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Ketosis Serotonin

Csf Levels Of Dopamine And Serotonin, But Not Norepinephrine, Metabolites Are Influenced By The Ketogenic Diet In Children With Epilepsy.

Csf Levels Of Dopamine And Serotonin, But Not Norepinephrine, Metabolites Are Influenced By The Ketogenic Diet In Children With Epilepsy.

Abstract The ketogenic diet (KD) is a non-pharmacological treatment of medically refractory epilepsy in children. Its mechanisms of action are still unclear but monoamine neurotransmitters have been proposed to be involved. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are known to modulate seizure susceptibility in many animal models. We examined whether the concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin metabolites were affected by the KD in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The metabolites of norepinephrine, HMPG, of dopamine, HVA, and of serotonin, 5-HIAA, were analyzed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and 3 months after starting the KD. Twenty-six children (mean age 5.9 years) participated. Twenty-one children had generalized epilepsy and five partial. CSF was sampled by lumbar puncture. Seizure frequency before and during the diet was determined. Highly significant changes were found for HVA (p=0.0002) and 5-HIAA (p=0.004), which were both decreased during the KD compared to before diet. The levels of HMPG were unchanged. However, no differences were found between response groups. Valproate medication affected the levels of HMPG during diet with decreased levels in children on valproate and increased in those not on valproate (p=0.04). Our study indicates that the KD significantly alters the levels of metabolites of dopamine and serotonin but with a stable ratio HVA/5-HIAA in the CSF of children with refractory epilepsy, which finding may be of importance for the mechanism of action. Continue reading >>

Of The Keto Diet?

Of The Keto Diet?

There are many awesome benefits that come with adopting a low-carb ketogenic diet, such as weight loss, decreased cravings and even possibly reduce disease risks. With that being said, it’s also good to talk about possible ketosis side-effects when ingesting these specific ketone supplements, so you know fully what to expect when you get started on this mission. If you’ve already heard about some of the side-effects that come with this special diet and are starting to freak out, don’t panic. We’re going to break down everything you need to know when it comes to what your body will experience when using these supplements for the first time. It’s important to remember, not everyone experiences side-effects when starting a ketogenic diet and thankfully, the symptoms are all very temporary and it can pass very quickly. It varies with the individual, but just to make sure all your bases are covered, we’re going to break down each possible side effect that you could possibly experience. 1. Flu Symptoms Within the first 2-4 days of beginning this diet, a common side-effect is known as the “ketosis flu” or “induction flu” because it mimics the symptoms of the actual flu. This means you might experience: Headaches Lethargy Lack of motivation Brain fog or confusion Irritability​ Although these symptoms typically go away completely within a few days, they are also completely avoidable if you stay very hydrated and increase your salt intake and like always, be sure you're eating enough fat. 2. Dizzyness & Drowsiness​ As you start dumping water, you'll lose minerals such as salt, potassium and magnesium. Having lower levels of these minerals will make you tired, lightheaded or dizzy. You may also experience muscle cramps, headaches and skin itchiness. Fatigue Continue reading >>

Probiotics Over Prozac: Ketogenic Eating For The Best Brain. (featuring, Your Microbiome, Butter Coffee, Anxiety, Fasting, Grain-free, Dopamine And More)

Probiotics Over Prozac: Ketogenic Eating For The Best Brain. (featuring, Your Microbiome, Butter Coffee, Anxiety, Fasting, Grain-free, Dopamine And More)

There are a lot of subjects here. They are important. And they connect a lot of what we’ve been talking about here, in separate strings, for a long time. Many of the newest learnings in health are related to the significance of the microbiome. From personal experience, I regularly feel what I can only describe as the health of my brain. Chemicals, transmitter-stuff, certain states. Which drives me into these subjects searching for ifs, and if-so-what, is going on. Because there is always a reason for why we feel the way we do. (These topics are also of significant personal importance to me in how they relate to anxiety, which is something I’ve had to handle my entire life. More on that in point 5, below.) Otherwise, this is all just more of the same: learn, live better, prosper. Shall we? 1. We are our microbiomes. I’ve said it; you know it, but a few refreshers JIC: 2. Our microbiomes are best supported by probiotics, live food and excellent digestion via which to absorb the goodness. 3. Our microbiomes are responsible for not only our physical wellbeing, but also our psychological health. Here we go. You have neurons both in your brain and your gut – including neurons that produce neurotransmitters like serotonin. In fact, the greatest concentration of serotonin, which is involved in mood control, depression and aggression, is found in your intestines, not your brain. “Mounting research indicates that problems in your gut can directly impact your mental health, leading to issues like anxiety and depression. “The gut-brain connection is well-recognized as a basic tenet of physiology and medicine, so this isn't all that surprising, even though it's often overlooked. “There's also a wealth of evidence showing intestinal involvement in a variety of neurologi Continue reading >>

