Metabolic Acidosis Lab Values Potassium

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Normal Anion Gap Acidosis

Terry W. Hensle, Erica H. Lambert, in Pediatric Urology , 2010 Nonanion gap acidosis occurs in situations in which HCO3 is lost from the kidney or the gastrointestinal tract or both. When this occurs, Cl (along with Na+) is reabsorbed to replace the HCO3; this leads to the hyperchloremia, which leaves the anion gap in normal range.10 Diarrhea causes a hyperchloremic, hypokalemic metabolic acidosis. Treatment depends on the severity of the acidosis incurred. In mild to moderate acidosis (pH >7.2), fluid and electrolyte replacement is often all that is required. Once adequate renal perfusion is restored, excess H+ can be excreted efficiently, restoring the pH to normal. In severe acidosis (pH <7.2), the addition of intravenous bicarbonate may be needed to correct the metabolic deficit. Before bicarbonate is administered, a serum potassium level should be obtained. The addition of bicarbonate can worsen hypokalemia, leading to neuromuscular complications. Hyperchloremic acidosis also occurs with renal insufficiency and renal tubular acidosis.9,20 Katherine Ahn Jin, in Comprehensive Pediatric Hospital Medicine , 2007 As in any condition, the first priority in management is stabilizing Continue reading >>

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  1. thinketo

    Hi all,
    This is my first post so go easy on me. I discovered the podcast about a week and a half ago (thanks to Paul Thurrott on Windows Weekly) and have spent some time catching up. I have very much enjoyed getting educated.
    Me - I typically workout 3-4 times per week and run 3-4 times per week. These alternate days, i.e. only one workout per day whatever it may be. Strength training is 45-1 hour fairly high intensity using the 5x5 Stronglifts program - I have been doing this for a couple years with cycles - works great for me. I run 30 - 45 mins with varying intensities. In the summer I regularly have one long run (for me) per week of between 5-8 miles. I also bike frequently in the summer...as I am a bike nerd.
    I am 47 male - 5'6 with 34 inch waist. I have not been eating well over the bast 3 months and have gotten up to about 190. In the summer I can get to 170 ish and a 32" or so waist. FWIW - I have been on this evil cycle for along time - winter just isn't my season I guess.... Adding muscle, even at my age, has never been a problem for me but cutting fat has. In my twenties I was 150.... but not with near the frame I have now. I think 165 would be a great weight, but it really is not about the number and more my pants fit! I just want to be healthy.
    I am duly educating myself and want to give this a try in a week or so. I am slowly getting my kitchen ready and piling up recopies to keep me going. I am gluten sensitive so that comes into play but makes it easier.
    There seems to be some debate about going through the initiation and flu while exercising. On a podcast, I seem to remember the recommendation to avoid exercise during this time. I really don't want to do that, but want to get in to past the first 3-4 weeks.
    What advice do you have for me?
    Thanks in advance and sorry to be overly verbose.

    Edit - I also have "mostly" adopted a primal lifestyle aka Mark Sisson so I think that fits pretty well into keto. Just throwing that out there and am curious to know if anyone else is keto and Primal. To be honest - I fallen off the that past few months.... so there is room for improvement :-).

  2. Emacfarland

    I'm a runner and weight lifter and had a fairly easy time transitioning to keto at the beginning of 2015. Really make sure to utilize the advice of getting enough salt and electrolytes and fat, it will keep your energy level up. You might see either a dip in performance initially or an increase in energy and performance followed by a slump a couple months after going keto. I've heard both of these scenarios. Your endurance and performance levels will adjust the longer you're in ketosis. Also I know it might not sound like a concern at the moment but those of us who engage in high levels of activity while doing keto can become quite lean, even to a point of it affecting your health. This is less a concern for men than women, but as your body fat levels dip you might notice flagging energy, lower libido...it's a good idea to keep fat levels high enough and test how you do with more carbs. I got dangerously lean on keto while running and doing weights and had to go off to regain weight. I've been back on for just over three months and am correcting the mistakes I made before, and I feel great. Just don't short change your self on getting enough fat and overall calories

  3. rodan5150

    My experience was that the first week was tough for me in the gym, but I went anyway and pushed through it. I had already been going on a regular basis so it wasn't that bad overall, I just felt a little weak/drained. I made sure I got plenty of fluids and electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. I supplement with 300mg of potassium citrate per day and then I salt the hell out of my food all day to try and hit my goals there.
    My advice is to test the water and see how you feel. If you feel like crap, cut it back some and then try again the next day. You're already used to working out, so your transition won't be a tough as someone who starts keto AND starts going to the gym at the same time in my opinion. I think you will enjoy the keto way of life, you sound like a perfect candidate for losing that nagging fat weight.

    edit: I wanted to add a "Good luck!" in there as well!

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What is HYPOKALEMIA? What does HYPOKALEMIA mean? HYPOKALEMIA meaning - HYPOKALEMIA pronunciation - HYPOKALEMIA definition - HYPOKALEMIA explanation - How to pronounce HYPOKALEMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum. Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia. Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms. Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm such as bradycardia and cardiac arrest. Causes of hypokalemia include diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet. It is classified as severe when levels are less than 2.5 mmol/L. Low levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum. The speed at which potassium should be replaced depends on whether or not there are symptoms or ECG changes

Attending Rounds: Patient With Hypokalemia And Metabolic Acidosis

Attending Rounds: Patient with Hypokalemia and Metabolic Acidosis Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Dr. Asghar Rastegar, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, 1074 LMP, P.O. Box 208030, New Haven, CT 06520-8030; Phone: 203-737-2078, Fax: 203-785-7030; E-mail: . Summary Hypokalemic paralysis represents a medical emergency requiring both rapid diagnosis and treatment. In this Attending Rounds a patient with hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis is presented to emphasize the role of routine laboratory studies in the assessment of such patients so that a correct diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. A 39-year-old woman who had been in excellent health presented with a chief complaint of weakness in her lower extremities. She gave a history of intermittent vomiting for the past 2 months that was worse over the past 3 days. Two weeks before admission she was found to be positive for Helicobacter pylori antigen and was treated with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoperazole. One day before admission she was seen in the emergency department complaining of 3 days of vomiting. The serum Continue reading >>

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  1. MeepoTwin

    Strategically drinking alcohol to stay in ketosis?

