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Medications That Cause Metabolic Acidosis

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Drug And Chemical-induced Metabolic Acidosis.

Abstract Metabolic acidosis produced by drugs and/or chemicals can be conveniently divided into those with an increase in the anion gap (anion gap = Na- (Cl + HCO3)) and those with a normal anion gap. The increase in the anion gap is due to the accumulation of unmeasured organic anions, such as lactate or acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate, as occurs in ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis, or the accumulation of toxic anions such as formate or glycolate, as occurs with the ingestion of methanol or ethylene glycol. Increased concentrations of lactic acid may also be present in the toxic forms of metabolic acidosis. The most common drugs and chemicals that induce the anion gap type of acidosis are biguanides, alcohols, polyhydric sugars, salicylates, cyanide and carbon monoxide. In normal anion gap acidosis the reduction in bicarbonate is balanced by a reciprocal increase in the chloride concentration so that the sum of the two remains unchanged. Normal anion gap acidosis is caused by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, hydrochloride salts of amino acids, toluene, amphotericin, spironolactone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The mechanism by which these substances produce metabo Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. rahulratra

    Hello All,
    I started Keto 4 weeks back and I am 5’9 with the initial weight of 219.6lbs. Using Keto calculator I started with macros as <20g Carbs, 80g Protein and 158g Fat. I have been keeping a close eye using my fitness pal and am hitting my macros continuously (sometimes fat go up to 170g) and have so far lost 13lbs.
    I do not have food cravings seeing bread, rice, chapati (which was unthinkable for me sometime back) but I still have hunger pans once in a while, mostly it feels like its for salty food. I do take some pink himalayan salt on my tongue once in a while to crave those hunger pans.
    I have read around but not sure when is time for me to start lowering down on Fats or do IF while on Keto. Should I continue this path although the weight loss is not happening for last 1 week. I feel good in general so not worried about weight loss specifically, but more confused on what should be my next steps

    BTW, this forum and the community is absolutely magnificent

  2. PaulL

    As long as you are keeping your carbs under 20g and your protein around 80g, let your body tell you how much fat to eat; in other words, add fat to your meal until you are no longer hungry and don’t get cravings between meals. Given the amounts you listed, you are eating 1822 calories a day, which is definitely not excessive. Some days you may want a little more fat, other days not so much. Just listen to your body and let it tell you the right amount to eat. Once it is assured of enough energy, it will start burning off stored fat, instead of hanging on to it. But give yourself at least several months on keto, because it can take time to become fully fat-adapted.

    As for the salt, the carbohydrate you were eating was making you retain water, and your body was storing salt in order to balance out your electrolytes. Now that you are not eating any carbohydrate to speak of, all that water has been flushed from your system, and your kidneys are excreting salt at a higher rate, so you need to pay attention to getting enough salt—and potassium and magnesium as well. (And you are right; salt on the tongue does help with calming hunger pangs.) Not only that, but recent research has been revealing that the daily recommended salt intake is ridiculously low. It seems that the “science” telling us that salt is bad for us is of the same quality as the “science” telling us to avoid fat!

  3. Shortstuff

    No need to ever lower it, just eat according to your appetite. So really just keep doing what you’re doing.

