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Ketosis Tongue Tingle

Vitamin B12 Deficiency The Masking Effect Of Folic Acid

Vitamin B12 Deficiency The Masking Effect Of Folic Acid

What is the big deal with B12? Vitamin B12 is essential for our health. On average, we need 2.4 micrograms a day. Our bodies need it to make red blood cells, nerves, DNA, and carry out other functions. Simply put, we cannot live without it. If left untreated, it may result in death. B12 deficiency - A problem of developing countries? Most people believe that B12 deficiency is a problem of only underdeveloped countries. In the USA and other developed nations, most commonly eaten foods are fortified with vitamins and minerals. Table salt is fortified with iodine the same way as flour products are enhanced with a type of B vitamin: Folic Acid. As a result, claims of B12 deficiency are easily overlooked. A study from 2000 (Framingham Offspring Study indicated that B12 deficiency is far more widespread than formerly believed. It revealed that almost 40% of studied group of 3,000 had low values of B12. This percentage is believed to be even higher these days. If the results of the studied group are extrapolated, it means that almost two fifths of the U.S. population may be suffering from vitamin B12 deficiency. There are many more recent publications suggesting that it has become a bigger problem over the last few years. Animal products are the best sources of vitamin B12, so naturally you would think: let's just eat more of them! Oddly enough, the researchers found no association between B12 levels and animal products intake. According to the Framingham Offspring Study, it’s not because people aren’t eating enough meat, rather the vitamin isn’t getting absorbed. Why does this happen? There could be many reasons as highlighted further below. This video published on 22 Jan 2013 presents cases of four misdiagnosed patients. Its aim is to raise awareness about the B12 defi Continue reading >>

Is Tingling, Depression And Rage Caused By Low-carb?

Is Tingling, Depression And Rage Caused By Low-carb?

One of my blog friends named Debi Gerbino brought up an interesting subject regarding the low-carb lifestyle the other day in an e-mail that I haven't personally experienced nor have I heard anything about it previously. She said when she has tried the Atkins diet, her tongue started having a tingling sensation. Has anyone else either experienced or heard about this before? It was news to me. She went to see her doctor about it who referred her to a neurologist to have an MRI taken. But the doctors couldn't find anything that would cause this odd physical reaction to occur. "When I got off Atkins 6 months ago, the tingling sensation went away (but I never thought anything of it) - until now. As you know, I started Atkins again one week ago today. About two days ago, the tingling sensation returned ... it's awful. I make a connection (I think) and wondered if it could have anything to do with my 'diet' and the huge metabolic change that occurs." I'll throw the door wide open on this one. Does anyone have any insight they would like to share with Debi about her condition? Is this something you too have experienced and were able to overcome with your low-carb lifestyle? Click on the comments section below and please share your thoughts with us. Debi also mentioned that she suffers with depression and referenced this article from April 2004 printed in Psychology Today. Debi said she had a co-worker who told her that people who are depressed should avoid livin' la vida low-carb because it allegedly lowers serotonin levels in the brain which can lead to depression. I admit that I do not suffer from depression and never have. However, my wife Christine does and I have seen the way she is when she doesn't take her Paxil and Wellbutrin. In other words, I am not diminishing those Continue reading >>

Am I In Ketosis? The Symptoms And Signs Of Ketosis.

Am I In Ketosis? The Symptoms And Signs Of Ketosis.

One of the questions people who are new to the LCHF (keto/ketogenic/low carb) diet frequently ask me is: how do I know if I’m in ketosis? What are the main signs of ketosis? Everyone’s different and while some may experience all of the symptoms of ketosis, some might only feel a couple of them. Some feel none at all. There are basic signs and symptoms that indicate that you’re in ketosis. But please note that I’m differentiating between the signs of keto flu (covered in the post I’m linking to) that many experience in the first days of a ketogenic diet, and the feeling of being in ketosis when the flu has subsided: Dry mouth (eat more salt and drink more water to alleviate this). See my keto breath article here. Weight loss. Yay! Metallic taste in your mouth or a strange taste in the back of your throat. Some describe it as fruity or a little sweet. A kind of “buzzing” feeling that’s hard to describe. Almost euphoric at times. Different kind of urine smell, stronger too! “Ketosis breath” – It can range from being a little sweet to being almost like you’ve had a drink of alcohol. Less appetite. You can go for hours without eating and don’t feel very hungry. Increased energy. If you don’t experience it try to eat more fat. Also, drink more water and watch your electrolytes. A ketone strip you pee on shows a positive result. There are also blood ketone meters, or the popular ketone breath test, that give a more specific result. (Pro-tip: If you get the pee strips, cut them in half ) But do note that even with a positive pee strip it’s not 100% certain that you’re in ketosis. A very dark positive result may only indicate that you’re dehydrated. For me personally, the main signs of ketosis are hard to miss. I just feel different! It’s hard Continue reading >>

