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Ketosis Survival Mechanism

How Too Much Protein Is Bad For Ketosis

How Too Much Protein Is Bad For Ketosis

One of the well-known mantras of the ketogenic diet is very low carb intake and high fat intake. But there’s another nutrient that’s important to monitor when going keto—and a lot of people make the mistake of not considering its importance. That would be protein. Although protein is a critical element in the diet we need for optimal health, it’s important to not eat TOO much protein on the ketogenic diet. Why? Well, there are a couple reasons that we’ll be discussing below. How Too Much Protein is Bad for Ketosis The biggest energy source on the ketogenic diet is fat. In fact, around 75% of your diet should come from healthy fat sources. The key here is that, unlike the traditional idea of low-carb diets where protein is higher, protein intake should bemoderate, not high, on keto. Not following this advice will never allow your body to enter ketosis, which is the main point of going keto and reaping all of the amazing benefits. The reason too much protein is bad for ketosis is because our bodies have a fundamental energy process called gluconeogenesis. For a deeper dive into the topic, see our post on fixing the biggest ketosis mistakes. For now we shoud know the basics. Let’s break it down this mouthful of a term. The word gluconeogenesis has three parts to it, Gluco – coming from the greek root glukos – literally meaning “sweet wine.” Neo – “new” Genesis – “creation” So a great way to think about it is this is how your body creates new sweet wine for your body. Some people tout that “you don’t need carbohydrates to survive,” which is only partially true. To clarify, you don’t need to eat any carbs to survive, but make no mistake, your body needs carbs in the form of glucose and glycogen, and it will get this via survival mechan Continue reading >>

Ketosis Diet

Ketosis Diet

*Teaser: This transformation picture of us was 8 weeks of progress. Kodie ate 2 days 3 servings carbs, 1 day 1 serving carbs alternating, & Tanner's carb consumption was strategic according to mode of exercise. ​ Ketosis Diet: What is it and is it beneficial? The Ketosis diet can be characterized by high fat, low carb. The goal of the diet is to force the body to produce ketones which are created from the breakdown of fats in the liver. This does not happen from starving the body of calories but it stems from starving the body of carbohydrates. Benefits you can find on the web of the Ketosis diet: 1. Control of cholesterol and blood pressure 2. Decreased acne 3. Increased energy and normalized hunger 4. Increased mental focus 5. Control of blood sugar 6. Increased weight loss But wait..don't those benefits sound familiar? Isn't that what every "diet" does? Stay tuned for tomorrow's post regarding all types of diets and find out THE MOST BENEFICIAL ONE!!! Back to Ketosis... An example Ketosis meal plan will lead to a macronutrient breakdown of: 10-25% carbohydrate, 25-40% protein, and 35-65% fat. As I have referenced many time, fats are much more dense in calories than the other 2 macronutrients. For example, 2 pieces of Dave's Killer bread are about 240 calories. 25 almonds are about 180 calories. This forces someone on the keto diet to ingest a lot less food in comparison to the typical meal plan with macro balance. This is beneficial for some that are on the go constantly and are not big eaters but for those of us that enjoy quantity of food, this really limits intake. Exogenous Ketones: Another supplement that increases laziness and ensures results Uh huh...typical of a supplement company to promise something that allows for results without having to work for it. W Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Metabolic Flexibility In Action