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Quickest Way to Flush Your BODY CLEAN of TOXINS. Help PREVENTS CANCER & REMOVE TOXIN from LIVER, COLON. On any given day, you may be exposed to any number of the 80,000-plus industrial chemicals in use today. Another 1,000 chemicals or so are introduced every year, according to Brenda Watson, a certified nutritional consultant and author of The Detox Strategy. These toxic substances lurk everywherein the air, water, household cleaners, perfumes, food and childrens toys. While the process of detox has its critics, natural health professionals extol its benefits for helping your body to expel toxins. Step 1 Reduce the amount of toxins you take in on a daily basis. Its self-defeating to do a detox if youre still taking in a significant amount of toxins, points out Peter Bennett, a naturopathic doctor and author of The Purification Plan. Switch to organic foods and beverages and drink filtered or distilled water. Avoid using products that contain toxins, such as household cleaners, inorganic cosmetics and perfumes, and avoid exposure to cigarette smoke or other airborne chemicals. Step 2 Eat about 30 to 40 grams of fiber daily. As Ann Louise Gittleman puts it in her book The Fast Track One-Day Detox Diet, "The colon is the garbage dump in your system, but fiber acts as a garbage truck hauling away the toxic waste." Organic vegetables, fruits and whole grains are good sources. Step 3 Drink a glass of cranberry juice combined with orange juice daily. Both juices are loaded with antioxidants that fight free radicals. Cranberry juice also enables the liver to break down fat more efficiently and contains a key ingredient, arbutin, which acts as a diuretic and draws out toxins to be excreted, according to Gittleman. Step 4 Drink at least eight 8 oz. glasses of purified water each day to increase kidney activity and speed up the removal of toxins. Water will also prevent constipation from your increased fiber intake. Step 5 Exercise for at least 30 minutes every day. When you dont exercise, the lymphatic systemwhich keeps your immune system working at peak conditionbecomes stagnant, causing waste to spill over into your body, Bennett explains. Exercise also increases sweating, which also effectively removes toxins. Step 6 Treat yourself to a full-body rub down with an organic sea salt scrub. According to Bennett, salts have detoxifying qualities and increase perspiration. They also exfoliate your skin to remove dead skin cells and dirt that may be blocking pores on your skin, another powerful detoxification organ in your body. Things You'll Need Dietary fiber Cranberry juice Orange juice Purified water Sea salt scrub Air purifier Tips Practice meditation or deep breathing for at least 15 minutes a day during your detox, which can be stressful. Also, it can help to offset detox side effects such as hunger pangs, according to Gittleman. Turn on an air purifier to eliminate airborne toxins in your home. Warnings If you have a disease or medical condition, consult your doctor before attempting a detoxification treatment.

Metabolic Acidosis Due To Drugs And Toxins

3.1.4.7.Metabolic Acidosis due to Drugs and Toxins Metabolic Acidosis due to Drugs and Toxins Several drugs and toxins have been implicated as direct or indirect causes of a high-anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). A consideration of these drugs needs to be included in an differential diagnosis of a HAGMA. The three most common ones to consider are methanol, ethylene glycol and salicylates. Other toxins which can cause acidosis are isopropyl alcohol and butoxyethanol. Toluene also causes an acidosis and the anion gap may be normal or elevated. * Initially no acid-base disorder due to long latent period while methanol is metabolised * Later, typically develop a high anion gap metabolic acidosis -due to formic acid * May also develop a respiratory acidosis secondary to CNS depression (with depression of respiratory centre and/or airway obstruction) * May occasionally present with normal anion gap acidosis if smaller ingestion * If patient is an alcoholic, there may other types of acidosis present as well (eg alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory acidosis due aspiration, respiratory alkalosis due chronic liver disease.) Principles of Treatmen Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. dumblenetwork

    Anyway to get rid of bad breath in ketosis?

    Just broke my 3rd fast today (day 4) due to feeling constantly sick throughout the day and every 10 seconds nearly puking up but instead burping, stomach pains a lot - normally to do with needing to go for a sh*t - some reason unable to, have to properly force it out.
    Was wondering how I can get rid of the foul bad breath smell as it's a major put off and something that has bothered me A LOT along with the feeling sick constantly.
    I brush my teeth but it seems to come back after an hour, tried chewing a piece of gum or two and it can still be smelt after

  2. Rogue_Biscuit

    Have you been vigilant with brushing your TONGUE?
    I never realized before, but a lot of that icky taste in you mouth comes from a film that develops on your tongue. I brush my tongue like 4 times a day when in ketosis to avoid that gross taste, haha.

  3. dumblenetwork

    I've tried brushing it once or twice and it just comes back

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ketone bodies, build up in the body. This most often occurs with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. It is also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA. Hyperchloremic acidosis results from excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from the body. This can occur with severe diarrhea. Lactic acidosis results from a buildup of lactic acid. It can be caused by: Alcohol Cancer Exercising intensely Liver failure Medicines, such as salicylates Other causes of metabolic acidosis include: Kidney disease (distal renal tubular acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis) Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Continue reading >>

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  1. airforcewife72

    Check out /r/xxketo! I wasn't on Keto while nursing because I already had low supply but I am now and have lost 25lbs so far. /r/ketobabies doesn't have a whole lot of activity as of yet.

  2. [deleted]

    I've been on a strict paleo diet (I am only lenient on cheese and some fruits) since 1 week PP and if anything I have an oversupply! I've also lost 20 pounds in the 6 weeks I've been doing it

  3. Mashiara

    Would love some insight on this. Also lost a lot of weight doing keto prior to pregnancy and /r/ketobabies doesn't really have enough activity.

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