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Lactic Acidosis Pdf

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What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Metabolic Acidosis Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis by alkali therapy is usually indicated to raise and maintain the plasma pH to greater than 7.20. In the following two circumstances this is particularly important. When the serum pH is below 7.20, a continued fall in the serum HCO3- level may result in a significant drop in pH. This is especially true when the PCO2 is close to the lower limit of compensation, which in an otherwise healthy young individual is approximately 15 mm Hg. With increasing age and other complicating illnesses, the limit of compensation is likely to be less. A further small drop in HCO3- at this point thus is not matched by a corresponding fall in PaCO2, and rapid decompensation can occur. For example, in a patient with metabolic acidosis with a serum HCO3- level of 9 mEq/L and a maximally compensated PCO2 of 20 mm Hg, a drop in the serum HCO3- level to 7 mEq/L results in a change in pH from 7.28 to 7.16. A second situation in which HCO3- correction should be considered is in well-compensated metabolic acidosis with impending respiratory failure. As metabolic acidosis continues in some patients, the increased ventilatory drive to lower the PaCO2 m Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. iwiggy58

    How quickly can you kick yourself OUT of ketosis?

    I am just starting week 3 . I have been OP totally. One thing that keeps me from cheating is the fear that I will kick myself out of ketosis. What amount of non program food would it take to throw you out of ketosis? And does a person start all over and have to go thru the headaches and trauma that happen that first week? I have heard several people go off program while on vacation and start back up again later. Is it like having to start all over again???

  2. mompattie

    It would take prob more than 40-50 carbs to kick you out of ketosis. Some can handle more carbs. But it's a slippery slope. Yes, you have to go through all the symptoms to get back in. And 3-5 days worth of food and time and money. It's like a weeks worth of money and time gone. Not worth it.

  3. IP43

    Quote:

    Originally Posted by mompattie
    It would take prob more than 40-50 carbs to kick you out of ketosis. Some can handle more carbs. But it's a slippery slope. Yes, you have to go through all the symptoms to get back in. And 3-5 days worth of food and time and money. It's like a weeks worth of money and time gone. Not worth it. I know a few times that I've had things I shouldn't, the next day or two I was starving, had cravings etc. so I think I kicked myself out of ketosis. They weren't big cheats but I think we're so close to the limit if you have a restricted item a day. I was "perusing" the Atkins site for some of their carb counts etc. and they start with 12-15g net carbs (carb-fibre) on their phase one and then add 5g netcarbs per week or something.

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This video discusses the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of NaDH to NAD+ and the reduction of acetaldehyde into an alcohol such as ethanol.

Chronic Lactic Acidosis In An Adult: A New Syndrome Associated With An Altered Redox State Of Certain Nad/nadh Coupled Reactions - Sciencedirect

Volume 48, Issue 1 , January 1970, Pages 104-112 Chronic lactic acidosis in an adult: A new syndrome associated with an altered redox state of certain NAD/NADH coupled reactions Author links open overlay panel Karl E.SussmanM.D. Get rights and content Chronically elevated blood lactic acid, pyruvic acid and increased L:P ratios have been found in a twenty-eight year old woman with episodic acidosis. The patient has no other associated disease. Alcohol ingestion increases the hyperlacticacidemia and exacerbates the patient's symptoms of weakness and easy fatiguability. Moderate exercise increases blood lactic acid levels from 3,1 to 10.2 M per ml and lowers arterial blood pH from 7.4 to 7.26. Hyperuricemia is present due to depressed uric acid clearance. Certain NAD/NADH coupled metabolic reactions are clearly shifted towards the reduced state (lactate/pyruvate, -glycerophosphate dihydroxyacetone phosphate and galactose-glucose interconversion). Skeletal muscle and liver demonstrate normal total NAD/NADH content and partition of these pyridine nucleotides. Four members of the patient's maternal family have an abnormal lactate response to the combination of alcohol ingestion and exe Continue reading >>

