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Metabolic Acidosis Medications

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Drug-induced Metabolic Acidosis

SummaryDrug causes of metabolic acidosis are numerous and their mechanisms are diverse. Broadly, they can cause metabolic acidosis with either a normal anion gap (e.g. drug-induced renal tubular acidosis) or an elevated anion gap (e.g. drug-induced lactic acidosis or pyroglutamic acidosis). This review describes the drugs that can cause or contribute to metabolic acidosis during therapeutic use, the mechanisms by which this occurs, and how they may be identified in practice. aNeurointensive Care Unit, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust bClinical Pharmacology, St George's University of London, London, UK Correspondence to Andrew W. Hitchings, Senior Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacology and Consultant in Neurointensive Care, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK. Tel: +44 20 8725 5380; e-mail: [email protected] Editor: R E Ferner, MSc, MD, FRCP, Director of the WestMidlands Centre for Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting and Consultant Physician at City Hospital, Birmingham, UK. Assistant Editor: Mr C Anton, MA, MEng. Editorial Board: Australia: Dr M Kennedy, Professor G M Shenfie Continue reading >>

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  1. kristyn14

    Hi I am new to the forums I have type1 diabetes I have had it for 8 years nearly just wanted to ask if anybody has any advice on high blood sugars and ketones and when the best time is to go to hospital if I can't get it under control I had an infection last week but seems like my bloods and ketones don't want to settle down any1 able to help out I would appreciate it thanks.:-/

  2. noblehead

    Take aread of the following Kristyn:
    http://www.diabetes-support.org.uk/info/?page_id=141

  3. Dashing.

    kristyn14 said: ↑
    Hi I am new to the forums I have type1 diabetes I have had it for 8 years nearly just wanted to ask if anybody has any advice on high blood sugars and ketones and when the best time is to go to hospital if I can't get it under control I had an infection last week but seems like my bloods and ketones don't want to settle down any1 able to help out I would appreciate it thanks.:-/ what are yours on at the moment? usually i'd ring mine if i had 1.5 or above =.=

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Drug-induced Metabolic Acidosis

Go to: Introduction Metabolic acidosis is defined as an excessive accumulation of non-volatile acid manifested as a primary reduction in serum bicarbonate concentration in the body associated with low plasma pH. Certain conditions may exist with other acid-base disorders such as metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis/alkalosis 1. Humans possess homeostatic mechanisms that maintain acid-base balance ( Figure 1). One utilizes both bicarbonate and non-bicarbonate buffers in both the intracellular and the extracellular milieu in the immediate defense against volatile (mainly CO 2) and non-volatile (organic and inorganic) acids before excretion by the lungs and kidneys, respectively. Renal excretion of non-volatile acid is the definitive solution after temporary buffering. This is an intricate and highly efficient homeostatic system. Derangements in over-production, under-excretion, or both can potentially lead to accumulation of excess acid resulting in metabolic acidosis ( Figure 1). Drug-induced metabolic acidosis is often mild, but in rare cases it can be severe or even fatal. Not only should physicians be keenly aware of this potential iatrogenic complication but they should Continue reading >>

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  1. road hog

    my dog of 7 has been unwell and has spent most of the weekend at the vets (£400 )a night stay.(not that i begrudge paying)
    what i am wondering is if any other dog folk have a diabetic dog and what to expect or any advice ,seems he is improving abit (flattened the pup of 1 year after his breckie)
    going to have to give him 2 insulin jabs a day . ?
    is this only available thru the vets ..?
    here he is with his older (bigger brother)
    [url]|http://thumbsnap.com/v/xrEUV3Xp.jpg[/u

  2. sonic_2k_uk

    He has type 1 diabetes which is insulin dependent. I'm pretty sure its treated the same in dogs as humans, so yes insulin injections will be required.
    Ketoacidosis happens with diabetes when there is not sufficient insulin to reduce the rate at which the liver breaks down fat.
    When the live burns fat it produces ketones. As the liver runs away burning fat without the insulin to control it, the body effectively poisons itself as your blood turns acidic.
    Having had ketoacidosis, i can say its seriously not nice! I'm pretty sure you'd die of dehydration before the ketones killed you though.
    Ketoacidosis is completely treatable is caught in time though, you need to control the level of insulin correctly, reducing the blood sugar level and controlling the liver, replace the lost fluids flushing the ketones out of the blood, basically

  3. road hog

    he seems to be drinking and urinating alot , will this be flushing the "ketones" out of his system,
    sleeping alot and getting spoilt (laid out on settee).
    just been doing some internet surfing and hadnt realized how serious it was .could have lost him on friday night.
    Edited by road hog on Sunday 7th March 13:47
    picture taken on thursday night....really ill but still wanted to kill the zebra.
    Edited by road hog on Sunday 7th March 13:49

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Metabolic Acidosis Medication: Alkalinizing Agents, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors, Antidiabetic Agents, Detoxification Agents

Author: Christie P Thomas, MBBS, FRCP, FASN, FAHA; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN more... As previously stated, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the agent most commonly used to correct metabolic acidosis. Also as previously mentioned, the role of alkali therapy is controversial in the treatment of lactic acidosis, with some evidence suggesting that HCO3- therapy produces only a transient increase in the serum HCO3- level and that this can lead to intracellular acidosis and worsening of lactic acidosis. Acute metabolic acidosis is usually treated with alkali therapy to raise plasma pH and to maintain it at greater than 7.20. THAM combines with hydrogen ions to form a bicarbonate buffer. It is used to prevent and correct systemic acidosis. It is available as 0.3-mol/L IV solution containing 18 g (150 mEq) per 500 mL (0.3 mEq/mL). This agent is used in the treatment of salicylate poisoning. It reduces the reduction of hydrogen ion secretion at the renal tubule and increases excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and water. The goal is to maintain the urine pH at greater than 7.5 until the salicylate level falls below 30-50 mg/dL. These agents are used for the treatment of Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. iamthewheat

    someone struck up a conversation with me just now when they saw my bag of Isopure, about the dangers of drinking it on non-work out days. I always only have 1 scoop with 1 cup of almond milk, on work out / non work out days alike but hadn't had any problems with it as of yet.
    Some quick research showed that when you take protein supplements (such as whey isolates) with a high protein diet it can raise the acidity of your urine which will lead to kidney stones and the like. But I couldn't find any other information that shows it's downsides.
    what are your thoughts/facts?
    Also, what is your general opinion on protein shakes on non-workout days in general?
    Trying to jump back on the keto train at full speed and want to make sure i'm not hurting my self in the process!

  2. ashsimmonds

    Plenty of stuff to sift through here:
    http://highsteaks.com/forum/health-nutrition-and-science/kidneys-and-high-dietary-protein-409.0.html
    http://highsteaks.com/forum/health-nutrition-and-science/uric-acid-gout-and-kidney-stones-111.0.html

  3. DrMcSir

    A lot of people like to talk about things they've heard and feel are true without doing any actual research. As long as you stick to your macros, you'll be fine.

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