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Susan Cornell, PharmD, CDE, FAPhA, FAADE, discusses the contraindications and adverse effects pharmacists should consider when recommending antidiabetic agents. This video was filmed at APhA's 2016 Annual Meeting and Exposition in Baltimore, Maryland.

Metabolic Acidosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management: Adverse Effects Of Metabolic Acidosis

Recommendations for the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis Gunnerson, K. J., Saul, M., He, S. & Kellum, J. Lactate versus non-lactate metabolic acidosis: a retrospective outcome evaluation of critically ill patients. Crit. Care Med. 10, R22-R32 (2006). Eustace, J. A., Astor, B., Muntner, P M., Ikizler, T. A. & Coresh, J. Prevalence of acidosis and inflammation and their association with low serum albumin in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 65, 1031-1040 (2004). Kraut, J. A. & Kurtz, I. Metabolic acidosis of CKD: diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and treatment. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 45, 978-993 (2005). Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Mehrotra, R., Fouque, D. & Kopple, J. D. Metabolic acidosis and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome in chronic renal failure. Semin. Dial. 17, 455-465 (2004). Kraut, J. A. & Kurtz, I. Controversies in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis. NephSAP 5, 1-9 (2006). Cohen, R. M., Feldman, G. M. & Fernandez, P C. The balance of acid base and charge in health and disease. Kidney Int. 52, 287-293 (1997). Rodriguez-Soriano, J. & Vallo, A. Renal tubular acidosis. Pediatr. Nephrol. 4, 268-275 (1990). Wagner, C. A., Devuyst, O., Bourgeois, S. & Mohebbi, N. R Continue reading >>

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  1. Joanna_Osterloh

    My mom found some correlation between low carb consumption and depression. I believe she found this on a podcast of some sort. Perhaps THM?
    Regardless, I’m having a difficult time finding information for or against this idea. Any help provided would be greatly appreciated!

  2. James.K

    The Implications of Low Cholesterol in Depression and Suicide
    James M. Greenblatt, M.D. For the last quarter century, we have been told that cholesterol is dangerous for our health and were advised to avoid it in order to live a healthier life. However, cholesterol is essential in maintaining good...

  3. jilliangordona

    Anecdotal, but my depression has disappeared since removing carbs

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What is BIOLOGICAL PUMP? What does BIOLOGICAL PUMP mean? BIOLOGICAL PUMP meaning - BIOLOGICAL PUMP definition - BIOLOGICAL PUMP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean’s biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. It is the part of the oceanic carbon cycle responsible for the cycling of organic matter formed by phytoplankton during photosynthesis (soft-tissue pump), as well as the cycling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed by certain plankton and mollusks as a protective coating (carbonate pump). The biological pump can be divided into three distinct phases, the first of which is the production of fixed carbon by planktonic phototrophs in the euphotic (sunlit) surface region of the ocean. In these surface waters, phytoplankton use carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and other trace elements (barium, iron, zinc, etc.) during photosynthesis to make carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Some plankton, (e.g. coccolithophores and foraminifera) combine calcium (Ca) and dissolved carbonates (carbonic acid and bicarbonate) to form a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) protective coating. Once this carbon is fixed into soft or hard tissue, the organisms either stay in the euphotic zone to be recycled as part of the regenerative nutrient cycle or once they die, continue to the second phase of the biological pump and begin to sink to the ocean floor. The sinking particles will often form aggregates as they sink, greatly increasing the sinking rate. It is this aggregation that gives particles a better chance of escaping predation and decomposition in the water column and eventually make it to the sea floor. The fixed carbon that is either decomposed by bacteria on the way down or once on the sea floor then enters the final phase of the pump and is remineralized to be used again in primary production. The particles that escape these processes entirely are sequestered in the sediment and may remain there for thousands of years. It is this sequestered carbon that is responsible for ultimately lowering atmospheric CO2. The first step in the biological pump is the synthesis of both organic and inorganic carbon compounds by phytoplankton in the uppermost, sunlit layers of the ocean. Organic compounds in the form of sugars, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are synthesized during the process of photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + light › CH2O + O2 In addition to carbon, organic matter found in phytoplankton is composed of nitrogen, phosphorus and various other trace metals. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen and phosphorus varies little and has an average ratio of 106C:16N:1P, known as the Redfield ratio. Trace metals such as magnesium, cadmium, iron, calcium, barium and copper are orders of magnitude less prevalent in phytoplankton organic material, but necessary for certain metabolic processes and therefore can be limiting nutrients in photosynthesis due to their lower abundance in the water column. Oceanic primary production accounts for about half of the carbon fixation carried out on Earth. Approximately 50-60 Pg of carbon are fixed by marine phytoplankton each year despite the fact that they comprise less than 1% of the total photosynthetic biomass on Earth. The majority of this carbon fixation (~80%) is carried out in the open ocean while the remaining amount occurs in the very productive upwelling regions of the ocean. Despite these productive regions producing 2 to 3 times as much fixed carbon per area, the open ocean accounts for greater than 90% of the ocean area and therefore is the larger contributor. The vast majority of carbon incorporated in organic and inorganic biological matter is formed at the sea surface and then must sink to the ocean floor. A single phytoplankton cell has a sinking rate around 1 m per day and with 4000 m as the average depth of the ocean, it can take over ten years for these cells to reach the ocean floor. However, through processes such as coagulation and expulsion in predator fecal pellets, these cells form aggregates. These aggregates, known as marine snow, have sinking rates orders of magnitude greater than individual cells and complete their journey to the deep in a matter of days.