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  1. kaazoom

    I recently had my Hba1c tests and it was over 9 . The doctor increased my metformin from 1 tablet twice a day to 2 tablets twice a day. I was told to start by increasing the morning dose and after 2 weeks increase my evening dose. I have had a lot of stomach discomfort, and terrible indigestion since increasing the does. I work up the other morning in extreme pain like I was having a heart attack. The pain went after taking antacids. Indigestion is something I get every now and then, but it is usually due to eating something I should avoid. This day I don't think I had eaten anything that would cause it. But I had increased my evening dose of metformin, so I was and am on 4 tablets a day. I have had more general discomfort than usual, muscle pains and more breathlessness.The difficult is I have other health problems so knowing which one is caused by which is a nightmare.
    I also tend to let myself get dehydrated at night as I have bladder problems which I having investigations for at the moment. If I don't stop drinking about at about 7pm I end up waking numerous times to go to the loo. The only drink I have after 7pm is a few sips of water to help swallow my medications.
    Sorry for being so long winded. My main question is does lactic acidosis come on suddenly, or does it build up over days or weeks?
    Paul

  2. destiny0321

    Hi. If you find your metformin could be causing problems which it did with me runs,breathing problems and generally really poorly go back to your gp I did and I was put on me form in slow release which is much gentler on the stomach hope this helps you destiny
    Sent from the Diabetes Forum App

  3. kaazoom

    Thanks.
    I've got to see my GP next week about something else so I will talk to him about it. I don't think I have lactic acidosis, I was curious about whether it was sudden or gradual onset. I saw something on the TV yesterday that said patients are risking their health because they don't read the information sheets that come with their medication. So I had a look at mine. It gave a number of symptoms to watch out for including severe indigestion,muscle spasms etc it said if you have any of these symptoms when taking Metformin to go immediately to the nearest hospital A&E because these symptoms can be signs of lactic acidosis. I don't think what I'm experiencing is severe enough for A&E.
    I had muscle spasms, pains and a number of the other symptoms list prior to my diabetes diagnose due to other illnesses, and they can vary in severity. They seem to have got somewhat worse since my metformin was increased, but it could just be coincidence. The indigestion and stomach problems are particularly bad. My feeling is my body is taking time to adapt to them. i will ask my doctor if I can change to a slow release version.
    Paul

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Learn How To Make Cookie Dough Pizza Recipe At Home, from Chef Neha Naik only on Get Curried. Make this Cookie Dough Pizza, a delicious Eggless Cookie Dough Pizza Recipe at your home and share your experience with us in the comments below. Ingredients:- For Cookie Base:- 1 cup Maida cup Butter cup Powdered Sugar 1 tsp. Vanilla Essence Salt, to taste cup Chocochips For Chocolate Sauce:- 200 gms. Chocolate Compound cup Butter 100 ml. Fresh Cream Oreo Cookies 1 tbsp. Cocoa Powder Method:- 1. In a bowl, add butter, sugar & beat until creamy. Now vanilla essence and stir quickly. 2. Add flour, salt, milk & knead to form a tough dough. Add little choco chips to this and knead again 3. Line a baking tin with butter paper and spread out the dough evenly into it. 4. Bake for 20-25 mins in a pre-heated oven at 180 C, once done rest for 10 minutes and then de-mould it 5. For chocolate sauce, in a double boiler, melt the chocolate compound, add butter and stir it until butter melts. Add cocoa powder and keep stirring continuously, lastly add a little salt. 6. Once cooled down completely, spread it on the cookie base, sprinkle remaining chocolate chips and Oreo cookies. Let it sit for a couple of hours. Cut into pieces and serve. 7. You can also serve with a dollop of ice-cream. Delicious Eggless Cookie Dough Pizza is ready to eat! Host: Neha Naik Director: Rohtki Arora Camera: Kavaldeep Singh Jangwal, Pratik Gamre, Akshay Sawant, Spandan Rout Editing: Suchit Dandagaval Producer: Rajjat A. Barjatya Copyrights: Rajshri Entertainment Pvt Ltd Subscribe and Get Regular Updates: http://www.youtube.com/user/getcurrie... Download the Get Curried App by clicking on this link:- http://bit.ly/GetCurriedVegNonVegReci... https://www.facebook.com/GetCurried https://plus.google.com/+getcurried https://twitter.com/Get_Curried https://instagram.com/getcurried Subscribe and Get regular Updates: http://bit.ly/SubscribeToGetCurried https://www.facebook.com/GetCurried https://plus.google.com/+getcurried https://twitter.com/Get_Curried https://instagram.com/getcurried

