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Ketogenesis

Ketogenesis

Ketogenesis pathway. The three ketone bodies (acetoacetate, acetone, and beta-hydroxy-butyrate) are marked within an orange box Ketogenesis is the biochemical process by which organisms produce a group of substances collectively known as ketone bodies by the breakdown of fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids.[1][2] This process supplies energy to certain organs (particularly the brain) under circumstances such as fasting, but insufficient ketogenesis can cause hypoglycemia and excessive production of ketone bodies leads to a dangerous state known as ketoacidosis.[3] Production[edit] Ketone bodies are produced mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells, and synthesis can occur in response to an unavailability of blood glucose, such as during fasting.[3] Other cells are capable of carrying out ketogenesis, but they are not as effective at doing so.[4] Ketogenesis occurs constantly in a healthy individual.[5] Ketogenesis takes place in the setting of low glucose levels in the blood, after exhaustion of other cellular carbohydrate stores, such as glycogen.[citation needed] It can also take place when there is insufficient insulin (e.g. in type 1 (but not 2) diabetes), particularly during periods of "ketogenic stress" such as intercurrent illness.[3] The production of ketone bodies is then initiated to make available energy that is stored as fatty acids. Fatty acids are enzymatically broken down in β-oxidation to form acetyl-CoA. Under normal conditions, acetyl-CoA is further oxidized by the citric acid cycle (TCA/Krebs cycle) and then by the mitochondrial electron transport chain to release energy. However, if the amounts of acetyl-CoA generated in fatty-acid β-oxidation challenge the processing capacity of the TCA cycle; i.e. if activity in TCA cycle is low due to low amo Continue reading >>

Ketosis Symptoms

Ketosis Symptoms

Source Ketosis is the name for a state achieved on a low-carbohydrate diet. According to WebMD, when you are in ketosis, it means your body is burning fat for energy. When that happens, your body releases ketones into your bloodstream, and you are in ketosis. This state may cause a host of temporary symptoms. Understanding the Symptoms Many dieters develop symptoms that let them know ketones are present. For many people beginning a low-carb diet, ketosis kicks in after a few days of strict adherence to the diet. In fact, many low-carbohydrate plans, such as Atkins and paleo, have an initial phase in which dieters take in extremely low amounts of carbohydrates (usually less than 25 grams per day) to kick start ketosis. You can test for ketones in the urine using ketosis strips, or rely on symptoms to tell you ketosis has been achieved. Early Stages Symptoms of ketosis vary, depending how long you've been in the state. In the early stages, the symptoms may be a bit unpleasant. However, as your body adapts to ketones in the bloodstream, symptoms may decrease. Early symptoms usually last for several days or up to a week in some people. This period of symptoms is sometimes called the keto flu. It may continue until your body is used to burning fat instead of glucose. Afterwards, the levels of ketones should lessen, but that doesn't mean you aren't losing weight. It means your body has found a balance and is no longer producing excess ketones. According to Diet Doctor, early stage symptoms include: Flu-like symptoms, such as fatigue and headache Nausea Brain fog Constipation Leg cramps Feeling unusually thirsty Irritability Heart palpitations Dry mouth Ketosis breath, which smells fruity and unpleasant Decreased energy and weakness Dizziness Sleep problems Cold hands and feet Continue reading >>

Adverse Reactions To Ketogenic Diets: Caution Advised

Adverse Reactions To Ketogenic Diets: Caution Advised

As the ketogenic diet gains popularity, it’s important to have a balanced discussion regarding the merits of this diet. Let me emphasize right out of the gate that this is not a diet without merits (excuse the double negative); in fact, it has significant therapeutic potential for some clinical pathologies. However, it is also a diet with inherent risk, as evidenced by the extensive list of adverse reactions reported in the scientific literature—and this has not yet been a thorough enough part of the public discussion on ketogenic diets. The AIP Lecture Series is a 6-week video-based, self-directed online course that will teach you the scientific foundation for the diet and lifestyle tenets of the Autoimmune Protocol. This is the first of a series of articles discussing various facets of a ketogenic diet with an inclination toward balancing the discussion of the pros and cons of this high-fat, low-carb, low/moderate-protein diet. My interest in this topic stems from concerns I have over its general applicability and safety, simultaneous with its growing popularity. I feel a moral and social obligation to share what I understand of these diets, from my perspective as a medical researcher. The dangers of a ketogenic diet was, in fact, the topic of my keynote presentation at Paleo F(x) this year (links to video will be provided once available). This series of articles will share the extensive research that I did in preparation for this presentation, including all of the topics covered during my talk as well as several topics that I didn’t have time to discuss (also see the free PDF Literature Review at the bottom of this post). For every anecdotal story of someone who has regained their health with a ketogenic diet, there’s a counterpoint story of someone who derai Continue reading >>