Ketosis: Metabolic Flexibility In Action

Ketosis is an energy state that your body uses to provide an alternative fuel when glucose availability is low. It happens to all humans when fasting or when carbohydrate intake is lowered. The process of creating ketones is a normal metabolic alternative designed to keep us alive if we go without food for long periods of time. Eating a diet low in carb and higher in fat enhances this process without the gnawing hunger of fasting. Let’s talk about why ketones are better than glucose for most cellular fuel needs. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com Body Fuel Basics Normal body cells metabolize food nutrients and oxygen during cellular “respiration”, a set of metabolic pathways in which ATP (adenosine triphosphate), our main cellular energy source is created. Most of this energy production happens in the mitochondria, tiny cell parts which act as powerhouses or fueling stations. There are two primary types of food-based fuel that our cells can use to produce energy: The first cellular fuel is glucose, which is commonly known as blood sugar. Glucose is a product of the starches and sugars (carbohydrates) and protein in our diet. This fuel system is necessary, but it has a limitation. The human body can only store about 1000-1600 calories of glucose in the form of glycogen in our muscles and liver. The amounts stored depend on how much muscle mass is available. Men will be able to store more because they have a greater muscle mass. Since most people use up about 2000 calories a day just being and doing normal stuff, you can see that if the human body depended on only sugar to fuel itself, and food weren’t available for more than a day, the body would run Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diets And Alzheimer’s Disease

Ketogenic Diets And Alzheimer’s Disease

1. Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, accounting for over 50% of individuals affected [1]. This disease is characterized by progressive memory impairment and cognitive decline interfering with daily life activities. The most common early symptom of AD is difficulty remembering recent events. The symptoms of patients with advancing disease can include executive dysfunction, disorientation, problems with language, mood swings, behavioral changes and impaired self-care [2]. Age-standardized prevalence for individuals aged over 60 years varied between 5% and 7% in most world regions [3]. An estimated 35.6 million people lived with dementia worldwide in 2010, with numbers expected to almost double every 20 years [3]. AD has a long preclinical phase of several decades and the most important risk factor for AD is increasing age. Impaired vascular health has been shown to be another major risk factor for cognitive decline and interventions for cardiovascular risk may therefore improve cognitive health at the population level [4,5]. Other lifestyle-related factors, such as obesity, diabetes, smoking, diet, physical and mental inactivity, have been suggested to play a role in dementia, and potential preventive measures related to these risk factors should be investigated [6]. AD is neuropathologically defined by neuronal loss and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-containing plaques and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein-containing neurofibrillary tangles in the brain [7]. The accumulation of abnormally folded Aβ and tau proteins in amyloid plaques and neuronal tangles, respectively, appear to be causally associated with the neurodegeneration in AD [8]. However, Continue reading >>

The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating

The Beginners Guide To Ketosis: Investigating Low-carb, High-fat Eating

The only hard and fast rule of health is that health is personal and what works well for one person may not work for someone else. Aside from that rule, there are “frameworks” that seem to benefit large groups of people. One more level down from that are alternative strategies that benefit smaller groups. Ketosis is likely one of those alternative strategies that works well for certain, smaller groups of people. So, right off the bat I want you to understand that Ketosis might not be for everyone. I’m going to lay out the case for potential benefits of Ketosis. If it sounds interesting and beneficial to you, then consider trying it. (see our free cheat sheet to help you). What is Ketosis Ketosis occurs when liver glycogen gets depleted and the body burns fatty acids for fuel. The primary driver of this state is a very low carbohydrate intake. Often, it also requires a low protein, higher fat intake. You can also achieve a state of ketosis by not eating altogether. The creation of ketones is a byproduct of this metabolic state. Ketones are a source of fuel, just as glucose is a source of fuel. Ketones tend to have some added benefits, though. What role does Ketosis play in human health? Ketosis allows our bodies to function in the absence of carbohydrates, both physically and mentally. Instead of burning carbohydrates, or converting protein to glucose, the body burns ketones. This is pretty much a survival mechanism. It allows your body to function in a state of caloric deprivation. This is why ketosis often gets bad press (as it’s linked to “starvation”). Being a survival mechanism doesn’t make it invalid as a strategy, though. There can still be potential benefits to be had. Let’s cover a few of them… Ketosis and Accelerated Fat Loss Being in ketosis Continue reading >>