Tips To Soothe Your Burning Tongue

Tips To Soothe Your Burning Tongue

The mysterious condition of burning tongue, and how you can ease the pain For close to four months, 42-year-old Andheri resident Roma Patel felt like a fire-eater. The homemaker was battling a mouth-on-fire feeling, marked by a sudden burning sensation on the tip of her tongue and the roof of the mouth that she'd get in the evenings, and experience a dull metallic taste through the day. Patel, a tea lover, put it down to the piping hot black tea she'd sip each evening. But a medical examination pointed to her severe vitamin B12 deficiency coupled with a nerve injury due to a nasty ear infection that she had suffered a few months ago. Bandra-based pain specialist Dr Raashi Khatri-Panjabi diagnosed it as the Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS), medically also termed glossodynia. Medical journals describe it as a scalding painful sensation in the tongue, lips, palate, or throughout the mouth where no underlying dental or medical cause can be identified. Although it can be a primary illness by itself, sometimes, says the doctor who specialises in oro-facial pain, it can point to an underlying condition. Dr Ashok Dhoble, orthodontist, who practises at Opera House, confirmed that he sees 25 patients with BMS every month. The symptoms Moderate to severe burning in the mouth is the main symptom of BMS and can persist for months or years. "For most patients, the sensation begins late morning, peaks towards evening, and often subsides by night," says Khatri-Panjabi. "While some battle constant pain, for others, it's intermittent. It's also linked to anxiety and depression, which could be the result of their chronic condition," she adds. Other signs include tingling or numbness on the tip of the tongue or in the mouth, bitter or metallic changes in taste, and dry mouth (medically termed Continue reading >>

Ketosis Symptoms

Ketosis Symptoms

Ketosis symptoms are a result of the way the body gets rid of the excess ketone bodies which build up in the blood stream when a person eats a low carb, ketogenic diet. In short, the body has three ways of dealing with excess ketone bodies: First, the muscles liver and brain can burn them for energy in the cells. Second, the body can breathe ketones out through the lungs. And third, the body can flush ketones out through the kidneys and urine. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com The ketosis symptoms associated with the benign dietary ketosis caused by eating a low carb, ketogenic diet are not dangerous. They may differ for each individual, with the most common symptoms being: Ketosis breath, which has a fruity odor, and the person in deep ketosis may feel a sort of slight burning in the nose and a slight smell of ammonia. Dry mouth, which is alleviated by drinking more regular tap or bottled water. (Reverse osmosis water will make this worse.) In the first week of beginning a ketogenic diet, most people experience frequent urination followed by fatigue, as insulin levels come down, and the kidneys release extraneous water stores. Minerals such as sodium, magnesium and potassium are also lost with excreted urine, and it is the mineral loss that causes the fatigue. This can be offset by eating more salt, drinking more fluids, and increasing the intake of magnesium and potassium containing foods. (Dairy foods and avocados are high in potassium, and you can drink broth for more sodium.) A slight headache at first which goes away in a few days. This is usually a sign of not getting enough salt. Ketone bodies become detectable in the urine. Ketone bodies are molecu Continue reading >>

What Are Ketosis Side Effects?

What Are Ketosis Side Effects?