Low-carb State Of Mind

Low-carb State Of Mind

Do the chips that don't pass the lips of low-carb dieters weigh heavily on their shoulders instead? People who avoid certain foods or are reducing their food intake are famous for irritability, but many who are testing low-carbohydrate approaches like Atkins and the South Beach Diet are reporting unusually high feelings of anger, tension and depression. "It's called the 'Atkins attitude,' " says Judith Wurtman, director of the Women's Health Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Adara Weight Loss Center, both in Boston. "It's very well-documented." Wurtman, who advocates a diet high in complex carbohydrates for weight loss and stress relief, says her studies on rats have shown a connection between a diet low in carbohydrates and low levels of serotonin—a neurotransmitter that promotes feelings of happiness and satisfaction. In her research, rats placed on a ketotic, or low-carbohydrate, diet for three weeks were found to have lower levels of serotonin in their brains. The same rats binged once starch was reintroduced into their diets. Wurtman believes that same effect occurs in humans on low-carb diets and leads to pronounced feelings of depression and sadness, even rage. "People feel very angry, and their antidepressants don't work well, either," she says. Granted, dieting isn't easy no matter how one does it, but many think low-carbohydrate approaches are particularly hard on your happiness. Wurtman goes so far as to call them dangerous for those who already struggle with depression or bipolar disorder. Other researchers disagree. In fact, Wurtman's assertions are in direct contrast to what advocates of low-carbohydrate diets promise—an end to mood swings and fatigue. Indeed, many who have success on these diets say their moods have never be Continue reading >>

Keep Yourself In Ketosis

Keep Yourself In Ketosis

When talking about a Grain Brain lifestyle, and the very similar ketogenic diet, it’s frequently mentioned that we are aiming to keep our bodies in ketosis. However, if you’re new to my work, it may be that you’re not exactly sure what ketosis is, or why we should be worrying about getting our body into this state. Allow me to explain. Ketones are a special type of fat that can stimulate the pathways that enhance the growth of new neural networks in the brain. A ketogenic diet is one that is high in fats, and this diet has been a tool of researchers for years, used notably in a 2005 study on Parkinson’s patients finding an improvement in symptoms after just 28 days. The improvements were on par with those made possible via medication and brain surgery. Other research has shown the ketogenic diet to be remarkably effective in treating some forms of epilepsy, and even brain tumors. Ketones do more than just that though. They increase glutathione, a powerful, brain-protective antioxidant. Ketones facilitate the production of mitochondria, one of the most important actors in the coordinated production that is the human body. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Our bodies are said to enter ketosis at the point when blood sugar levels are low and liver glycogen are no longer available to produce glucose as a fuel for cellular energy production. At this point, not only is the body doing the natural thing, and burning off fat, it’s also powering up the brain with a super efficient fuel. We can jump start ourselves into ketosis with a brief fast, allowing our body to quickly burn through the carbs that are in our system, and turn to fat for fuel. A ketogenic diet is one that derives around 80% or more of of its calories from fat, and the rest from carbs and prote Continue reading >>

Ketosis For Depression

Ketosis For Depression

Depression is so common these days that it seems hard to meet anyone who hasn’t experienced it in some degree. While this has perhaps become the new normal, it doesn’t need to be. Our eating choices not only affect our physical health but our mental health as well—so if you’ve been wondering whether the ketogenic diet can positively impact your emotional state, read on for the use of ketosis for depression. Diet and Depression It’s no secret that most people are overworked, under-rested, and living on a poor diet. It’s also no coincidence that the modern advice to eat a diet high in carbohydrates, low in fat, and with constant snacking or small meals throughout the day has coincided with a rise in diabetes, obesity, and mental issues like anxiety and depression. Let’s take a look at why this difference in diet could be causing these problems—and how ketosis and a ketogenic diet can help. Ketogenic Nutrition and Depression Most of us can agree that a high intake of sugar has a negative impact on mood. Just think of the sugar highs and crashes that result from eating high-carb foods. What follows is feelings of crankiness, low-energy, and maybe even depression. Now, think about how a steady intake of fats from a ketogenic diet could have a positive impact on mood and endorphin levels. Many people who start eating keto have come from a background of eating the Standard American Diet and not exercising enough. Starting a ketogenic diet, removing high-carb refined foods, losing weight, and eating whole foods is bound to help with mood and make you happier. This alone could have benefits for those with depression. In addition, there are some interesting links between ketones and many conditions of the brain similar to depression, including epilepsy and Alzheim Continue reading >>