How To Start A Ketogenic Diet For Weight Loss

How To Start A Ketogenic Diet For Weight Loss

Expert Reviewed A ketogenic diet (also known as “nutritional ketosis”) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. On a ketogenic diet, your brain uses ketones (a byproduct of your fat-burning metabolism) for fuel, instead of glucose.[1] Since humans can burn either glucose or ketones for energy, this change is possible to make, although there is some controversy surrounding ketogenic diets regarding both their efficacy and health benefit.[2] Ketosis keeps your body in a “fasting” or starvation metabolism, and consequently encourages weight loss by burning off fat reserves. While the shift to a ketogenic diet can be difficult initially, you should begin to see results after a few weeks. 1 Talk to your doctor. Although the ketogenic diet is grounded in medical and nutritional fact, there is not a universal opinion in the medical community that the diet is effective for weight-loss. Your personal doctor will be able to advise you if the diet is a good fit for you personally. Some sources view a ketogenic diet as an effective way to counter the symptoms of certain illnesses — such as epilepsy — rather than a weight-loss diet.[3] If you are pregnant or diabetic, work with your doctor so they can monitor and adjust your medications while you follow this diet. [4] If you are type-1 diabetic, seek permission from a doctor well-trained in nutrition before you start this diet. 2 Recognize the possible risks of a ketogenic diet. A ketogenic diet — and putting your body into ketosis generally — presents risks for anyone who suffers from heart or kidney problems.[5] If you are at risk for heart disease or kidney disease, avoid ketogenic diets. A ketogenic diet prescribes moderate amounts of proteins, and large amounts of fats. A ketogenic diet will also Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Experiment

Ketogenic Experiment

I used the Ketogenic Diet for 7 months, running an average of 85 miles/week, peaking at 200 miles/week, including over 50 marathon length runs. I was surprised how little impact the Ketogenic Diet had on my running, and I could maintain my training regime without difficulty. However I was not able to race successfully on the Ketogenic Diet and I found the Ketogenic Diet difficult to comply with. This write up should not be considered as scientific in any way; it is simply my anecdotal experience. As an ultrarunner, I've experimented with Low Carbohydrate Diets (LCD) before with little success. I found that running on LCD let me feeling like I was permanently Glycogen depleted. However, after reading The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance and Ketogenic Diets: Treatments for Epilepsy and Other Disorders I decided to experiment with a true Ketogenic Diet which is quite different from most general Low Carb Diets. I was on the Ketogenic Diet from March to November of 2013 (~7 months). For some of the time I was on the Ketogenic Diet I analyzed my food in detail. During this time my average diet was 3,740 Calories/day, 357g fat, 53g carbs, 27g fiber (26g Net Carbohydrates), and 88g protein. This is a Ketogenic Ratio of 3.13:1, and the calories ware 87.6% fat, 2.8% carbohydrate, 9.6% protein. I found the ketogenic diet remarkably hard work and tiresome. The food choices were grim, and it was not really possible to eat anything even vaguely like a normal diet. Even bacon was too low in fat to be eaten freely. I found my body fat dropped to its lowest level ever. However, I'm not sure how much of that is the Ketogenic Diet directly and how much is because I was analyzing everything I was eating, so I was far more aware of any excess calorie intake. Another possibili Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Seen in patients with recent history of binge drinking with little/no nutritional intake Anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with acute cessation of ETOH consumption after chronic abuse Characterized by high serum ketone levels and an elevated AG Consider other causes of elevated AG, as well as co-ingestants Concomitant metabolic alkalosis can occur from dehydration (volume depletion) and emesis Ethanol metabolism depletes NAD stores[1] Results in inhibition of Krebs cycle, depletion of glycogen stores, and ketone formation High NADH:NAD also results in increased lactate production Acetoacetate is metabolized to acetone so elevated osmolal gap may also be seen Differential Diagnosis Starvation Ketosis Binge drinking ending in nausea, vomiting, and decreased intake Positive serum ketones Wide anion gap metabolic acidosis without alternate explanation Urine ketones may be falsely negative or low Lab measured ketone is acetoacetate May miss beta-hydroxybutyrate Consider associated diseases (ie pancreatitis, rhabdomyolysis, hepatitis, infections) Oral nutrition if able to tolerate Consider bicarb if life-threatening acidosis (pH <7.1) unresponsive to fluid therapy Discharge home after treatment if able to tolerate POs and acidosis resolved Consider admission for those with severe volume depletion and/or acidosis Hypoglycemia is poor prognostic feature, indicating depleted glycogen stores See Also Continue reading >>