Ketosis is a state in which the body has to use protein and reserves of fat because it doesn't have enough carbohydrates, often as a result of a low-carbohydrate diet. Though ketosis on its own is not necessarily dangerous, prolonged ketosis can lead to a state called ketoacidosis in which blood becomes too acidic. Mild ketosis side effects include bad breath and gas; more significant ones include weakness, nausea, and dizziness. If ketosis occurs for a long time and leads to ketoacidosis, side effects may become more severe. In the early stages, the ketosis side effects may be quite minor. For example, acetone is created inside the mouth during ketosis. As a result, many people experience bad breath. Brushing the teeth, mouth and tongue frequently may reduce the effect of the acetone. In addition, drinking more water and eating vegetables may also reduce the effect of the ketosis. Some people complain of other side effects — sudden dizziness, weakness, fatigue, and lethargy are quite common. In addition, most people complain of headaches, especially since their body is consuming significantly fewer calories when they are dieting. Although these side effects are not life threatening, they may cause people to make simple mistakes they would not normally make. Most people follow a low-carbohydrate diet for short periods of time. If it is followed for longer durations, more severe side effects may occur as the body goes into ketoacidosis, such as kidney damage and liver damage. For example, excess protein may cause nitrogen to be released into the person’s bloodstream. When this happens, the kidneys must work extra hard to remove it through the urinary system and when fat is consumed, the fatty-acid by-product must be removed by the over-worked kidneys. Prolonged, extr Continue reading >>

Ketosis Experiment Update: I Yield

Ketosis Experiment Update: I Yield

As one commenter put it, I’ve cravenly gone “running back to my ‘safe starches'” after experimenting with nutritional ketosis (NK) for a paltry 6 days. After my update last Thursday, I made it one more day and then gave up. The meal pictured here was the safe starch bomb that rescued me from NK. It was a banana tapioca crepe topped with an entire 10-ounce bag of frozen blackberries cooked in a tablespoon of maple syrup. It was amazing. And it was my second helping, if you couldn’t tell by my soiled plate :) Here’s what happened. I felt like ass last week. I thought I’d felt fatigued before in my life, but I was wrong. For 6 days I felt the cold grips of death taking hold of my body. Plus, I’ve never felt so limited and trapped in a diet before in my life, and I’m pretty freaking good at being on restrictive diets. One commenter said she snacks on bacon grease and butter on this diet. Honestly, kudos to her, but if I did that I think I’d throw up, and either way I can’t do that because I don’t eat butter. So I was at my emotional limit of fat intake at 70+% of my diet. If I could eat cream, butter, or cheese, I may not have felt so limited and bored by my options. I don’t eat dairy, nuts, seeds, or olive oil (sensitive to all), so my fats were the following. Avocados Bacon grease Bacon Coconut oil Coconut milk Coconut manna Any other fat from meat I ate the following on one typical day. Breakfast 1 egg with veggies and salsa 3 pieces bacon 1 tablespoon bacon grease to cook it all in 1/2 avocado 2 tablespoons coconut manna Lunch 3 oz chicken 3/4 avocado with some salsa 1/2 carrot 1/2 celery stalk Dinner Very high fat pork chili with some veggies cooked in a tablespoon extra bacon grease Before bed because I was STARVING 3 tablespoons coconut mann Continue reading >>

Post-op Bariatric Surgery — Learn How To Identify Red Flags And Triage Nutritional Deficiencies

Post-op Bariatric Surgery — Learn How To Identify Red Flags And Triage Nutritional Deficiencies

Today’s Dietitian Vol. 14 No. 11 P. 50 Suggested CDR Learning Codes: 2000, 2090, 3000, 3005, 3100, 5000, 5125, 5370, 5390; Level 2 Take this course and earn 2 CEUs on our Continuing Education Learning Library Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease that has genetic, biological, and environmental origins. While traditional treatment has involved counseling individuals to restrict calories and make lifestyle changes, such as eating a nutrient-dense diet, participating in regular physical activity, and other behavior modifications, many people classified as severely obese (BMI of 40 or greater) are still unable to lose and maintain significant weight loss. In the United States, more than one-third of adults aged 20 and older are classified as being obese (BMI of 30 or greater).1 It’s been estimated that the rate of severe obesity is rapidly increasing. Between 2000 and 2005, obesity rates rose 24%; the obesity rates among those with a BMI of 40 or greater and a BMI of 50 or greater have risen by 50% and 75%, respectively.2 These climbing rates show traditional weight-loss modalities have failed to provide long-term solutions. In fact, studies have found that bariatric surgery is the only modality that leads to permanent, significant weight loss and the reduction of comorbidities for the vast majority of individuals who have severe obesity.3-8 These results appear to be the impetus for the growing popularity of bariatric surgery. In 2009 alone, it was estimated that 220,000 people underwent bariatric surgery,9 and as Medicare and private insurance companies increasingly provide reimbursement for these procedures, these numbers may grow. Because more and more people are choosing weight-loss surgery, it will be of greater importance for dietitians to educate themselv Continue reading >>