Ketosis For Metabolism Control

Ketosis For Metabolism Control

We know that simply counting calories doesn’t work for weight loss. The threadbare ideas of “calories in versus calories out” and “just eat less and exercise more” are outdated concepts, and not effective long-term. However we do know that the quality of your diet has a tremendous impact on your hormones, satiety, and body composition. In this article, we cover how ketosis for metabolic control wins out over other ways to try and lose fat. How Ketosis Changes Metabolism Let’s do a very quick overview of metabolism in the context of ketosis: When the average person eats, their body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose to be used as energy for all functions of the body. In this case, carbohydrates provide the main fuel source for the body. But when someone is in ketosis, either from eating a ketogenic diet or from fasting, their body is instead breaking down fats into ketone bodies for energy. These ketone bodies are then used to provide the body with a constant source of energy instead of carbs. Being in ketosis allows you to literally shift your metabolism. Now, let’s look at some of the powerful ways ketosis can be used for maintaining a healthy metabolism: Calorie Restriction Versus Ketosis As we prefaced above, simply reducing calories to lose weight is not effective. We know this based on research from people like Gary Taubes. And that’s just part of the story: it can actually be harmful to your metabolism and lower metabolic rate (the amount of calories the body burns per day) — just look at the long-term results from past winners of the Biggest Loser. After forcing the body into caloric reduction, the contestants’ metabolisms dropped, leading to weight loss plateaus and weight regain. In contrast, research has also shown that when we fast, th Continue reading >>

Review Article Ketogenic Diets As An Adjuvant Cancer Therapy: History And Potential Mechanism

Review Article Ketogenic Diets As An Adjuvant Cancer Therapy: History And Potential Mechanism

Introduction Numerous dietary components and supplements have been evaluated as possible cancer prevention agents; however, until recently few studies have investigated diet as a possible adjuvant to cancer treatment. One of the most prominent and universal metabolic alterations seen in cancer cells is an increase in the rate of glycolytic metabolism even in the presence of oxygen [1]. Although increased glucose uptake by tumor cells was thought to support increased cancer cell proliferation and energy demands, recent studies suggest that increased tumor cell glycolytic metabolism may represent an adaptive response to escape metabolic oxidative stress caused by altered mitochondrial oxygen metabolism [2–4]. These data support the hypothesis that cancer cells are reliant on increased glucose consumption to maintain redox homeostasis due to increased one electron reductions of O2 to form O2•− and H2O2 in mitochondria. This divergence from normal cell metabolism has sparked a growing interest in targeting mitochondrial oxygen metabolism as a means of selectively sensitizing cancer cells to therapy [5–17]. In this regard, dietary modifications, such as high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets that enhance mitochondrial oxidative metabolism while limiting glucose consumption could represent a safe, inexpensive, easily implementable, and effective approach to selectively enhance metabolic stress in cancer cells versus normal cells. What is a ketogenic diet? A ketogenic diet consists of high fat, with moderate to low protein content, and very low carbohydrates, which forces the body to burn fat instead of glucose for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Generally, the ratio by weight is 3:1 or 4:1 fat to carbohydrate+protein, yielding a diet that has an energy dis Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Ketosis, Ketogenic Diet And Food Intake Control: A Complex Relationship

Introduction Hunger and satiety are two important mechanisms involved in body weight regulation. Even though humans can regulate food intake by will, there are systems within the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate food intake and energy expenditure. This complex network, whose control center is spread over different brain areas, receives information from adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and from blood and peripheral sensory receptors. The actions of the brain's hunger/satiety centers are influenced by nutrients, hormones and other signaling molecules. Ketone bodies are the major source of energy in the periods of fasting and/or carbohydrate shortage and might play a role in food intake control. Hypothalamic Control of Feeding/Appetite/Hunger The hypothalamus is the brain's main center responsible for hunger/satiety (H/S) control. In the theory that Mayer proposed more than 60 years ago, he assigned a central role to glucose levels in the H/S control: the so-called “glucostatic theory” (Mayer, 1955). Mayer suggested that depletion of carbohydrate availability leads to hunger, and the hypothalamic centers with receptors sensitive to glucose levels might be involved in the short-term regulation of energy intake (Mayer, 1955). The “feeding center” in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), according to the glucostatic theory, reacts to the between-meal fall of blood glucose and stimulates food intake. The LHA contains glucose-inhibited neurons that are stimulated by hypoglycemia, a process crucial to mediating the hyperphagia normally induced by hypoglycemia. The subsequent post-prandial hyperglycemia activates the “satiety center” in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which contains glucose-excited neurons and inhibits both “feeding ce Continue reading >>

Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood

Metabolic Effects Of The Very-low-carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "villains" Of Human Metabolism

Go to: The Ketone Bodies are an Important Fuel The hormonal changes associated with a low carbohydrate diet include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagon. This activates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase and also inhibits pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and glucokinase. These changes indeed favor gluconeogenesis. However, the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis. In the liver in the well-fed state, acetyl CoA formed during the β-oxidation of fatty acids is oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the citric acid cycle. However, when the rate of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is accelerated, as, for example, during very low carbohydrate intake, the liver converts acetyl CoA into ketone bodies: Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. The liver cannot utilize ketone bodies because it lacks the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase required for activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl CoA [3]. Therefore, ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain) for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. Indeed, the use of ketone bodies replaces most of the glucose required by the brain. Not all amino acid carbon will yield glucose; on average, 1.6 g of amino acids is required to synthesize 1 g of glucose [4]. Thus, to keep the brain supplied with glucose at rate of 110 to 120 g/day, the breakdown of 160 to 200 g of protein (close to 1 kg of muscle tissue) would be required. This is clearly undesirable, and the body limits glucose utilization to reduce the need for gluconeogenesis Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet

The Ketogenic Diet

The Ketogenic Diet Over the past few decades practitioners and researchers have been searching for the holy grail of macros for fat loss. During that search, the Ketogenic Diet has been extensively studied because it is an interesting tool as it “hacks” an aspect of our physiology. Is that hack something that conveys additional weight loss benefits? We dive into the research and talk about the practical applications of ketogenic diets. Now before we dive in I want to be honest about personal stance and plant a flag in the middle of the open. I am going to be upfront about my stance before you dive into this article so you can gauge my level of bias and take the writing below with whatever level of salt you feel necessary. I don’t hate the Ketogenic Diet. I find it to be a tool that can be used successfully in some context and unsuccessfully in others. Now with that out of the way lets dive into the science What is the Ketogenic Diet? A full, deep, nuanced discussion of what exactly the ketogenic diet is beyond the scope of this article. However a basic understanding of if is necessary and for those of you who are new to the concept let me break it down quick and dirty (a lot of this is borrowed from our previous article on the same topic) Ketosis is a metabolic state that occurs when dietary carbohydrates are in such low quantities that your body must rely almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism to produce ATP. You have tissues in your body that can utilize either carbohydrates or fat and function fairly well (e.g. muscle tissue)*. You also have tissues in your body that use glucose really well but can’t really function on fatty acid metabolism (e.g. your brain). This is part of the reason why regulating blood glucose is pretty important Continue reading >>

