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Metabolic Acidosis Lab Values Symptoms

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham Metabolic acidosis is primary reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3−), typically with compensatory reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be markedly low or slightly subnormal. Metabolic acidoses are categorized as high or normal anion gap based on the presence or absence of unmeasured anions in serum. Causes include accumulation of ketones and lactic acid, renal failure, and drug or toxin ingestion (high anion gap) and GI or renal HCO3− loss (normal anion gap). Symptoms and signs in severe cases include nausea and vomiting, lethargy, and hyperpnea. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurement. The cause is treated; IV sodium bicarbonate may be indicated when pH is very low. Metabolic acidosis is acid accumulation due to Increased acid production or acid ingestion Acidemia (arterial pH < 7.35) results when acid load overwhelms respiratory compensation. Causes are classified by their effect on the anion gap (see The Anion Gap and see Table: Causes of Metab Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Photorecon

    Hi all....
    Dont know what to think right now, so sad and angry at the same time. I think I've
    been fouled by my vet and victim of his passivity.
    This is my second post on the forum, posted this week asking if diabetes in cat was faithless.
    I was reassured by many and thanks to all.
    Right after the diagnostic came I changed my life beat to wake up at 6, feed, wait 1h, test and
    inject, this is back in early March. Two weeks after, I performed a glucose curve (testing every 2h. for 12h.),
    numbers were all in the mid 300. I send the results to the vet with no reply. This was with Lantus 100 U/ml, one unit morning .5 12h later. Homeworks were made, switch to diabetic diet, monitoring... Like said in my previous post, I could never reach the Vet, just technician telling me that numbers were normal that it will eventually go down. But they never did, always between 300 - 400.
    A second opinion with a vet being more available was required and still, I did my home works and did that.
    Urinary infection was detected last week then Small Kitty almost stopped eating and drinking, barely eating and drinking a little drop of water. I started feeding him and it seemed he was in not that bad of a shape.
    The vet asked for a Ketone test ASAP two days ago. No matter how hard I was trying, I could not get a single drop of urine. Squeezing a full bladder, massaging.. no avail. so I took the day off today to visit my new vet and the a new diagnostic came by.
    KETONE, on the roof, sugar over flood having been to high for too many days. It's now a full scale hospitalization with intravenous water, fast acting insulin; test every 2 h., adjustment and so on... 800 to 1200$ min and at 75% chance the cat would start eating and drinking again.
    I will meet the thief lazy vet at 4pm. Not sure of my strategy, might put him the result of his action straight in the face or implore an emergency action with reasonable expense, will see. No matter what, I'm almost sure my budget will not allow any action plan.
    Meanwhile the cat seems to be in not of a bad shape, numbers are were encouraging yesterday and this morning. By raising the dose to 1 at the morning and 1 at night blood sugar was getting lower, 300.
    Question now is : Is there something that can be done at home, anything ? Will not let this vet kill my cat, if there is no plan the final fate will be done with me holding him in a way that he will not suffer. I know of a place where I go in a small valley where nobody goes (I grew up illicit herb there a few years back there), I'll dig him a nice hole, built a nice cross, puchase concrete and make a tombstone. I'll know he's going to be in a happy place with maybe some trace of weed I had fun enjoying and helping my epilepsy.
    Should I prepare this tombstone or something can be done ? No faith but... feeling so sad..
    Meanwhile I'll start reading about at home euthanasia
    Thanks.

  2. Tuxedo Mom

    Photorecon said: ↑
    Hi all....
    Dont know what to think right now, so sad and angry at the same time. I think I've
    been fouled by my vet and victim of his passivity.
    This is my second post on the forum, posted this week asking if diabetes in cat was faithless.
    I was reassured by many and thanks to all.
    Right after the diagnostic came I changed my life beat to wake up at 6, feed, wait 1h, test and
    inject, this is back in early March. Two weeks after, I performed a glucose curve (testing every 2h. for 12h.),
    numbers were all in the mid 300. I send the results to the vet with no reply. This was with Lantus 100 U/ml, one unit morning .5 12h later. Homeworks were made, switch to diabetic diet, monitoring... Like said in my previous post, I could never reach the Vet, just technician telling me that numbers were normal that it will eventually go down. But they never did, always between 300 - 400.
    A second opinion with a vet being more available was required and still, I did my home works and did that.
    Urinary infection was detected last week then Small Kitty almost stopped eating and drinking, barely eating and drinking a little drop of water. I started feeding him and it seemed he was in not that bad of a shape.
    The vet asked for a Ketone test ASAP two days ago. No matter how hard I was trying, I could not get a single drop of urine. Squeezing a full bladder, massaging.. no avail. so I took the day off today to visit my new vet and the a new diagnostic came by.
    KETONE, on the roof, sugar over flood having been to high for too many days. It's now a full scale hospitalization with intravenous water, fast acting insulin; test every 2 h., adjustment and so on... 800 to 1200$ min and at 75% chance the cat would start eating and drinking again.
    I will meet the thief lazy vet at 4pm. Not sure of my strategy, might put him the result of his action straight in the face or implore an emergency action with reasonable expense, will see. No matter what, I'm almost sure my budget will not allow any action plan.
    Meanwhile the cat seems to be in not of a bad shape, numbers are were encouraging yesterday and this morning. By raising the dose to 1 at the morning and 1 at night blood sugar was getting lower, 300.
    Question now is : Is there something that can be done at home, anything ? Will not let this vet kill my cat, if there is no plan the final fate will be done with me holding him in a way that he will not suffer. I know of a place where I go in a small valley where nobody goes (I grew up illicit herb there a few years back), I'll dig him a nice hole, built a nice cross, puchase concrete and make a tombstone. I'll know he's going to be in a happy place with maybe some trace of weed I had fun enjoying and helping my epilesy.
    Should I prepare this tombstone or something can be done ? No faith but... feeling so sad..
    Thanks.
    Click to expand...
    Ketoacidosis is serious. HOWEVER we have had members who went through a bad DKA episode (or even two) and their kitties are still doing fine. If your kitty responds well to the ER treatment then you would have to be much more vigelant about testing both glucose and ketones.
    Unfortunately the best place for your kitty when in DKA is at the ER being treated with IVs to restore the electrolyte balances and flush out the ketones and fast acting insulins ( with dextrose drips available if the numbers go too low). He needs to be monitored and treated as shown by testing.
    Sending prayers that your kitty will be okay. Everything else can wait to be discussed once you kitty is out of danger.