Dear Mark: Ketosis And Methylglyoxal, Microwaving Vegetables, The Role Of Salt In Cooking, And More Veggie Ideas

Dear Mark: Ketosis And Methylglyoxal, Microwaving Vegetables, The Role Of Salt In Cooking, And More Veggie Ideas

43 Comments For today’s edition of Dear Mark, I’m answering three questions. First, what’s the deal with the relationship between ketosis and methylglyoxal? Second, why did I recommend using the microwave to cook vegetables in the post from last week? Third, why do chefs use so much salt in their cooking? After all the questions, I throw in a couple more vegetable cooking tips I missed last week. Let’s go: Hey Mark, Did you see this study? Ketosis unlocks a “new” antioxidant system. Pretty cool stuff, just thought I’d pass it along. Noel Thanks, Noel. That was totally new to me. I knew that ketogenic diets had antioxidant effects, but I didn’t know the ketone bodies themselves were directly involved in detoxification of otherwise toxic compounds. Very cool. I agree. What’s going on? Methylglyoxal is one of the most reactive agents our bodies encounter. Many of the basic diseases of civilization, like diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, feature elevated methylglyoxal levels. Causation is likely. Heck, it even possesses the ability to corrupt HDL. What makes this newest study so interesting is that ketogenic diets have gotten a bad rap for their supposed effects on methylglyoxal levels in the past. Detractors commonly cite a 2005 study of the Atkin’s diet, which found that dieters who reached ketosis doubled their methylglyxoal levels. Sounds bad, but is it? According to this latest study, maybe not. One of the main ketones, acetoacetate, gloms on to methylglyoxal and converts it to a harmless metabolite. Elevated methylglyoxal might mean very different things depending on what kind of a diet produces it. Other studies have found methylglyoxal to be a potent anti-cancer agent whose users “benefited greatly,” some even becoming “free of the Continue reading >>

7,475 Possible Causes For Dizziness + Hyperkalemia + Ketosis + Pancytopenia In Usa

7,475 Possible Causes For Dizziness + Hyperkalemia + Ketosis + Pancytopenia In Usa

Myeloproliferative Disease Hyperkalemia Pancytopenia Dizziness Ketosis Polycythemia vera usually doesn’t cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages, but after progressing it may produce headache, shortness of breath, bleeding, dizziness,[mskcc.org] "Spurious hyperkalemia" has been suggested as a term for this syndrome. 3 We wish to reemphasize these findings with additional observations.[archinte.jamanetwork.com] However, extramedullary hematopoiesis (formation of blood cellular components outside the medulla of the bone) fails to arrest pancytopenia (reduction of red blood cells,[wearethecure.org] Pancytopenia Abdominal Distension Abdominal Pain Anemia Arm Pain Arteriosclerosis Back Pain Bone Marrow Biopsy Abnormal Budd-Chiari Syndrome Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Cerebellar Hemangioma Cerebral Thrombosis Chronic Urticaria Complete Blood Count Abnormal Cyanosis Ecchymosis Erythrocytes Increased Exertional Dyspnea Fibrin Degradation Products Increased Gammaglobulins Increased Globulins Increased Headache Heat Intolerance Hematocrit Increased Hemoglobin Increased Hepatomegaly Hyperglobulinemia Hypersplenism Hyperuricemia Immunoglobulin G Increased Immunoglobulin M Increased Impaired Exercise Tolerance Intracerebral Hematoma Leukemia Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Increased Leukocytosis Limb Pain Liver Ultrasound Abnormal Lysozyme Increased Massive Splenomegaly Mean Corpuscular Volume Decreased Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Monocyte Count Increased Myelosuppression Nephrolithiasis Neutrophil Count Increased Night Sweats Nodular Regenerative Hepatic Hyperplasia PO2 Decreased Pain Pallor Palpable Spleen Paresthesia Patient Appears Chronically Ill Peptic Ulcer Peripheral Gangrene Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens Priapism Pruritus Raynaud Phenomenon Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal Continue reading >>