Metabolism And Ketosis

Metabolism And Ketosis

Dr. Eades, If the body tends to resort to gluconeogenesis for glucose during a short-term carbohydrate deficit, are those who inconsistently reduce carb intake only messing things up by not effecting full blown ketosis? If the body will still prefer glucose as main energy source unless forced otherwise for at least a few days, is it absolutely necessary to completely transform metabolism for minimal muscle loss? Also, if alcohol is broken down into ketones and acetaldehyde, technically couldn’t you continue to drink during your diet or would the resulting gluconeogenesis inhibition from alcohol lead to blood glucose problems on top of the ketotic metabolism? Would your liver ever just be overwhelmed by all that action? I’m still in high school so hypothetical, of course haha… Sorry, lots of questions but I’m always so curious. Thank you so much for taking the time to inform the public. You’re my hero! P.S. Random question…what’s the difference between beta and gamma hydroxybutyric acids? It’s crazy how simple orientation can be the difference between a ketone and date rape drug…biochem is so cool! P.P.S. You should definitely post the details of that inner mitochondrial membrane transport. I’m curious how much energy expenditure we’re talkin there.. Keep doin your thing! Your Fan, Trey No, I don’t think people are messing up if they don’t get into full-blown ketosis. For short term low-carb dieting, the body turns to glycogen. Gluconeogenesis kicks in fairly quickly, though, and uses dietary protein – assuming there is plenty – before turning to muscle tissue for glucose substrate. And you have the Cori cycle kicking in and all sorts of things to spare muscle, so I wouldn’t worry about it. And you can continue to drink while low-carbing. Continue reading >>

Anti-aging And Weight Loss With A Ketogenic Diet

Anti-aging And Weight Loss With A Ketogenic Diet

Is it possible to slow down or roll back your aging clock by what you are eating? Most people would agree that what you eat can have a significant impact on your health and aging. But what foods should you focus on to help you tap into the proverbial fountain of youth? Mounting evidence, through research and case studies, is demonstrating the value of adopting a ketogenic diet to reverse the aging process and help with a number of chronic, metabolic diseases including Type 2 Diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and cancer. What Are Ketones? Ketogenic diets get their name from an alternative fuel source your body can produce called ketone bodies, or simply called ketones. When blood glucose levels become low, your liver breaks down fatty acids, which are converted into ketones. Your brain and heart rely on ketones as a vital energy source during periods of fasting. This is a valuable survival mechanism passed down by our ancestors, who may have had to go several days or longer without eating. Without this survival mechanism, the human race would no longer be. What Is A Ketogenic Diet? Ketogenic diets are high in healthy fats, from sources such as avocados, coconut oil, raw nuts and seeds, and grass-fed sources of eggs, cheese, butter and meats. Adequate protein is included and carbohydrates are very limited. Under these ratios, your body shifts from relying on glucose as a fuel source to converting fatty acids to ketones as a “clean” fuel source. The mitochondria of your cells can produce energy from either glucose or ketones. During this process of energy production free radicals are also produced, which can damage your mitochondria. Free radical production is much less when the mitochondria are using ketones instead of glucose as a fuel s Continue reading >>

Why Go On A Ketogenic Diet

Why Go On A Ketogenic Diet

The latest low carb fad is definitely nutritional ketosis. You’ve probably heard about it and are wondering, why go on a ketogenic diet. Ketosis is an innate part of our biology. It’s a metabolic state in which the body has shifted from using glucose as its primary fuel source into burning fat for fuel. Our body is made to burn fat. The adipose tissue acts like a black hole with infinite storage capacity. Any surplus calorie we don’t need right away gets deposited for future use. When in ketosis, we’ll be withdrawing energy from our own body fat to maintain a caloric balance. In the ancestral landscape, it would happen at times of food scarcity. Nutritional ketosis is the tool that helps us to survive famine and is an evolutionary mechanism. After the agricultural revolution, food has become more than abundant. We have year-round access to calories and scarcity has become a thing of the past. In addition to that, those calories are mainly derived from sugar. Because nutritional ketosis can only be induced by the lack of carbohydrates, this metabolic pathway has become deviant. Being in a constantly fed state and burning only glucose teaches the body to become dependent of it. Every function of an organism is there for a reason and the result of necessity. If there isn’t a way to start using fat for fuel, then ketosis won’t occur. What’s wrong with that? It doesn’t look like we’ll be facing famine any time soon, but losing this vital mechanism would be very detrimental. That’s why go into ketosis, at least every once in a while. The reason, why go on a ketogenic diet, isn’t only about survival. Its greatest benefits are not losing body fat or increasing your chances to make it, once sh*t hits the fan. The difference between burning sugar and fat is Continue reading >>

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