Carbohydrate Intake And Depression – Q&a

Carbohydrate Intake And Depression – Q&a

Question: I’m a 45 year old female. I currently weigh 221lbs. I’ve lost 30lbs in the last three months. My protein intake is roughly 120 to 130 grams per day. I’m limiting my carb intake to 180 to 200 grams a day. I suffer from life long depression and I find that when I limit by carb intake I slowly slide into a depressed state after two or three months (it’s happening to me now). My sleep is disturbed, I develop anxiety I’m bitchy as hell and I’m dragging ass. Is there a correlation between carb intake and production of neurotransmitters? If so, how can I eliminate the effect lower levels of carbs is having on me? Any information is greatly appreciated. Answer: Dieting in general tends to lower serotonin in the brain and this can cause depression in susceptible people. Interestingly, this effect seems to be more likely to occur in women than men (women being more susceptible to depression in general). In my experience, low carbohydrate/higher proteins diets tend to be even worse in this regards for reasons I’ll explain now. First and foremost, nutrient intake per se affects the production of neurotransmitters with the effects being both direct and indirect. In a very direct way, specific amino acids are the precursors for specific neurotransmitters in the brain. Tryptophan is a precursor for serotonin in the brain and the amino acid tyrosine (as well as phenylalanine which converts into tyrosine in the body) is the precursor for dopamine (and subsequently adrenaline/noradrenaline). As an extreme example of this, researchers will sometimes use something called acute tryptophan depletion (accomplished by providing an amino acid solution containing all of the amino acids except tryptophan) to drastically lower brain levels of serotonin. This is used to test Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet Alters Dopaminergic Activity In The Mouse Cortex

Ketogenic Diet Alters Dopaminergic Activity In The Mouse Cortex

Trinity College Trinity College Digital Repository Faculty Scholarship 4-2014 Ketogenic Diet Alters Dopaminergic Activity in the Mouse Cortex [post-print] William H. Church Trinity College, [email protected] Ryan E. Adams Trinity College Livia S. Wyss Trinity College Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Neurosciences Commons William H. Church, Ryan E. Adams and Livia S. Wyss Department of Chemistry and Neuroscience Program Trinity College, Hartford, CT USA Corresponding author William H. Church, Ph.D. Department of Chemistry and Neuroscience Program Trinity College 300 Summit Street Hartford, CT 06106 USA Tel: 860-297-2215 Email: [email protected] The work described in this paper has been carried out in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals The authors report no conflicts of interest 2 Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio – ([DOPAC] + [HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet Continue reading >>

5 Compelling Reasons To Stick With A Ketogenic Diet

5 Compelling Reasons To Stick With A Ketogenic Diet

Chances are if you’re like me, you can come up with a million reasons not to do something healthy. Wouldn’t it be cool if you could come up with a million reasons to change your life for the better? Well, it won't be a million. It’ll be five, and it’ll be about the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet is helping people all over the world lose weight, get healthy and feel better. However, like with any lifestyle change, you’re going to experience some resistance. If you’re only armed with one reason to do something, you could get overwhelmed by the horde of self-sabotage that lurks in the corners of our brains. That’s why, for me, it’s important to come up with a smorgasbord of good reasons to keep doing something healthy. If the only positive I was getting from the ketogenic diet was simply weight loss, I think I could talk myself out of it just to indulge in the fleeting pleasures of an afternoon muffin. But armed with multiple, interesting and cool benefits of the ketogenic diet, I can keep those harlot muffins where they belong: in apocalypse-proof plastic wrapping, next to the rack of children’s sunglasses near my drugstore checkout line. Smile, Baby! The ketogenic diet is low-carb and very, very low in sugar. Sugar and refined carbs are the main culprits behind tooth decay, causing certain bacteria in your mouth to overfeed and release excess acid, which causes cavities. The absence of sugar and carbs keeps these bacteria from going bananas, and as a result, you have a much slimmer chance of developing cavities and gum disease. You might think that not getting cavities is not really that great of a reason, but have you paid for a cavity as an adult? It costs more than taking an entire family to Disneyland. I’d personally prefer to go on Space Moun Continue reading >>

