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Metabolic Acidosis And Metabolic Alkalosis Ppt

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Blood Gas Analysis--insight Into The Acid-base Status Of The Patient

Acid-Base Physiology Buffers H+ A- HCO3- CO2 Buffers H+ A- CO2 Cells Blood Kidney Lungs Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Status in Critical Illness Blood Gas Analysis--Insight into the Acid-Base status of the Patient The blood gas consists of pH-negative log of the Hydrogen ion concentration: -log[H+]. (also, pH=pK+log [HCO3]/ 0.03 x pCO2). The pH is always a product of two components, respiratory and metabolic, and the metabolic component is judged, calculated, or computed by allowing for the effect of the pCO2, ie, any change in the pH unexplained by the pCO2 indicates a metabolic abnormality. CO +H 0ºº H CO ººHCO + H2 2 2 3 3 - + CO2 and water form carbonic acid or H2CO3, which is in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-)and hydrogen ions (H+). A change in the concentration of the reactants on either side of the equation affects the subsequent direction of the reaction. For example, an increase in CO2 will result in increased carbonic acid formation (H2CO3) which leads to an increase in both HCO3- and H+ (\pH). Normally, at pH 7.4, a ratio of one part carbonic acid to twenty parts bicarbonate is present in the extracellular fluid [HCO3-/H2CO3]=20. A change in the ra Continue reading >>

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  1. Becky

    Hi all
    I'm struggling to hit ketosis. I bought ketostick but seem to be struggling to hit a purple ?
    I'm one day 3 and expected to see a change.
    I have been having eggs and bacon for breakfast
    Chicken, cheese and a cup of salad for lunch
    Prawns and egg plants (aubergines) for tea
    What am I doing wrong? ?
    thanks in advance x

  2. CHRIS

    Nothing at all Becky! Give it a few more days. Ketostix are not madly accurate-but for your own peace of mind-wet one with water-then ahem wet another with your number one (!)-wait 15 secs-compare side by side. I'll bet you a tenner you WILL see it darker. Doesn't have to be urber purple. Don't let me or anyone tell you what veg to eat but high fibre veg like boroccoli or cauliflower (try it as mash-delish) seemed to help me into ketosis-& it ahem helps with the ...number 2's....(!)

  3. Victoria

    Becky, your food looks light on fat to me. Prawns are virtually fat free and packed with protein, you really need the opposite!

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What is CONGENITAL DISORDER? What does CONGENITAL DISORDER mean? CONGENITAL DISORDER meaning - CONGENITAL DISORDER definition - CONGENITAL DISORDER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. A congenital disorder, also known as a congenital disease, deformity, birth defect, or anomaly, is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause. Of these disorders, those characterized by structural deformities are termed "congenital anomalies" and involve defects in a developing fetus. Birth defects vary widely in cause and symptoms. Any substance that causes birth defects is known as a teratogen. Some disorders can be detected before birth through prenatal diagnosis (screening). Birth defects may be the result of genetic or environmental factors. This includes errors of morphogenesis, infection, epigenetic modifications on a parental germline, or a chromosomal abnormality. The outcome of the disorder will depend on complex interactions between the pre-natal deficit and the post-natal environment. Animal studies indicate that the mother's (and likely the father's) diet, vitamin intake, and glucose levels prior to ovulation and conception have long-term effects on fetal growth and adolescent and adult disease. Animal studies have shown that paternal exposures prior to conception and during pregnancy result in increased risk of certain birth defects and cancers. This research suggests that paternal food deprivation, germ line mutations, alcohol use, chemical mutagens, age, smoking habits and epigenetic alterations can affect birth outcomes. However, the relationship between offspring health and paternal exposures, age, and lifestyle are still relatively weak. This is likely because paternal exposures and their effects on the fetus are studied far less extensively than maternal exposures. Birth defects are present in about 3% of newborns in USA. Congenital anomalies resulted in about 632,000 deaths per year in 2013 down from 751,000 in 1990. The type with the greatest numbers of deaths are congenital heart disease (323,000), followed by neural tube defects (69,000).