Ketosis Symptoms

Ketosis Symptoms

Source Ketosis is the name for a state achieved on a low-carbohydrate diet. According to WebMD, when you are in ketosis, it means your body is burning fat for energy. When that happens, your body releases ketones into your bloodstream, and you are in ketosis. This state may cause a host of temporary symptoms. Understanding the Symptoms Many dieters develop symptoms that let them know ketones are present. For many people beginning a low-carb diet, ketosis kicks in after a few days of strict adherence to the diet. In fact, many low-carbohydrate plans, such as Atkins and paleo, have an initial phase in which dieters take in extremely low amounts of carbohydrates (usually less than 25 grams per day) to kick start ketosis. You can test for ketones in the urine using ketosis strips, or rely on symptoms to tell you ketosis has been achieved. Early Stages Symptoms of ketosis vary, depending how long you've been in the state. In the early stages, the symptoms may be a bit unpleasant. However, as your body adapts to ketones in the bloodstream, symptoms may decrease. Early symptoms usually last for several days or up to a week in some people. This period of symptoms is sometimes called the keto flu. It may continue until your body is used to burning fat instead of glucose. Afterwards, the levels of ketones should lessen, but that doesn't mean you aren't losing weight. It means your body has found a balance and is no longer producing excess ketones. According to Diet Doctor, early stage symptoms include: Flu-like symptoms, such as fatigue and headache Nausea Brain fog Constipation Leg cramps Feeling unusually thirsty Irritability Heart palpitations Dry mouth Ketosis breath, which smells fruity and unpleasant Decreased energy and weakness Dizziness Sleep problems Cold hands and feet Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Ketosis:

Symptoms Of Ketosis:

If you are considering the ketogenic diet or have already started down this carb-free road, you may wonder what you can expect. Here’s the thing. Ketosis looks different for everyone, but I will share many of the most common symptoms with you today. If something other than what’s listed here is happening to you, just do a quick Google search for that symptom and keto. You should be able to find what you’re looking for! The Early Signs: The early signs of ketosis vary from person to person. The biggest impact on how quickly you notice the symptoms of ketosis will have a lot to do with how you ate before you started the diet. If your diet was very high carb, you might get hit pretty quickly and furiously with what we like to call the “Keto Flu.” This can last anywhere from 3 days to a week or more. Once your body has adapted to burning ketones for energy instead of glucose, you’ll be golden so don’t give up! Here’s what you can expect within the first 2-3 days of starting the Ketogenic Diet: Fatigue & Weakness (lack of concentration) Headaches Metallic taste or sweet taste in your mouth (I experienced this, and it tasted like blood in my mouth) Lightheaded / Dizzy upon standing Heightened Thirst Hunger / Sweet or Carb Cravings Dry Mouth possibly paired with “Keto Breath.” Stomach Discomfort / Mild Nausea / Cramping Trouble Sleeping or Staying Asleep (early waking) Water weight loss (perhaps an excessive loss of weight within the first two weeks) Frequent Urination Allergies or cold like symptoms may flair up For the ladies: Period issues: You may experience a longer, shorter, earlier, later period because of Keto. Seriously it causes all of that. Each woman is different, and I have experienced every one of those issues with my period since starting ket Continue reading >>

