidosis is characterized by a primary reduction in serum bicarbonate (HCO3 concentration, a secondary decrease in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) of ~1 mmHg for concentration, and a reduction in blood pH. Acute forms (lasting minutes to several days) and chronic forms (lasting weeks to years) of the disorder can occur, for which the underlying cause/s and resulting adverse effects may differ. Acute forms of metabolic acidosis most frequently result from the overproduction of organic acids such as ketoacids or lactic acid; by contrast, chronic metabolic acidosis often reflects bicarbonate wasting and/or impaired renal acidification. The calculation of the serum ] + [Cl]), aids diagnosis by classifying the disorders into categories of normal (hyperchloremic) anion gap or elevated anion gap. These categories can overlap, however. Adverse effects of acute metabolic acidosis primarily include decreased cardiac output, arterial dilatation with hypotension, altered oxygen delivery, decreased ATP production, predisposition to arrhythmias, and impairment of the immune response. The main adverse effects of chronic metabolic acidosis are increase Continue reading >>

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  1. Dave Pereira

    Almost none.. I believe a 1/3 of a serving can pop the average person out of ketosis. This really depends on how the individual’s body will uptake, process and eliminate the alcohol (sugars). These vary on size, metabolism, hormonal health, etc.

  2. Doug Freyburger

    Being in ketosis roughly doubles the impact of alcohol. Be careful and cautious how much you drink! Plan on drinking half as much because it will hit you very hard. That is your real limit. In the US a binge is 5+ drinks in the same day. Since alcohol hits us twice as hard in ketosis that means the limit is 2–3. Have 3 shots of vodka and you will definitely be hammered! That’s your limit.
    When there is any alcohol present the body will burn it to the exclusion of fat until it’s gone. On a time scale of minutes and hours there is no amount of alcohol that does not interfere with being in ketosis. The deal is, the time scale for ketosis when dieting in not hour to hour. It’s day to day.
    Your next concern isn’t being in ketosis the next day. Unless you pass out from the booze you will be in ketosis the next day. It’s how long that drink will stall you. Unfortunately that answer is different for everyone. Some only pause for a day when they have a shot or two. Some pause for 2 weeks. You have to try it and see.

    My take is if you still have 50+ pounds to lose it’s not worth it. Alcohol is a social issue not a need. It’s not a high enough priority to care about if you still have 50+ to lose. And if you are so driven to have a shot anyways, that’s a drinking problem in addition to a weight loss discussion. But later, a week of pause just isn’t a big deal since loss rates are slower as you have less to lose. Not worth drinking every month, but probably worth it about every other month. Once you figure out how long you pause from drinking.

  3. Ron Hunter

    I think it’s an individual response. I recommend this article:

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