Low-carbohydrate Diet

Low-carbohydrate Diet

Not to be confused with slow carb diet. This article is about low carbohydrate diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss. For low-carbohydrate dietary therapy for epilepsy, see Ketogenic diet. Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption. Foods high in easily digestible carbohydrates (e.g., sugar, bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of fats and moderate protein (e.g., meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and seeds) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e.g., most salad vegetables such as spinach, kale, chard and collards), although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries) are often allowed. The amount of carbohydrate allowed varies with different low-carbohydrate diets.[1] Such diets are sometimes 'ketogenic' (i.e., they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis). The induction phase of the Atkins diet[2][3][4] is ketogenic. The term "low-carbohydrate diet" is generally applied to diets that restrict carbohydrates to less than 20% of caloric intake, but can also refer to diets that simply restrict or limit carbohydrates to less than recommended proportions (generally less than 45% of total energy coming from carbohydrates).[5][6] Definition and classification[edit] Low-carbohydrate diets are not well-defined.[7] The American Academy of Family Physicians defines low-carbohydrate diets as diets that restrict carbohydrate intake to 20 to 60 grams per day, typically less than 20% of caloric intake.[8] A 2016 review of low-carbohydrate diets classified diets with 50g of carbohydrate per day (less than 10% of total calories) as "very low" and diets with 40% of calories from carbohydrates as "mild" low-carbohydrate diets.[9] Used for Continue reading >>

Ketose

Ketose

Fructose, an example of a ketose. The ketone group is the double- bonded oxygen. A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.[1][2] The simplest ketose is dihydroxyacetone, which has only three carbon atoms, and it is the only one with no optical activity. All monosaccharide ketoses are reducing sugars, because they can tautomerize into aldoses via an aldol intermediate, and the resulting aldehyde group can be oxidised, for example in the Tollens' test or Benedict's test.[3] Ketoses that are bound into glycosides, for example in the case of the fructose moiety of sucrose, are nonreducing sugars.[3] Examples of ketoses[edit] Family tree of D-ketoses up to hexoses: dihydroxyacetone (1); D-erythrulose (2); D-ribulose (3a); D-xylulose (3b); D-psicose (4a); D-fructose (4b); D-sorbose (4c); D-tagatose (4d) All ketoses listed here are 2-ketoses, in other words, the carbonyl group is on the second carbon atom from the end: Trioses: dihydroxyacetone Tetroses: erythrulose Pentoses: ribulose, xylulose Hexoses: fructose, psicose, sorbose, tagatose Heptoses: sedoheptulose Octoses: D-manno-octulose (the basis for KDO) Nonoses: D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulose (the basis for neuraminic acid) Chemistry[edit] Ketoses and aldoses can be chemically differentiated through Seliwanoff's test, where the sample is heated with acid and resorcinol.[4] The test relies on the dehydration reaction which occurs more quickly in ketoses, so that while aldoses react slowly, producing a light pink color, ketoses react more quickly and strongly to produce a dark red color. Ketoses can isomerize to aldoses through the Lobry-de Bruyn-van Ekenstein transformation. [edit] Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Classification and external resources Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet, and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Cause Ketoacidosis Ketone bodies are acidic, but acid-base homeostasis in the blood is normally maintained through bicarbonate buffering, respiratory compensation to vary the amount of CO2 in the bloodstream, hydrogen ion absorption by tissue proteins and bone, and renal compensation t Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, medium protein, low carbohydrate diet primarily used for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. It induces ketosis, a metabolic state in which the body derives most of its energy from ketones rather than glucose. Types of ketogenic diets[edit] Evidence for a ketogenic diet[edit] In an animal model, a ketogenic diet was shown to increase mitochondrial biogenesis.[1] A similar result was found in a study of fasting mice.[2] Neurotransmitters regulate nerve impulses is the brain by either inhibiting impulse firing or exciting the neuron to fire. A primary inhibitory neurotransmitters is GABA and a primary excitatory neurotransmitters is glutamate. In patients with epilepsy, if the normal balance of inhibition and excitation is disrupted, a seizure can occur. It us unknown why ketogenic diets are protective against epilepsy. In animal models, the ketone bodies acetoacetate and acetone have anticonvulsant properities through a novel pathway.[3] Ketone bodies are also a more efficient fuel than glucose. The Charlie Foundation supports the use of ketogenic diets with children with severe epilepsy.[4] Neurodegenerative diseases[edit] There is evidence from uncontrolled clinical trials and animal models that ketogenic diets may be protective in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.[5] Mice fed a ketogenic diet had increased activity of dopaminergic neurons.[6] In a rat model of Parkinson's, a ketogenic diet was protective against neurotoxicity by up-regulating glutathione.[7] A study found dietary ketosis enhanced memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment.[8] Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit] No studies have been done on the effects of ketogenic diets in Chronic fatigue syndrome. Some CFS clinicians recomme Continue reading >>