Tongue In Disease And Remedial Diagnosis

Tongue In Disease And Remedial Diagnosis

Guest Post Written by Dr. Muhammed Rafeeque, BHMS The tongue (Lingua, Glossa) is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that is associated with the function of deglutition, taste and speech [click to tweet]. It acts as an easily accessible mirror of the health of a person and indicates the state of hydration of the body. Some characteristic changes occur on the tongue in some abnormal conditions or diseases. Hence, the examination of the tongue is essential and will provide some hints for the clinical and remedial diagnosis. It is very easy to examine the tongue in a conscious patient. The difficulty may arise in unconscious patients and in non-cooperative patients, especially the children. Small children may cry if we forcefully open their mouth, hence it can be easily examined by gently pressing above the mental-protuberance with the index finger and gradually opening the mouth, the baby will protrude the tongue automatically. Of course, it is a knack that can be gained only by experience. Appearance of tongue in some abnormal conditions: I. Movements: 1. Hemiplegia: Deviation towards the paralyzed side. 2. Tremors: Nervousness, Thyrotoxicosis, Delirium tremens and Parkinsonism. 3. Progressive Bulbar palsy: Wasting and paralysis of the tongue with fibrillation, eventually the tongue gets shrivelled and lies functionless on the floor of the mouth. II. Moistness: The moistness of the tongue gives some indication of the state of hydration of the body. Water volume depletion in a person can lead to peripheral circulatory failure characterised by weakness, increased thirst, restlessness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dry and parched tongue. Dryness of tongue is seen in: 1. Diarrhea 2. Later stages of severe illness 3. Advanced uraemia (with brownish discoloration) 4. Acute inte Continue reading >>

Long Term Very Low Carb And Ketogenic Diets = Bad News

Long Term Very Low Carb And Ketogenic Diets = Bad News

Via Spanish Caravan, a frequent commenter with let’s just say a “medical background.” ~~~ Physiological Insulin Resistatnce (PIR) results from glucose deficiency the same way mucin deficiency induces dry eyes, nostrils, colon and anemia like symptoms. They’re both ways of preserving glucose for your brain. When you VLC, your muscles become insulin resistant to preserve your glucose for the brain. So while your muscles are running on fatty acids, they become insulin resistant. This leaves glucose for your brain but the net result is your BG going up as you’re “physiologically” insulin resistant. There doesn’t really seem to a problem with this state, as there is with mucin deficiency; it’s not known to induce diabetes or make prediabetics diabetic. At least not according to those who advocate VLCing. I have a feeling however, that this is a disease-prone state. The effects of low carbohydrate diets on insulin sensitivity depend on what is used to replace the dietary carbohydrate, and the nature of the subjects studied. Dietary carbohydrates may affect insulin action, at least in part, via alterations in plasma free fatty acids. In normal subjects a high-carbohydrate/low-GI breakfast meal reduced free fatty acids by reducing the undershoot of plasma glucose, whereas low-carbohydrate breakfasts increased postprandial free fatty acids. Why is it disease-prone? Because high serum free fatty acids are implicated in various disease states, especially immune related (and also diabetes in some cases). High serum FFA and very low trigs that we see among those who VLC are associated with nascent autoimmunity, especially rheumatic autoimmunity. See: Low fasting serum triglyceride level as a precocious marker of autoimmune disorders. We’re talking about triglycer Continue reading >>

An Update On 'tingling' Tongue Problem While On A Low-carb Diet

An Update On 'tingling' Tongue Problem While On A Low-carb Diet

I receive quite a bit of e-mail from people on a daily basis who have all sorts of questions about livin’ la vida low-carb. And it quite literally runs the gamut from how do you start on a low-carb diet to why have I “only” lost 10 pounds after two weeks to some really serious health concerns that people are worried their low-carb diet is either causing or exacerbating. I’ve seen it all and I happily answer every single one of these e-mails by responding myself or copying in any number of the low-carb expert friends I have had the privilege of interviewing on my podcast show. It’s a privilege to be able to serve my readers who have honest questions that they feel need to be addressed. But I do happen to think it’s funny how whenever someone on a low-carb diet gets something odd going on with their body, the first thing many of them tend to blame is the diet itself. I addressed this subject in a blog post a few years back because I was seeing it time and time again from well-meaning people who wanted to know why low-carb was doing this or that to them. I never understood that because you don’t hear people walking around with various aches and pains stating, “Darn that low-fat, high-carb diet!” It just doesn’t happen unless you are on low-carb. Human nature can be a strange lot. I wanted to provide an update on an e-mail that I blogged about in 2005 from a reader at the time who was experiencing a “tingling” sensation in her tongue claiming that it only happened when she was on the low-carb lifestyle. Honestly, I was perplexed at this one and could explain what was physically happening to her. What I did know at the time was that it didn’t seem plausible that eating a carbohydrate-restricted diet could lead to this kind of funky symptom, but I wa Continue reading >>

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