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Ketosis Sleep Quality

The Current Status Of The Ketogenic Diet In Psychiatry

The Current Status Of The Ketogenic Diet In Psychiatry

1Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia 2Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia 3Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used in treatment-resistant epilepsy since the 1920s. It has been researched in a variety of neurological conditions in both animal models and human trials. The aim of this review is to clarify the potential role of KD in psychiatry. Methods: Narrative review of electronic databases PubMED, PsychINFO, and Scopus. Results: The search yielded 15 studies that related the use of KD in mental disorders including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These studies comprised nine animal models, four case studies, and two open-label studies in humans. In anxiety, exogenous ketone supplementation reduced anxiety-related behaviors in a rat model. In depression, KD significantly reduced depression-like behaviors in rat and mice models in two controlled studies. In bipolar disorder, one case study reported a reduction in symptomatology, while a second case study reported no improvement. In schizophrenia, an open-label study in female patients (n = 10) reported reduced symptoms after 2 weeks of KD, a single case study reported no improvement. In a brief report, 3 weeks of KD in a mouse model normalized pathological behaviors. In ASD, an open-label study in children (n = 30) reported no significant improvement; one case study reported a pronounced and sustained response to KD. In ASD, in four controlled animal studies, KD significantly reduced ASD-related behaviors in mice and rats. In ADHD, in one controlled t Continue reading >>

Top-3 Mineral Deficiencies On A Ketogenic Diet (and How To Fix It)

Top-3 Mineral Deficiencies On A Ketogenic Diet (and How To Fix It)

A common question I get asked after clients start a ketogenic diet is “why do I feel lousy?” Like them, you’re probably thinking going keto will provide an immediate mental and physical boost. For some, it will. For others, you may experience adverse symptoms, also known as the “keto flu”. When you start a very low-carb ketogenic diet, you’ll flush water and sodium out of your body in the first few weeks. As your sodium levels fall, so too will potassium levels. This can leave you feeling tired, sluggish, and wondering what you got yourself into. Fear not, it’s only temporary. Here are some suggestions for avoiding key mineral deficiencies when jumping into a ketogenic diet. Sodium One of the biggest health and nutrition “myths” is that you should avoid salt. If you’re fit, healthy, and following a keto diet you’ll lose water and sodium in the first few weeks. For athletes, this problem can be compounded because you also lose sodium through your sweat, and as your sweat rate increases, your sodium and blood volume will decline. Not a good recipe for optimal energy and performance. On the flip side, if you’re overweight, out of shape or in poor health then your body is likely already holding on to too much sodium from high consumption of packaged and processed foods (i.e. sodium is used as the primary preservative) or from chronically elevated insulin levels. Therefore, a low-carb or keto approach is great way to restore healthy levels. Symptoms of low sodium include fatigue, headaches, compromised ability to perform (especially outdoors in the heat) and in more serious cases you may pass out. Remember that most of the sodium in your body is found in your bloodstream, so if your body gets deficient, you don’t have many reserves to tap into. In t Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet Explained

The Ketogenic Diet Explained

What is a Ketogenic Diet? People seem to have the notion that every low carb diet is a ketogenic diet but that's just wrong. Not every low carb diet lets you go into ketosis, but a ketogenic diet is always a low carb diet. So, what is this thing they call a Ketogenic diet? A ketogenic diet is a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet usually recommended for weight loss, among other functions. Those who promote the diet claim a person can lose weight by avoiding foods high in carbs and supplement them instead with moderate amounts of protein and high amounts of healthy fats. In fact, studies have shown how low-carb diets are effective for weight loss and can actually lead to a whole roster of health improvements. And no, you don’t need to count the calories. High Fat Low Carb Diet vs. Ketogenic Diet Is every high-fat, low-carb diet a ketogenic diet? The short answer is no. Being on a low-carb diet means to consume carbs at a lower amount compared to the average diet, particularly the Western diet. There is no real measure, but experts say you have to limit carb consumption to 100-150 g to call anything a low-carb diet. On the other hand, a ketogenic diet is all about ketosis and experts say you need to limit carb intake to not more than 50 g to maintain ketosis. Some even say ketosis only happens when you go as low as 20 g per day which is considered ultra-low. Again, the difference between a typical high-fat low-carb diet and a ketogenic diet is the end goal. A high-fat low-carb diet's purpose is to simply limit carb intake while a person who is on a ketogenic diet should strive to be in a constant state of ketosis. The range of carbs vary but a ketogenic diet is much more restrictive than your typical high-fat, low-carb diet. Ketosis The end goal of a ketogenic diet is for th Continue reading >>