Surgical Procedures/acid Base Disorder

(Usually in clinical practice, H+ concentration is expressed as pH.) PaCO2 (Arterial CO2 concentration normal = 3545 mm Hg). HCO3 (Serum electrolytes normal = 2231 mmol/liter). Acidosis is a process that causes the accumulation of acid. Alkalosis is a process that causes the accumulation of alkali. The most common causes in the surgical practice include: Diuretic therapy (e.g., contraction alkalosis). Acid loss through GI secretions (e.g., nasogastric suctioning, vomiting). Exogenous administration of HCO3 or HCO3 precursors (e.g., citrate in blood). Chloride-unresponsive metabolic alkalosis is comparatively less common and includes: Renal tubular Cl wasting (Bartters syndrome) Measurement of urinary chloride concentration. Suggestive causes of the metabolic alkalosis if Urine Cl concentration is <15 mmol/liter: Sughgestive causes of the metabolic alkalosis if Urine Cl concentration is > 20 mmol/liter: Treatment principles in metabolic alkalosis:[ edit ] Removing and identifying underlying causes, Discontinuing exogenous alkali, repairing Cl, K+, and volume deficits. Correction of volume deficits (can be used 0.9% NaCl) and hypokalemia. H2-receptor antagonists or other acid-suppre Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. FatJessica

    > Ketosis taste in mouth?

    I caught a glimpse of a thread somewhere mentioning a taste in the mouth that some people get when they are in ketosis....anyone know what I'm talking about?

  2. MorganMac

    Yep, it's rather common. Ketone bodies (such as acetone) are excreted from the body in the breath and urine. Many people get "keto breath" for awhile when they start a LC diet :)

  3. FatJessica

    What does it smell like?

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Respiratory Acidosis Why is it related to respiratory acidosis? 1. Progression of the disease will make the patient breath harder (hypoventilation) which makes them hold on to carbon dioxide resulting to respiratory acidosis ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is ABG? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88fGs... ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Respiratory Acidosis and Chronic Obstruction Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) 1. What? 1. Is a breathing disorder that progresses over time. 2. Why is it related to respiratory acidosis? 1. Progression of the disease will make the patient breath harder (hypoventilation) which makes them hold on to carbon dioxide resulting to respiratory acidosis 3. Who is at risk? 1. Smokers 2. Toxic environment exposure 4. Signs and Symptoms 1. Barrel Chest 2. Fatigue 3. Confusion 4. Cyanotic 5. Wheezing and Crackles 6. Oxygen saturation normally in the 80s percentage 7. Cough 8. Sputum production 5. Intervention 1. Elevate the head of the bed 30 45 degrees 2. Pursed lip breathing 3. Tripod positioning 4. Oxygen as prescribed 5. Administer medication 6. Treatment 1. Stop smoking 2. Pneumonia vaccine 3. Yearly flu vaccine 4. Physical therapy 5. Oxygen therapy 6. Surgery 7. Medications 1. Short Acting Bronchodilators 1. B2 adrenergic agonist a) Albuterol i) Smooth muscle relaxation b) Theophylline (Short and Long acting) i) Adult Normal level 5 - 15 mcg/dL ii) Children 5 - 10 mcg/dL iii) More than 20 is toxic! iv) Treat emphysema and chronic bronchitis 2. Anticholinergic Bronchodilators 1. Atrovent a) Inhaler and nebulizer solution 3. Inhaled Corticosteroid 1. Used for moderate to severe 2. Not for long term use a) Combined Fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair) i) Fluticasone One. To stop chest tightness ii) Salmeterol (long acting bronchodilator) . To open up the airways Personal Item I used: These links will direct you to amazon at no cost to you. If you buy from my link, I will be getting few pennies worth. Thank you! YouTube plugin: https://www.tubebuddy.com/redhawk Saunders Book 7th Ed NCLEX-RN: http://amzn.to/2iG6YHS Saunders Drug Book 2017: http://amzn.to/2jXuZuZ Saunders Nursing Today 8th Ed: http://amzn.to/2jXpqNj blender bottle: http://amzn.to/2jFn3hP Weightlifting belt: http://amzn.to/2ippd4f shoes: http://amzn.to/2il8QKC Camera Setup Canon t6: http://amzn.to/2jFmogp waterproof vlogging camera: http://amzn.to/2jXpLPV vlogging tripod: http://amzn.to/2jwZcnF 5 Life saving nursing kit clinical items must have: https://youtu.be/6smxIZAcLQE Learn about blood pressure at http://abnormalbloodpressure.com/ Top 5 Books to Lower High Blood Pressure without Medication http://wp.me/P864rR-9H Top 5 Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor http://wp.me/P864rR-9e Top 3 Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor http://wp.me/P864rR-9q Top 5 Fitbit Wristband Fitness Tracker http://wp.me/P864rR-a2 Top 5 Weighing Scale http://wp.me/P864rR-aC come join me and become a member: https://www.goherbalife.com/jbegdamin step 1: click the link above step 2: register step 3: sign in step 4: choose your product of choice step 5: checkout step 6: let's do it together! #nursing #nursingschool #nursingstudents #studentmursejb #stundentnurse #murse Disclaimer: This video is for educational purposes only. If you are experiencing the same signs and symptoms, please do not diagnose yourself. Call your primary provider immediately. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- #1 Best Selling Camera: "Canon EOS Rebel T6 Full Accessory Bundle | What Comes with it for Paying $469.95?" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhSnU... -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-