Biomedx Blog On Live Blood Microscope Training Biological Terrain Medicine - Metabolic Acidosis

Measure, Manage, See More in Health @ biomedx.com This is the condition where someone is systemically too acid. The extracellular plasma fluid has a low pH wherein the H+ concentration is high and the bicarbonate level is low. Just as in metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis engages first the bodys acid-base second to second chemical buffering system, and if more assistance is required it turns to the minute by minute buffering ability of the lungs. So here we see a compensatory rise in breath rate as the body says "hey, Ive got to get rid of some of this acid so lets blow off some CO2". But you will recall that the lungs are only good for about 50-75% of the job at which point the kidneys will engage. So first clue to metabolic acidosis is a rise in breath rate. Recall normal breath rate is at about 14 breaths per minute. When you start moving much above this start looking at the urine and saliva pH pattern. Here we are blowing off CO2 - so low CO2 means low carbonic acid which means a rise in saliva pH. The kidneys will dump as much H+ as they can, and it will be going out with ammonium ions (NH4+). Sodium ions are conserved in this process. The rate of ammonium secretion depe Continue reading >>

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  1. AbbaZabba

    OK So I was trying to learn more about Ketosis and came across a forum where a guy claimed you could reach ketosis in just 24hours of water fasting. I really wish I could start it right now but I already had a cliff bar today so I may not start this until this weekend but here is what you do.
    - The day before you want to start your water fast you eat only fruit, so that is the only carbs and glucose in your system. He says to preferably eat it for 2-3 days in advance.
    - On Day 1 of the fast you drink 8oz of orange juice and then you walk for 2-3 hours or around 5-6.5 miles. He claims this will burn all of your carb reserves and go directly into ketosis by the next morning.
    - After the first day you do not exercise and just continue on to the normal water only fast.
    I need a weekend day to be able to walk around for 3 continuos hours & a few days planning so I think I am going to try and start fruit fasting tomorrow or Thursday and then start the fast Saturday. I really want to get into Ketosis for awhile because I have plenty of fat to burn. I am also a highly toxic person and I know this so it would be nice to really flush stuff out.
    If anyone wants to trade kik names & join me this weekend hit me up!
    Here is the link where I found this stuff: http://www.stevepavl...s-24-hours.html

  2. Caliico

    Sounds a little complicated? You will reach ketosis within 24-48h by simply water fasting.

  3. xoxomelodie

    Yeah it's not a big secret. It's very easy after a day of fasting. Heck the hours of walking sound terrible to me. Maybe 30 mns of running or on the elliptical while fasting. Also, depending on how long you're planning on water fasting, you will barely be able to do anything and you will lose all muscle mass. Plus fasting/juicing does not make you detoxify.
    I mean, don't get me wrong. I've done this before successfully so you will shed weight but better have the facts. And if you ever feel you're getting too weak, just remember just some protein and fat can go a long way in strengthening your resolve and it will not ruin the diet.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Prolonged Saltatory Fetal Heart Rate Pattern Leading To Newborn Metabolic Acidosis.

Prolonged saltatory fetal heart rate pattern leading to newborn metabolic acidosis. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology [01 Jan 2014, 41(5):507-511] Type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Journal Article, Case Reports PURPOSE: The saltatory pattern, characterized by wide and rapid oscillations of the fetal heart rate (FHR), remains a controversial entity. The authors sought to evaluate whether it could be associated with an adverse fetal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors report a case series of four saltatory patterns occurring in the last 30 minutes before birth in association with cord artery metabolic acidosis, obtained from three large databases of internally acquired FHR tracings. The distinctive characteristics of this pattern were evaluated with the aid of a computer system. RESULTS: All cases were recorded in uneventful pregnancies, with normal birthweight singletons, born vaginally at term. The saltatory pattern lasted between 23 and 44 minutes, exhibited a mean oscillatory amplitude of 45.9 to 80.0 beats per minute (bpm) and a frequency between four and eight cycles per minute. CONCLUSIONS: A saltatory pattern exceeding 20 minutes can be associate Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Selvarajan Rajeshwaran

    Diary Science

    Animal Feeding

    Animal Husbandry

    Cows

    Food



    In what respect does roughage differ from concentrates with reference to cattle food?




    1 Answer







    Bovines / Ovines / Caprines are ruminants born with four stomachs meant to digest the cellulose in leafy material of agro waste or specially grown fodder using ruminal flora and fauna. It is these bacteria that then form the food of these animals.

    Their stomach is NOT fit for feeding “concentrates” made from grain and oilseed cakes. Animals fed with such grain suffer from ketosis (acidosis) and suffer from ill health.

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    Related Questions



    What is roughage?


    How do you concentrate food?


    How do feeder cattle and live cattle differ?


    How do beef cattle and dairy cattle differ?


    What is difference between cattle eaters and non cattle eaters?


    Why we should have lot of roughage in our food?


    Are calories from different foods absorbed differently?


    Are Yuvraj cattle the most expensive cattle?


    Does the world know that cattle slaughtering and cattle selling for food are banned in India?


    What are some examples of concentrated foods?
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