Getting Better Sleep — Cool, Dark, And Lots Of B6, Carbs, Calories, And Fat

Getting Better Sleep — Cool, Dark, And Lots Of B6, Carbs, Calories, And Fat

recently posted some sleeping tips. A lot of other great bloggers write about sleep too, like Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf, and Stephan Guyenet. I think sleep is really important, and I’ve had a lot of sleeping problems in the past, some of which I still occasionally struggle with, so I’m going to follow suit and post the things that have helped me most. Over a number of years, I’ve found that many things impact my ability to sleep, but from among these I can distill a handful of things I’ve found most critical: A cool, dark room. Light and phsyical activity upon waking. Lots of carbs, calories, and fat. Sufficient B6-rich foods. I need to have close to total darkness in the room when I fall asleep, and a sleep mask helps to prevent any residual light from reaching my eyes. A sleep mask does almost nothing if there’s lots of light in the room, as light on the skin seems to have a lesser effect than light on the eyes, but a nevertheless very meaningful impact. As my sleep has improved over the last two years, I’ve become less sensitive to light, perhaps because better sleep itself has begun normalizing my metabolic disturbances. But by “less sensitive” I mean that I can tolerate residual light sneaking in around the edges of curtains. I don’t mean I can tolerate no curtains or a light being on in the hallway, either of which would keep me up all night. I hope in the future my light tolerance continues to improve, as it makes no sense to me that humans are not designed to be able to tolerate at least the equivalent of moonlight and starlight. In addition to being dark, the room also has to be cool. I need a fan if the temperature gets much higher than 65F, and below 60F is ideal. I have also found that waking up at a regular time and immediately exposing mysel Continue reading >>

Keto Diet Improves Sleep

Keto Diet Improves Sleep

Can the keto diet help you catch higher quality Zs? Getty Images Seven months ago, when April Stratemeyer first started the ketogenic diet which eschews carbs in favor of high-fat foods her sleep cycle veered way off course. I would try to go to sleep at my normal time, and was wide awake. When I would finally fall asleep, Id toss and turn, waking up every couple hours, says the Seattle resident. Her FitBit confirmed the drop in sleep quality. It informed Stratemeyer that she was getting only 5 to 10 percent deep sleep when she usually clocked around 20 percent. Yet after a few weeks went by, Stratemeyer noticed another, more positive change. She was going to bed at a reasonable time, falling asleep fairly quickly, and sleeping deeply throughout the night. And in the mornings, she woke up refreshed and ready to go, rather than groggily hitting her snooze button a handful of times. I learned relatively quickly that sometimes, your body can do weird things on keto, Stratemeyer says. One of those weird things may be improving sleep. Keto all the rage these days is a low-carbohydrate diet that helps with glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and even the decrease of triglycerides [fats in your blood], explains Vanessa M. Rissetto , MS, RD, CDN, a registered dietitian/nutritionist who specializes in weight loss and weight management. Despite the buzz, its no overnight fad. The ketogenic diet has actually been around since the 1920s, when doctors prescribed it to help reduce epileptic seizures . (And its still used for that purpose today.) People following a keto diet aim to eat no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day. (As a point of reference, one plain bagel = 48 grams of carbs.) Fatty foods like eggs, meat, butter, cream, mayonnaise, and most cheeses arent just acc Continue reading >>

Three Consecutive Weeks Of Nutritional Ketosis Has No Effect On Cognitivefunction, Sleep, And Mood Compared With A High-carbohydrate, Low-fat Diet Inhealthy Individuals: A Randomized, Crossover, Controlled Trial.