Acid-base Disorders In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy Received 29 September 2011; Accepted 26 October 2011 Copyright 2012 Cosimo Marcello Bruno and Maria Valenti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The authors describe the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to development of acidosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its deleterious effects on outcome and mortality rate. Renal compensatory adjustments consequent to acidosis are also described in detail with emphasis on differences between acute and chronic respiratory acidosis. Mixed acid-base disturbances due to comorbidity and side effects of some drugs in these patients are also examined, and practical considerations for a correct diagnosis are provided. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem. Its prevalence varies according to country, a Continue reading >>

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  1. anonymous

    (Anonymous because I don't care to talk about my weight on the Internet.)
    In the spirit of self-experimentation, and with the intention of losing some weight, I decided to see what would happen if I modified my diet to reduce carbohydrate intake. For the last month or so I've been eating a diet that gets about 15% of calories from carbs, on average about 50-75g of carbs per day. (Which is to say: substantial carb restriction, but more carbs than you would consume on something like Atkins.) I lost 2-4 pounds, all of it in the first two weeks. This is within the normal range of fluctuation of my weight.
    In many ways this was not what I expected from reading other people's accounts and talking to friends. People close to me have lost between 8 and 15 pounds on a diet similar to mine with little effort. I expected to be eating fewer calories but feeling full; in fact, on the days I tracked calories, it seemed that I was eating about as many calories as usual. People reported feeling an increase in energy level or alertness; I did not. People reported "cravings" for carb-rich foods; I had none. Basically, I have spent the last month eating very differently from the way I usually eat, but feeling more or less the same, and losing weight (if at all) at a pace so slow that I'm not sure anything's really going on. Why? I can think of a few possible reasons my experience might have been different from other people's.
    1. It's possible that here are large individual metabolic differences between people, so that some people will lose significant weight on low-carb diet and others (like me) won't.
    2. People's "carb cravings" seemed often to be related to sugar; I don't have much of a sweet tooth and my normal diet doesn't contain a lot of added sugar.
    3. I am only slightly overweight -- I started at 6'1" and about 198 (now 195), or BMI 26.
    4. My normal diet contains lots of carbs, but much of this comes in the form of whole grain (e.g. large portions of whole wheat pasta and whole wheat bread.) So maybe reducing these is less beneficial than cutting out soda, white bread, and candy?
    6. I guess it's also possible that only extreme "Atkins-style" diets (say 20g carb per day) are effective, and what I'm doing is not substantially different from eating hundreds of grams of carbs per day.
    7. I probably didn't eat as much vegetable as I should have. My diet was heavily weighted towards meat, cheese, and eggs, with some non-starchy vegetables included as an afterthought.
    8. I haven't been doing serious aerobic exercise (I commute by bike about 20 mins / day and that's it.) In the scientific spirit, I didn't add exercise when I started the diet because I wasn't exercising before, and I'm curious about the effect of the diet.
    Have other people here had experiences like mine? Did I do low-carb wrong, or is there a reason (one of the above, or another) that low-carb is not going to be a viable weight-loss strategy for me?

  2. sanka

    If you think 50-75g of carbs is a substantial restriction, you are mistaken. Try less than 10, or more like 5 and you will see the weight loss. 50-75 carbs a day is a normal diet to me, maybe even a little high, but mostly because I stay away from breads and pastas and prepared food.

  3. miyabo

    People horribly exaggerate the numbers when they tell friends and family how much they've lost. Realize that with a very serious diet and exercise program, you might lose 10 lbs a month -- and with an average diet and no extra exercise, you might lose 3 lbs a month. To even notice changes that small, you have to be absolutely scientific about measuring your weight -- take a moving average of the last couple of days, use a digital scale, don't weigh clothes.
    Also, I believe the current medical consensus is that low carb might work, but only if it's extreme. I don't think anyone has even suggested that 20% or 30% less carbs would even do anything.

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