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Metabolic Acidosis Abdominal Pain Mechanism

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When experiencing pain in your abdomen and back, people tend to think is a simple constipation however, there are more serious causes that could trigger pain in the left lower abdomen and back. Take note and next time you experience this kid of pain, youll be able to identify the symptoms of a more serious condition and eventually determine if its time to see a doctor.

Abdominal Pain, Vomiting, And Confusion

In the latest Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 54-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to the hospital because of abdominal pain, vomiting, and confusion. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a serum lactate level of 20.3 mmol per liter and a venous blood pH of 6.62. A diagnosis was made. Metformin is excreted unmetabolized in the urine. Therefore, impaired kidney function may result in the accumulation of metformin in the plasma, causing lactic acidosis. In patients who have toxic effects of metformin, the mechanism of lactic acidosis is multifactorial, including enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate in the small intestine and inhibition of gluconeogenesis by lactate, pyruvate, and alanine. Clinical Pearls Conditions that may cause a very large anion gap acidosis include lactic acidosis, aspirin overdose, methanol or ethylene glycol toxicity, diabetic ketoacidosis, and uremia. Altered mental status, including lethargy, stupor, and even coma, can be a direct consequence of acidosis. Acidemia may lead to increased vasodilatation and warm skin, and may also be associated with a paradoxical hypothermia, which is a known complication of pr Continue reading >>

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  1. acts3v6

    Hi guys. My niece has a doe tha is due any day now. We has been fighting ketosis for 3 days now. Up to today she was eat g and dri king ok. Today, she is still eating and drinking but not as much. Have dealt with this before so I kinda know the drill, but wanted to ru. It past you guys.
    Question-we are using Vegetable Gylcrin instead of PG. Is this ok, VG just as good as PG?
    This is what we are doing.
    50-100cc VG when ketones are mod to high. Was doing just 50cc, but not working. 100cc did the trick-at least it was, not sure about now. 2-4x a day
    6-8cc Vit B complex injection 1-2x a day
    Probios mixed with VG every dose
    CMPK or MFO (liquid form of CMPK) 50-60cc 1x a day
    Tonight I had her also drench 100cc of water with molasses in it and to keep an eye on her water intake
    So, I am thinking it is time to induce. I can not remember what we used last year to I Duce a doe, but have a call into a friend close by who might have what we need. (Dex and lute? Or is it oxytocin?) I am sure she will know as she had to induce a couple last year.
    Question- Should I give her some sub Q fluids? I am not sure of her water intake today. If so, how much. I finally have some on hand after last years fiasco with our doe and the vet not giving fluids!

  2. acts3v6

    Oh, and her temp is fine and she is not dilated at all. She thought was in early labor a couple times, but nothing. Had her glove up and check and she is not dilated, so no stuck kid or anything.

  3. carragheencritters

    You sound as if you know better what to do than I do but this is what we have done before. I have only had one incident of inducing in our sheep with ketosis (pregnancy toxaemia), so not much experience to help you. We sometimes get milder ketosis when they are having twins or triplets and are a little too well conditioned. We usually manage it with propylene glycol 100ml twice daily, plus encouraging a lot of small appetising meals such as lucerne(alfalfa), bananas (our sheep love bananas)a little bread and the like. We also try and keep them outside grazing and walking around, we find the best pasture and will pick it for them to encourage eating, fresh lush grass or clover if any (which you probably don't have with it being winter there)
    This ewe was really struggling and deteriorating so on vet advice decided to induce. Vets instructions were to give the dex first to help the lungs in the lambs to mature a little, and then 24 hr later to give prostaglandin which I think is the same as your lute, to induce the labour. She lambed triplets, but unfortunately all were stillborn, my gut feeling was that they had a died a day or so earlier, however she survived which was the main aim of inducing her. My understanding is that prostaglandin with the dex induces dilation and labour, whereas oxytocin only causes contractions and can cause death of the babies if the cervix hasn't dilated as they are being pushed against a closed cervix and can't come out.
    The vets other option was to do a caesar to save the lambs but we risked losing the ewe, we felt the ewe was more important.
    I hope all goes well for your niece and the doe goes into labour very soon without having to be helped.

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Khartoum, Sudan Introduction DKA is a serious acute complications of Diabetes Mellitus. It carries significant risk of death and/or morbidity especially with delayed treatment. The prognosis of DKA is worse in the extremes of age, with a mortality rates of 5-10%. With the new advances of therapy, DKA mortality decreases to > 2%. Before discovery and use of Insulin (1922) the mortality was 100%. Epidemiology DKA is reported in 2-5% of known type 1 diabetic patients in industrialized countries, while it occurs in 35-40% of such patients in Africa. DKA at the time of first diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is reported in only 2-3% in western Europe, but is seen in 95% of diabetic children in Sudan. Similar results were reported from other African countries . Consequences The latter observation is annoying because it implies the following: The late diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in many developing countries particularly in Africa. The late presentation of DKA, which is associated with risk of morbidity & mortality Death of young children with DKA undiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed as malaria or meningitis. Pathophysiology Secondary to insulin Continue reading >>

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  1. Medical-Writer Muzammil

    Headaches

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    What can be done if you wake up with a pounding headache? How can it be treated at home?




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    Get your blood pressure checked and take a kind of painkiller. Headache is of many types. If it is half-headed and light irriates you then it might be migraine.

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood. In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than 7.35). When acidemia is present, acidosis is presumed. Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms are not specific, and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may include chest pain, palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as sev Continue reading >>

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  1. Steve3129

    Night Sweats?

    109 this morning. The last few days have shown a change in my BS levels, especially in the morning. Note that I have been on the LCHF diet for almost a year with my AM BS numbers generally between 125 and 135.
    I had a low grade fever of 100.1 for the last couple of days, so I figure I have a mild case of the flu or something; headache, some dizziness, but the unusual part are night sweats. Not the general mild sweating that gets the collar of my tee-shirt moist; but a soaking of my clothing, the sheets, requiring me to get up change and use alternate sleeping locations.
    It seems obvious to me that my BS 'normal' is changing (I hope) but at the same time, I would expect BS to rise while battling an illness... the opposite it true. I've been in Ketosis for a long time, so carb levels should be in check.
    So I would like to hear from others who have experienced sever sweating with new lower fasting numbers and being male, I can't blame this on menopause! Oh, one other thing, I will finish a course of four testosterone shots spaced out every two weeks this Friday; might be related?
    Thanks for your comments, friends!

  2. David Burke

    Got me. Maybe others can help

  3. Franzeska

    It may be the testosterone shots.if so it will take a couple of weeks after the last shot before the night sweats disappear.
    If it doesn't then maybe it's due to nighttime hypoglycemia.test your glucose when you wake with the sweats.iused to get terrible sweats with hypos at night,but that was when I was on a normal persons high carb diet(I have severe Reactive hypo).

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