Three Consecutive Weeks Of Nutritional Ketosis Has No Effect On Cognitivefunction, Sleep, And Mood Compared With A High-carbohydrate, Low-fat Diet Inhealthy Individuals: A Randomized, Crossover, Controlled Trial.

1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Aug 1;110(2):349-357. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz073. Three consecutive weeks of nutritional ketosis has no effect on cognitivefunction, sleep, and mood compared with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet inhealthy individuals: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial. Iacovides S(1), Goble D(2), Paterson B(1)(2), Meiring RM(2)(3). (2)Movement Physiology Research Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwaters and rand, Johannesburg, South Africa. (3)Department of Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. BACKGROUND: The high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) has become an increasingly populardiet not only in overweight/obese populations, or those with clinical conditions,but also in healthy non-overweight populations.OBJECTIVE: Because there are concerns about the association between high-fatdiets and cognitive decline, this study aimed to determine the effects of a KDcompared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on cognitivefunction, sleep, and mood in healthy, normal-weight individuals.METHODS: Eleven healthy, normal-weight participants (mean age: 309 y)completed this randomized, controlled, crossover study. Participants followed 2isocaloric diets-an HCLF diet (55% carbohydrate, 20% fat, and 25% protein) and a KD (15% carbohydrate, 60% fat, and 25% protein)-in a randomized order for aminimum of 3 wk, with a 1-wk washout period between diets. Measures of-hydroxybutyrate confirmed that all participants were in a state of nutritional ketosis during post-KD assessments (baseline: 0.20.2 mmol/L; KD: 1.00.5mmol/L; washout: 0.20.1 mmol/L; and HCLF: 0.30.2 mmol/L). Cognitivefunction was assessed using a validated, psychological computer-based testbattery befor Continue reading >>

#160: Alessandro Ferretti, Dip Ion- Time-restricted Feeding, Sleep And Ketogenic Applications

#160: Alessandro Ferretti, Dip Ion- Time-restricted Feeding, Sleep And Ketogenic Applications

Listen to the Audio MP3 Have an iPhone? Click here to listen in iTunes About Alessandro Ferretti, Dip ION, mBANT Alessandro graduated from the Institute of Optimum Nutrition in 2001 and formed Equilibria Health Ltd with my partner Jules in 2004. With a growing team of Nutritionists and a Medical Doctor, Equilibria Health is now recognized as one of the UK’s leading providers of nutrition education. Connect www.alessandroferretti.co.uk www.facebook.com/aless.ferretti www.twitter.com/alexequilibria Sponsored Content Over 30 health experts came together to help you overcome thyroid dysfunction. This is an amazing summit, airing from October 24-31, 2016. Here are a few key talks: Sidney Baker, MD: How Parasites Can Rebalance Your Immune System Ben Lynch, ND: Your Genes Are Not Your Destiny Alessio Fasano, MD: Latest Research on Leaky Gut from a Leading Harvard Scientist Belly Fat Effect: The Real Secret About How Your Diet, Intestinal Health, and Gut Bacteria Help You Burn Fat Interview Show Notes 02:04Time Restricted Feeding: There are different styles. Some of us use stimulants with fats. The best results come from abstaining from ingesting anything of caloric value during fasting. It instigates different glucose regulations and ketone readings. There is also alternate day fasting (a full 24 hrs). The more fat adapted you become and the more regular your ketones in both breath and blood, the stronger the correlation to a sustained increased HRV (heartrate variability), though not necessarily associated with heartrate. Time restricted feeding and intermittent fasting well suits changes within inflammatory responses and sympathetic activation. 05:10 Secondary Benefits of Ketones: Ketones are signaling molecules, not just substitutions for macronutrients or energy substrat Continue reading >>