    Hello everyone,
    I understand after drinking alcohol, it is metabolized as acetate. Since acetate cannot be stored, and is considered by the body to be a poison, it is metabolized with the highest priority. This means that all other macro nutrients in the blood will be stored, since the alcohol is being utilized for energy.
    With this logic in mind, if I eat carbohydrates while intoxicated, the body will not begin the process of using carbohydrates for energy because of the alcohol's acetate is currently being processed. This means the carbohydrates will directly be stored without initiating the glucose pathways.
    Does this mean I can stay in keto even after consuming carbs and sobering up since the glucose pathways never began? I do understand alcohol does have an excess amount of calories, and the calories of the carbs still count. But the question is will you stay in ketosis afterwards?
    I feel like it doesn't work this way, but at the same time, the logic seems to somehow work.
    Assuming the first few statements regarding metabolic processes are correct, does this mean you can use alcohol to stay in keto because you never utilize the glucose pathways?
    (I apologize for the lack of sources, I cannot find them at the moment)
    Thanks in advance

  2. toast.tm

    I see where you are coming from and I have been drunk and stayed in Ketosis but...
    The body would switch from using Ketones as fuel to the fuel from the alcohol - ethanol?? So if this was the case then when that runs out (you sober up) it will look for the nearest available fuel (the carbs you ate that haven’t yet been processed) so you would need to get into ketosis again.
    If you drink beer then your eating carbs with the alcohol.
    Sorry this is not a proper answer.
    When I am on Keto I drink slim line Tonic (diet) with Gin and have stayed in but didnt eat carbs.
    I love drinking but to be honest, drinking on keto sucks.

  3. Atavis


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In this video you will learn about liver function test results normal range, alt blood test, ast test, bilirubin test, ggt test, ld test, pt test and total protein test Subscribe To My Channel Sehat Aur LIfe with pawan uppal and Get More Health Videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5w3... Thank you very much. Pawan Uppal

Potassium Test: Purpose, Procedure, And Results

A potassium test is used to measure the amount of potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte thats essential for proper muscle and nerve function. Even minor increases or decreases in the amount of potassium in your blood can result in serious health problems. Your doctor may order a potassium test if they suspect you have an electrolyte imbalance or as part of a routine check-up. Potassium is an electrolyte. Electrolytes become ions when theyre in a solution, and they conduct electricity. Our cells and organs require electrolytes to function normally. A potassium test is performed as a simple blood test and carries few risks or side effects. The blood sample drawn by your healthcare provider will be sent to a laboratory for analysis, and your doctor will review the results with you. A potassium test is often performed as part of a basic metabolic panel, which is a group of chemical tests run on your blood serum. Your doctor may order a potassium test during a routine physical or for a variety of other reasons, including: checking for or monitoring an electrolyte imbalance monitoring certain medications that affect potassium levels, particularly diuretics, heart medicati Continue reading >>

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  1. pencala

    > When do you start to lose weight only after you are in ketosis?

    It took me 5 days to get into ketosis (waaaay longer than I anticipated). I'm assuming I had a lot of built up carbs in my system before I started on my diet. I haven't lost any weight. In fact, I've gained 3 lbs! I'm wondering if the weight will start to come off now that I'm in ketosis. Is that when it begins? Also, I am really starving without the carbs, so I'm eating a lot more than I usually would. Can I be gaining weight from this diet??

  2. girlbug2

    It took me 5 days to get into ketosis (waaaay longer than I anticipated). I'm assuming I had a lot of built up carbs in my system before I started on my diet. I haven't lost any weight. In fact, I've gained 3 lbs! I'm wondering if the weight will start to come off now that I'm in ketosis. Is that when it begins? Also, I am really starving without the carbs, so I'm eating a lot more than I usually would. Can I be gaining weight from this diet??
    Don't Panic!!
    It entirely depends not only on how much you are eating, but what type of food whether or not you could gain weight.
    I notice that anything high in salt makes me retain water. Cheese, cured meats, salted pork rinds, pickles. These are Atkins friendly and will not hinder ketosis per se, but may cause you to retain water. Think back over the last 5 days and remember if you have eaten these foods or anything else, such as broth which may be high in salt.( Read labels for hidden salt/sodium.)If so, you may be losing fat while retaining water and it could register on the scale as a gain. When you stop eating the hidden salt, it may be a day or two before you experience your body flushing all that extra water quickly and then finally your scale will show a loss.
    Another common error is relying a lot on artificially sweetened products, which a lot of LCers have noticed can stall their weight loss. Diet soda is notorious, so are Atkins bars. Not everybody has a problem with these things, but you may find out that you do.
    Those are just the possibilities that come to my mind, I'm sure other seasoned LCers can think of other things. Don't ditch the diet, you've barely started and there are bound to be setbacks along the way.
    Meanwhile, if you are extra hungry, perhaps you could post an example of a day or two of your menu so some of the more sophisticated LCers can help you spot trouble?
    Good luck!

  3. jcass

    Low carb diets will not cause you to lose weight unless you are overweight. Do you consider yourself overweight? Nevertheless they will make you much healthier.

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