Low-carbohydrate Diets

Low-carbohydrate Diets

Many promoters of dietary schemes would have us believe that a special substance or combination of foods will automatically result in weight reduction. That's simply not true. To lose weight, you must eat less, or exercise more, or do both. There are about 3,500 calories in a pound of body weight. To lose one pound a week, you must consume about 500 fewer calories per day than you metabolize. Most fad diets, if followed closely, will result in weight loss—as a result of caloric restriction. But they are usually too monotonous and are sometimes too dangerous for long-term use. Moreover, dieters who fail to adopt better exercise and eating habits will regain the lost weight—and possibly more. My advice to people who are considering a low-carbohydrate diet is not to try it on their own by reading a book but to seek supervision from a physician who can monitor what they do. The most drastic way to reduce caloric intake is to stop eating completely. After a few days, body fats and proteins are metabolized to produce energy. The fats are broken down into fatty acids that can be used as fuel. In the absence of adequate carbohydrate, the fatty acids may be incompletely metabolized, yielding ketone bodies and thus ketosis. Prolonged fasting is unsafe, because it causes the body to begin to digest proteins from its muscles, heart, and other internal organs. Low-carbohydrate diets also produce ketosis, but if properly designed, they enable the body's nutritional needs to be met by dietary protein, dietary fat, stored body fat, and stored glycogen, so that body muscles are spared [1]. As this "nutritional ketosis" begins, there is a diuretic (water loss) effect, leading the dieter to think that significant weight reduction is taking place. However, most of the early l Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Complete Foods

Ketogenic Complete Foods

What is ketosis? Ketosis is a natural metabolic state wherein your body runs on ketones rather than glucose for energy. It requires you maintain 0 or very few (typically under 50g per day absolute maximum) carbohydrates and only adequate levels of protein (your body can convert protein to glucose through gluconeogenesis, so overdoing protein will prevent a deep level of ketosis). High levels of fat are required to make up the calories and provide ketones. Ketosis is also the same state your body enters when fasting or starving, which you can imagine there is an immense amount of research on. However the body is perfectly equipped for a regular ketogenic diet. The Inuit are an example of a culture who have been on a ketogenic diet for thousands of years. It's also been used to treat epilepsy with significant success. The induction phase of the Atkins diet is also ketogenic. There's a somewhat uncomfortable period of adaptation, but once adapted ketosis seems to have multiple benefits and the drawbacks seem easily mitigated with complete foods. Ketosis is also sometimes confused with ketoacidosis, which is a dangerous diabetic condition. This is a misunderstanding; ketosis is not ketoacidosis. Risks A primary risk for a ketogenic diet is that avoiding carbohydrates makes it difficult to receive all the required nutrients, this is obviously not a problem for complete foods. The other main risk seems to be that it's easy to overdo protein if you are eating a lot of meat, which may be bad for your kidneys. This is also very easily controlled with complete foods. That said, please do your own research beyond this page before making a major change to your diet, and as with the rest of the wiki do not consider anything written here to constitute medical advice. Drawbacks (mitig Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

(pathology) A metabolic state in which the body produces ketones to be used as fuel by some organs so that glycogen can be reserved for organs that depend on it. This condition occurs during times of fasting, starvation, or while on a ketogenic weight-loss diet. Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet - A Connection Between Mitochondria And Diet

Ketogenic Diet - A Connection Between Mitochondria And Diet

This article is written by Dr Gabriela Segura, Consultant Cardiologist, and published here with her permission. Mitochondria are an essential part of good cardiac function. Numbers in square brackets refer to references at the bottom of the article. Contents 1 Introduction 2 Mitochondrial Dysfunction 3 Ketosis – Closer Look 4 References 5 External links Ketosis is an often misunderstood subject. Its presence is thought to be equal to starvation or a warning sign of something going wrong in your metabolism. But nothing could be farther from the truth, except if you are an ill-treated type 1 diabetic person.[1] Ketones – contrary to popular belief and myth – are a much needed and essential healing energy source in our cells that come from the normal metabolism of fat. The entire body uses ketones in a more safe and effective way than the energy source coming from carbohydrates – sugar AKA glucose. Our bodies will produce ketones if we eat a diet devoid of carbs or a low carb diet (less than 60 grams of carbs per day).[2] By eating a very low carb diet or no carbs at all (like a caveman) we become keto-adapted. In fact, what is known today as the ketogenic diet was the number one treatment for epilepsy until Big Pharma arrived with its dangerous cocktails of anti-epileptic drugs. It took several decades before we heard again about this diet, thanks in part to a parent who demanded it for his 20-month-old boy with severe seizures. The boy’s father had to find out about the ketogenic diet in a library as it was never mentioned as an option by his neurologist. After only 4 days on the diet, his seizures stopped and never returned.[3] The Charlie Foundation was born after the kid’s name and his successful recovery, but nowadays the ketogenic diet is available to th Continue reading >>

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