Keto And Sleep: How Going Keto Changes Your Sleep Quality

Keto And Sleep: How Going Keto Changes Your Sleep Quality

Keto and Sleep: How Going Keto Changes Your Sleep Quality Keto and Sleep: How Going Keto Changes Your Sleep Quality Founder and CEO of Perfect Keto & Equip Foods, host of The Keto Answers Podcast, CrossFit coach, strength coach, nutrition planning for hundreds of athletes. Lauren Ciccarelli is a freelance writer and editor with over 450 published articles. After earning her degree in English, she started writing about health and nutrition to help people optimize their mental and physical well-being through an evidence-based approach. Lauren has a particular interest in research about the ketogenic diet and PCOS. Is keto sleep better or worse than shuteye you get on a carb-based diet? See what the science says about a ketogenic diet for sleep and learn what you can expect now. Published December 22, 2018 by Lauren Ciccarelli You may have heard of dreaded keto insomnia , which is a common phase people go through as theyre transitioning from a higher-carb diet to a low-carb keto diet. But what about your sleep quality once youre keto-adapted? Is your sleep deeper and more restful when youre running off ketones, as opposed to glucose? While you might suffer from insomnia and night waking during your keto transition, many people claim their sleep is better and deeper after they get into ketosis. And it turns out theres some science to back these claims. The answer to your sweet tooth. 17g of fat, 3g of net carbs, incredibly delicious. You spend about one-third of your life asleep, which is about 250,000 hours over the course of one lifetime[ * ]. Still, sleep is one of the most mysterious parts of being human. One thing we know for sure? Sleep is vital not only to daily performance and brain function but its also the key to longevity and health. So, it makes sense that you Continue reading >>

Video: Insomnia On Keto

Video: Insomnia On Keto

Insomnia is the worst. And, when you’ve gone keto and start to feel better overall but your sleep quality starts to suck, it’s an even worse place to be in. You feel great on low-carb keto, but when you eat low-carb keto, your sleep suffers. Perhaps you know that eating carbohydrates fixes your sleep quality problem. Maybe when you ‘fall off the wagon’ and eat all of the carbohydrates, you have the best sleep that night but wake up feeling less than awesome because carbohydrates don’t feel good in your body. Girl, I’ve been there. And it SUCKED. No amount of extra magnesium, or melatonin sprays, liquids or capsules fixed the problem. If you’re experiencing insonia on low-carb/keto diet and you’re looking for solutions that allow you to feel good on your ketogenic diet while also getting the best sleep of your life, you need to watch today’s keto video. For video transcript PDF, scroll down. Your Mini Guide & Transcript A 5-10 page PDF with the transcript for this keto video, resources, and exclusive steps to taking your keto fat burning to the next level. Download to your device and access anytime. Simply click the button above, enter your details, and the guide will be delivered to your inbox! Get the keto mini guide & transcript now. Highlights… Signs that keto is affecting sleep Steps to end insomnia on keto The ultimate reason why you’re experiencing insomnia on keto Resources… Supplement: magnesium glycinate Does your sleep suck since going low-carb, keto? Which of the steps that I shared are you going to try first? My team and I work on finding the best products that not only have quality ingredients, but care about their customers. It has taken us years to find products with ingredients and integrity that I can stand behind. These brands w Continue reading >>

How To Cure Your Keto Insomnia & Sleep Like A Baby Tonight

How To Cure Your Keto Insomnia & Sleep Like A Baby Tonight

How to CURE Your Keto Insomnia & Sleep Like a Baby TONIGHT How to CURE Your Keto Insomnia & Sleep Like a Baby TONIGHT Ugh, keto insomnia is by far the most stressful side-effect that I have experienced since I started the ketogenic diet. Hint: it wasn't only keto's fault, there were other factors included, which you are probably guilty of if you are reading right now instead of sleeping. And if you really fall asleep, you have very light sleep and you wake up several times during the night? We can survive a couple of days of problematic sleep, but after that, it just becomes unbearable. You roll around the bed like a crazy person and start analyzing your whole life, while somewhere in the background you can hear classical German yodelling. When you wake up in the morning, you feel like you have partied the whole weekend and after that, you got hit by a firetruck, twice. And this loop continues and gets worse day after day. My first conclusion was that this is probably keto's fault right? Before we dive deep into how and why keto affects your sleep, let's go over the basics. Insomnia is a sleep disorder where individuals find it difficult to fall asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early due to a number of factors. It's typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and depressed mood. [1] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has found that one for every three adults gets enough sleep regularly. That means more than third of Americans are sleep deprived on a regular basis. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have recommended for optimal health and well-being, adults should get at least 7 hours of sleep every night. [2] Sleeping less than 7 hours is associated with increased Continue reading >>

