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Metabolic Acidosis Compensation Calculator

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10 arterial blood gas problems worked using the tic-tac-toe method.

Arterial Blood Gas (abg) Analyzer

This analyzer should not substitute for clinical context. Sodium and chloride are required for anion gap calculation. While the analyzer can often help with analysis, the history of the patient is critical for accurate interpretation. NOTE: Normal albumin levels are typically 4 g/dL in US units and 40 g/L in SI units. A venous blood gas often correlates well with arterial blood gas findings (except for PaO2) unless values are extremely abnormal, and can often be used successfully as a screening tool. This tool, developed by Jonathan Chen, MD first determines the primary process by looking at the pH and the PCO2. It then calculates compensations to determine chronicity, compensatory, and co-existing acid-base disturbances. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (check serum ketones) Propylene Glycol (in BZD drips) or Paraldehydes Oxoporin (reflects fatty liver damage from glutathione consumption, e.g. acetaminophen toxicity) Renal Tubular Acidosis (Type 1 Distal or Type 2 Proximal) Jonathan Chen, MD, PhD is a research fellow in medical informatics, based at the Veteran Affairs Hospital in Palo Alto and Stanford University. He completed the Stanford Internal Medicine residency program and was in the Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. ThePenguinGod

    I seeing some people saying they try not to eat any carbs!
    Is there a benefit to this? If the goal is just to put your body into / stay in ketosis then does it matter what your carb intake is as long as you maintain a state of ketosis?
    I've been trying to keep my carbs to less than 20g / day, but when I was eating ~40g / day I was still able to stay in ketosis.
    Is there any advantage of me staying at less than 20g carbs if I can still stay in Ketosis ~ 40g's?

  2. [deleted]

    On the other hand. If I go below 20 carbs I go into deep ketosis and can't eat enough. Above 20 I eat about 1500 cal below 20 I struggle to eat more then 700 cal. Before ketosis I'd eat 3-5k calories a day. Isn't ketosis grand :-)

  3. Monkeyslim

    No. Some few people, mostly athletes, can eat up to about a 100g carbs. As long as you feel good, and are keeping calories in the range to lose if that's your goal, then consider yourself very fortunate. Wish I could have over 20g.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis by alkali therapy is usually indicated to raise and maintain the plasma pH to greater than 7.20. In the following two circumstances this is particularly important. When the serum pH is below 7.20, a continued fall in the serum HCO3- level may result in a significant drop in pH. This is especially true when the PCO2 is close to the lower limit of compensation, which in an otherwise healthy young individual is approximately 15 mm Hg. With increasing age and other complicating illnesses, the limit of compensation is likely to be less. A further small drop in HCO3- at this point thus is not matched by a corresponding fall in PaCO2, and rapid decompensation can occur. For example, in a patient with metabolic acidosis with a serum HCO3- level of 9 mEq/L and a maximally compensated PCO2 of 20 mm Hg, a drop in the serum HCO3- level to 7 mEq/L results in a change in pH from 7.28 to 7.16. A second situation in which HCO3- correction should be considered is in well-compensated metabolic acidosis with impending respiratory failure. As metabolic acidosis continues in some patients, the increased ventilatory drive to lower the PaCO2 m Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Deathofafatgirl

    So I've been doing the keto diet for a year with success but I have run my course with it and would like to do a "normal" diet/healthy change by eating better but adding carbs back in. Has anyone gone from doing a high fat/protein diet (LOW CARB) to a normal diet with just watching calorie intake and nothing else. I would like to know what weight gain if any I should expect or actually what overall should I expect. Thanks

  2. kevokie

    Well, first I'm no expert.
    I took myself off the keto diet for about a month and maintained the weight within a couple of pounds the whole time. I would suggest adding some carbs slowly back into your diet to get used to them again. You should expect to gain some weight back, but that is because your glycogen stores will be filling again which tend to hold more water. If you are watching your calories and what exactly you eat, you should be fine. Just take it slow.

  3. witchy_wife

    I would start by adding slow release carbs from vegetables and oats. And just gradually increase bit by bit. As long as you are eating at a calorie defecit you shouldn't gain fat, but your glycogen stores (I think they are called) will increase (these decreasing is why you get such a big loss at the start). So I would say it might take a few weeks but eventually your body will get the hang of what you are doing.
    I flip between low carb and regular counting calories and it is NOT TRUE when people say you will gain everything back if you go back to eating carbs. If you go back to eating the junk that put you the weight on then you will, but eat healthy on a calorie defecit and after a little while you will get back to losing weight.

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham Metabolic acidosis is primary reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3−), typically with compensatory reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be markedly low or slightly subnormal. Metabolic acidoses are categorized as high or normal anion gap based on the presence or absence of unmeasured anions in serum. Causes include accumulation of ketones and lactic acid, renal failure, and drug or toxin ingestion (high anion gap) and GI or renal HCO3− loss (normal anion gap). Symptoms and signs in severe cases include nausea and vomiting, lethargy, and hyperpnea. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurement. The cause is treated; IV sodium bicarbonate may be indicated when pH is very low. Metabolic acidosis is acid accumulation due to Increased acid production or acid ingestion Acidemia (arterial pH < 7.35) results when acid load overwhelms respiratory compensation. Causes are classified by their effect on the anion gap (see The Anion Gap and see Table: Causes of Metab Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. ryuten

    How long can I stay in Ketosis

    Hey guys, I've done Keto in the past where I'd refeed on Saturdays, then back to Low Carb on Sundays until Friday, then refeed again Saturday.
    At the time I was doing strongman and I wanted to keep my strength/muscle mass.
    Right now I am doing Muay Thai and BJJ. I work out like 2-3 hrs a day. I just want to lose as much weight as possible and as quickly possible. I am not too worried about losing "too much weight" in a week because I know my conditioning will improve as I get skinnier.
    So, I am wondering how long can I go before I have to refeed? I know the brain needs glucose to function, so I am worried about going on for too long. So far I've been in Ketosis state since Tuesday morning when I woke up.
    Thanks

  2. Carus

    The brain can do just fine on the glucose your body harvests from dietary protein, that's not what carb ups are for. Carbs ups are a reset switch for important metabolic hormones like leptin and T3. Some people do well for weeks on end in ketosis; I'm certainly not one of those people. Plus, the added physiological benefits of a weekly carb up are more than worth it.

  3. Cowmustard

    if my understanding is correct, the more bf your carrying the longer you can go before your body starts catabolizing lean mass for carbs. I think some people have done SKD(straight keto diet) for months on end without much lm loss as long as they watch their activity and such.
    now you being a combative athlete does change the figure(I do the MT/BJJ route as well). I seem to preserve lm better when taking my BCAA supps, plenty of sleep, and getting about 2 tbs coconut oil a day.

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