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Popular Questions

  1. MathWiz

    I wasn’t sure which section I should post this in, my strategy is what I call the 4–2–1 plan, I fast 2 day non consecutive days a week, eat a low carb but not calorie restricted diet 4 days a week to keep the fat burning benefits of ketosis going and then I give myself 1 day a week to indulge and eat whatever I want, usually a Saturday pasta dinner and wonderful dessert. I also walk 4 to 6 miles a day during the week and 10 to 12 miles on Saturday.
    Low Carb plans such as Atkins can be very effective for some people including me, many people who start a low carb diet experience get what’s called the “ketosis flu” or the “induction flu” in the first few days while the body is adapting to burning ketones instead of glucose.
    The basic symptoms are:
    – Headaches
    – Nausea
    – Upset stomach
    – Lack of mental clarity (brain fog)
    – Sleepiness
    – Fatigue
    It’s called the “ketosis flu” for a reason: you feel sick. I’ve gone through it and it wasn’t a pleasant experience. Fortunately it only lasted 2 days but then suddenly I woke up feeling much better, less hungry and my energy level was really high and consistent throughout the day!
    The first time I thought to myself: “What the heck am I doing? I feel like I’m going to die!” but I persevered and when it was over I didn’t regret a thing because what I had gained mentally and physically was 100% worth it.
    For those of you that are going through the ketosis flu, don’t give up! I know you feel like it’s never going to get better but stick with it and you´ll be so happy you did! I’m telling you, waking up refreshed for the first time in years, not getting the afternoon “blah” feeling and stuffing my face with carbs to try to boost my energy is the best side effect of the low carb diet I’ve experienced. Okay, losing weight while eating good food, feeling full and satisfied is great too.
    First you have to understand why your body is reacting this way. Your body’s been burning glucose for energy so it’s basically full of enzymes that are waiting to deal with the carbs you eat, but now the body needs to make new enzymes that burn fat for fuel instead of carbs, and the transition period causes the flu-like symptoms.
    There are some things you can do to lessen the symptoms of the ketosis flu and to make it go away sooner (to force the body to transition sooner) Ok, let’s get to the good part – what to do:
    First of all – you’re probably dehydrated. Drink PLENTY of water while you’re on a low carb diet, and then drink some more.
    Watch your electrolytes. When the body is getting rid of excess insulin from your former carb-crazy diet you´ll lose lots of fluids that have been retained in your body. This causes the rapid weight loss most people see in their first few days of ketosis, it’s mostly water, sorry. When you lose all the retained water you also lose electrolytes like sodium, magnesium and potassium. When you’re lacking them you´ll feel like crap so when you’re feeling really ill on the ketosis flu try things like chicken/beef broth and look for foods rich in these minerals. Take a multi-vitamin and a multi-mineral.
    Ok, here is where people throw the red flag – Eat more fat – Yup, I said MORE fat. Have some butter, just not on a roll, eat some bacon and eggs for breakfast, just skip the potatoes and toast. This will force your body to hurry up the transition. You´ll think this is crazy and think you´ll never get lose weight eating this way, but you will.
    Don’t eat too much protein – The body can transform protein into glucose so if you eat too much of it in the first days it will slow down the transition. Go for fatty meat and cheese if you can, add fat to protein shakes etc.
    Drink water, replenish electrolytes (sodium, magnesium, potassium) with food and supplements, drink broth, eat fat and not too much protein.
    I hope this helps, and have a great day
    Charles

  2. rockyromero

    @mathwiz
    ” Take a multi-vitamin and a multi-mineral.”
    I have been forgetting to take a multi-vitamin on fast days. Thanks for the reminder.
    “Eat more fat – Yup, I said MORE fat. ”
    I will have avocado more often.

  3. AussieJess

    Thanks for that info, very interesting

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    Volume 48, Issue 1 , January 1970, Pages 104-112 Chronic lactic acidosis in an adult: A new syndrome associated with an altered redox state of certain NAD/NADH coupled reactions Author links open overlay panel Karl E.SussmanM.D. Get rights and content Chronically elevated blood lactic acid, pyruvic acid and increased L:P ratios have been found in a twenty-eight year old woman with episodic acidosis. The patient has no other associated disease. A ...

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