How I Fixed The Biggest Ketosis Mistakes

How I Fixed The Biggest Ketosis Mistakes

The ketogenic diet isn’t always as easy as it seems. I tried for a long time, but not until I dove deep into the research and found out how to fix all of the common mistakes was I able to enjoy the full state of ketosis. This article is to help you avoid those same mistakes. Why Try the Ketogenic Diet First, why would you want to even try ketosis? I truly enjoy trying diets and eating methodologies to research what I like and what works for me. I’ve experimented with low-carb diets, high-carb diets, and everything in between, but I’ve never cut them out to the point to achieve ketosis. What’s most exciting about the ketogenic diet to me is that, yes, it’s amazing for weight loss, but it’s not just a “diet.” Ketosis is literally a state of metabolism. You are either in or you’re out. I wanted to see and feel for myself the benefits everyone is talking about from going full Keto. My Keto Coach has a great line that goes like this: I was sold and needed to try this and commit. If you are new to researching ketosis, a quick review of the popular benefits: Mental Clarity [2] Fat Loss [2][3][4] Feeling Full [1][2] Better Sleep [1] Better Mood [1] Better Skin [4] The list goes on and on, including disease and inflammation reduction, better cholesterol, etc. For my purposes I didn’t care about weight loss or fat loss, I just cared about doing the diet the best I could, and to do that, I needed to prepare accordingly. Preparation Stage – Learning the Keto Basics Here is what I did to educate myself and prepare for six weeks of the Ketogenic Diet. I picked a start date and spent $30 at In-N-Out burger on a massive send-off to carbohydrates. A whole other post could be dedicated to the mistakes I made at In-N-Out. After this epic meal, it was officially time Continue reading >>

Keto Insomnia - A Concise Guide | The Sleep Sherpa

Keto Insomnia - A Concise Guide | The Sleep Sherpa

Not many of us usually connect our diet to our sleep quality . But the nutrition that we provide to our bodies determines the sleep quality and quantity to a great extent. There are various kinds of diets that a person can follow, in order to lose weight or stay healthy. But getting into a new diet can affect sleep . Some diets can cause insomnia while others can make you feel excessively sleepy. There are foods that are good for sleep. Not only do they keep you healthy, but also keep your sleep cycle normal. Including those foods in your diet can improve your quality of sleep. But there are certain foods that can interfere with sleep. Foods that are high in sugar or carbohydrates or processed food are the biggest enemies of sleep. It is often recommended that large, heavy meals should not be consumed close to bedtime. This is because sugar and carbohydrates take time to be broken down and digested by the body, which increases metabolism and interferes with sleep . The quality of sleep that a person enjoys is an indicator of his health. If he sleeps well without any interferences or disturbances, it indicates good health. Poor quality or quantity of sleep is linked to internal weaknesses or nutritional deficiencies. One diet that can cause insomnia in some people is the ketogenic diet. Various diets come and go, and there are several people who like to try them out, in the hopes of losing weight or becoming healthier. But before starting any new diet, no matter how beneficial to other aspects of health, its effect on sleep should be carefully studied. Although the keto diet has been around for a while, it has recently started to gain massive popularity because it claims to help in weight loss and fat burn. In this diet, you need to cut down on carbohydrates and increas Continue reading >>