  3. Lisa and Witn (GA)

    Keeping you and your kitty in my prayers.

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Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes low pH Normal or Compensated Tends toward acidosis Causes low pH Neutralizes high pH Step 3. Assume metabolic cause when respiratory is ruled out. You'll be right most of the time if you remember this simple table: High pH Low pH Alkalosis Acidosis High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 Metabolic Respiratory Respiratory Metabolic If PaCO2 is abnormal and pH is normal, it indicates compensation. pH > 7.4 would be a compensated alkalosis. pH < 7.4 would be a compensated acidosis. These steps will make more sense if we apply them to actual ABG values. Click here to interpret some ABG values using these steps. You may want to refer back to these steps (click on "linked" steps or use "BACK" button on your browser) or print out this page for Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. HURRYUPnD13

    So I've been trying to eat less than 20 carbs a day but is that 20 "net carbs" or "total carbs"
    For example a 1oz serving of almonds has 6g "total carbs" and 3g fiber so would it be 3g "net carbs" Also, just to clarify ketosis is generally achieved with under 20g "net carbs" correct?

  2. R_KETO_BOT

    The NET carbs for a food are TOTAL CARBS - FIBER. Example: 100g of avocado contains 9g carbs. 7g of these are from insoluble fiber and don't elicit a strong insulin response; you don't count them. 9g - 7g = 2g NET carbs per 100g avocado.
    From the FAQ

  3. Burnsidegen

    Yes, keep under 20 net carbs. Don't count fiber.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis

What is metabolic acidosis? The buildup of acid in the body due to kidney disease or kidney failure is called metabolic acidosis. When your body fluids contain too much acid, it means that your body is either not getting rid of enough acid, is making too much acid, or cannot balance the acid in your body. What causes metabolic acidosis? Healthy kidneys have many jobs. One of these jobs is to keep the right balance of acids in the body. The kidneys do this by removing acid from the body through urine. Metabolic acidosis is caused by a build-up of too many acids in the blood. This happens when your kidneys are unable to adequately remove the acid from your blood. What are the signs and symptoms? Not everyone will have signs or symptoms. However, you may experience: Long and deep breaths Fast heartbeat Headache and/or confusion Weakness Feeling very tired Vomiting and/or feeling sick to your stomach (nausea) Loss of appetite If you experience any of these, it is important to let your healthcare provider know immediately. What are the complications of metabolic acidosis if I have kidney disease or kidney failure? Increased bone loss (osteoporosis): Metabolic acidosis can lead to a loss Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Miss Lily

    am curious if any other members had a low or no carbohydrate diet whilst breastfeeding with no negative effect or drop in their supply?
    I was on a low carb diet before conceiving and had great results, since having bubs Ive been on around 1800 calories a day but the weight wont shift at all. I know for my body to lose weight I need to cut back on carbs but dont want to jeporise feeing my baby which is far more important.
    Really appreciate your feedback.

  2. ~kacee~

    I've been on a high protein, low carb (maybe 1 piece of bread a day, no potato, rice or pasta) since January 1st (DS was 6.5 months) and I haven't noticed any supply changes. However, I'm drinking heaps of water, and have started taking Herbs of Gold breastfeeding tablets, plus Blackmores P&BF gold tablets. Maybe they help??
    How old is your LO?

  3. axiomae

    Within a few days my supply drops right off. I'm still holding onto 5kgs of baby weight and can't wait to get rid of it! Low carb always works for me too, but I'm going to have to wait until I wean DD. I have a dodgy supply as it is so any drop is quite significant.

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