Low Carb Diets And Sleep Quality

Low Carb Diets And Sleep Quality

We all know that while training is important for promoting increases in our muscle strength and fitness ability, sleep is also critical. Sleep is primetime in terms of recovery for the body and if you’re not experiencing enough sleep or sleep that is of good quality, chances are you’re not making maximum gains from your training sessions. What The Research Is Telling Us That said, new research is proving that the type of sleep you get can be affected by the foods you’re eating. Recently, researchers out of the University of Sydney, Australia looked at the effects low-carb diets had on sleep quality. The study was designed so that two groups of non-obese men, 7 men in each group, were given two different diets one that was low carb and another that was mixed in terms of macronutrients. Both diets contained 2400 calories and had matching evening test meals that were either mixed low-fat, higher carbohydrate meals (15.5% protein, 12.5% fat, and 72% carbohydrate) or very low carbohydrate meals (38% protein, 61% fat, and 1% protein). During the study, sleep was recorded using a computerized sleep system. During this time the urine ketone level was monitored with reagent strips both before the evening meals and right before bed to determine whether ketosis was present among the low carb group. Blood glucose was also assessed with a glucometer before the evening meal and in the two hours following, and hunger was measured immediately after the bedtime meal was consumed. Results After the study was completed, the results showed that the very low carb eaters had a much lower proportion of REM sleep (dream sleep) in comparison to the mixed group. In addition to this, the amount of slow wave sleep increased among those who were following the low carb diet, especially when in Continue reading >>

What Ive Learned In 2 Years Of Ketogenic Diet

What Ive Learned In 2 Years Of Ketogenic Diet

What Ive learned in 2 years of ketogenic diet In those two years, I have been trying different quantities of carbs. 20 grams/day is what works best for me. Better sleep, mood, focus, concentration, and capacity of learning is what I got. Improvement in sleep is the main reason for my strict ketogenic diet. It has solved my sleeping disorders. I have a deep sleep and wake up feeling invigorated, full of energy, and ready for a new day. A ketogenic diet is known as being responsible for sleep problems such as insomnia. It only happens during the adjustment period. As long as your body becomes fat adapted, your sleep quality will get better. My dreams have also improved. I can perceive the transition between being awake and falling asleep. Im laid in bed, thinking consciously, when thoughts and memories start to appear in my mind. Alternating between thinking and dreaming. This perception is only possible when under 20g carbs per day or fasting. You might experience vivid and lucid dreams in a ketogenic diet. Also, no nightmares. Everything which increases consciousness and concentration will help, like meditation. Im more patient, optimist, happy, and kind. I feel neither angry nor nervous. A paleolithic diet is better than a junk-food diet, but paleo-keto is better than a paleo diet. Mood gets destabilized because of the highs and downs of glucose. When levels of glucose drop you can feel sad, angry, and crave sugary foods. Nothing like these happens in a keto diet because you consume an insignificant quantity of carbs and your glucose remains stable. Ketogenic diet shut that noise in my head; I can study, read, and learn efficiently; Consciousness is improved while meditating. If you need to study, read, and learn, do this on ketosis. It is known for being a better and Continue reading >>

Keto Sleep: Common Issues & How To Fix Them

Keto Sleep: Common Issues & How To Fix Them

Keto Sleep: Common Issues & How to Fix Them From staying within your daily carb limit , to eating enough high-quality fat foods , to keeping your electrolytes up , there are many important elements of being successful on the ketogenic diet. One of the cornerstones of keto is sleep. But many people starting the diet can experience sleep issues including insomnia. In this article well go over the importance of sleep on keto and solutions to common keto sleep issues. Your Sleep Problems May Not Be a Side Effect of Keto How Poor Sleep Can Sabotage Your Ketogenic Diet Keto is more than a weight loss diet. When your body is in a state of ketosis , there are a a wide range of benefits that you could experience, including: Its clear why this lifestyle has amassed an impressive following, from athletes like Tim Tebow to celebrities like Halle Berry to hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of high-achievers. Unfortunately, inadequate sleep can negate many of the benefits provided by following a low-carb, high-fat diet. Inadequate or low-quality sleep can cause: No matter what your reason for being on keto, theres no doubt that sleep is essential for achieving your goals. Committed to becoming a fat-burning athlete? Sleep is crucial for adequate recovery, performance, and muscle building. Love the mental clarity keto gives you? Youre not going to experience any of that when youre a sleep-deprived zombie. Trying to lose weight with keto ? Inadequate sleep makes you crave fast energy from carbs, raises stress and lowers your willpower (especially around food), and causes insulin resistance. Yes, keto has some amazing benefits. But adhering to a strict keto diet while neglecting sleep is like stepping over dollars to pick up pennies. Want to see success on keto? Start viewing slee Continue reading >>

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