The Neuropharmacology Of The Ketogenic Diet

The Neuropharmacology Of The Ketogenic Diet

Go to: Introduction Since the early 1920s, the ketogenic diet has been used successfully to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. The diet is high in fat and low in carbohydrate and protein, providing sufficient protein for growth but insufficient amounts of carbohydrates for all the metabolic needs of the body [1]. Energy is derived largely from fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. During high rates of fatty acid oxidation, large amounts of acetyl-CoA are generated, leading to the synthesis, primarily in the liver, of the three ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (Fig. 1). The metabolic efficiency of the Krebs cycle is reduced, and excess acetyl-CoA is shunted to the production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies spill into the circulation, causing serum levels to rise severalfold, and then are utilized as an energy source in extrahepatic tissues, including the brain. Glucose is ordinarily the sole fuel for the human brain; fatty acids cannot be used because they do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Ketone bodies do enter the brain, in proportion to the degree of ketosis. Ordinarily, utilization of ketones by the brain is minimal. During the ketogenic diet, however, ketone bodies partly replace glucose as fuel for the brain. The ketone bodies are converted to acetyl-CoA by D-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, acetoacetate-succinyl-CoA transferase, and acetoacetyl-CoA-thiolase and then enter the Krebs cycle within brain mitochondria, leading to the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (Fig. 2). It has been known since the time of Hippocrates that fasting is an effective treatment for seizures, and the ketogenic diet was designed to mimic the fasting state [2]. However, despite intensive research in recent years, the mechanism by which the Continue reading >>

Keto 201

Keto 201

Living with a Ketogenic Diet In my opinion, unless there is a medical issue you are using ketogenic to address, ketogenic eating is best done as a medium-term plan. I do not see it as a way of eating/living forever, mostly because of quality of life issues. Being a fat and oil monster gets old and I think keto is best used as a lever to accomplish a goal, after which a more sustainable, balanced, and enjoyable way of eating is adopted. During the medium-term of eating this way, though, there can be a lot of potential problems that need to be solved. Ketogenic eating, at least in my experience, has made me face several other issues around health and eating that I simply wasn’t aware of before. Almost like as soon as I cleaned up how I was eating there was nowhere left for other issues that I had to hide. Over the course of living with the ketogenic diet, one of the best attitudes you can adopt is one of flexible determination. You don’t want to be so rigid that you require certain weight loss every week, or that you make yourself crazy micromanaging your life. All eating strategies work because improved behavior is applied over a long period of time. Your weight may fluctuate up, down, and stay the same, but what we are all going for with keto is an overall loss, and that just takes time. Food Sensitivities: When Food Attacks One of the interesting things about eating keto is how it can make you face chronic food sensitivity issues. Perhaps it is that you feel so much better on keto, that feeling bad because of food feels worse and is, thus, more obvious. Or, maybe it is because through cleaning up your diet your body gets more tuned and thus any defects are more obvious. Whatever the case, ketogenic eating can unearth and make people face sometimes uncomfortable, or Continue reading >>

Serotonin (5-ht) Affects Expression Of Liver Metabolic Enzymes And Mammary Gland Glucose Transporters During The Transition From Pregnancy To Lactation

Serotonin (5-ht) Affects Expression Of Liver Metabolic Enzymes And Mammary Gland Glucose Transporters During The Transition From Pregnancy To Lactation

Abstract The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate the ability of feeding serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and the effects this has on maternal energy metabolism in the liver and mammary gland. Pregnant rats (n = 45) were fed one of three diets: I) control (CON), II) CON supplemented with 0.2% 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) or III) CON supplemented with 1.35% L-tryptophan (L-TRP), beginning on d13 of pregnancy through d9 of lactation (d9). Serum (pre and post-partum), milk (daily), liver and mammary gland tissue (d9) were collected. Serum 5-HT was increased in the 5-HTP fed dams beginning on d20 of gestation and remained elevated through d9, while it was only increased on d9 in the L-TRP fed dams. 5-HT levels were increased in mammary gland and liver of both groups. Additionally, 5-HTP fed dams had serum and milk glucose levels similar to the CON, while L-TRP had decreased serum (d9) and milk glucose (all dates evaluated). Feeding 5-HTP resulted in increased mRNA expression of key gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes in liver and glucose transporters 1 and 8 (GLUT-1, -8) in the mammary gland. We demonstrated the location of GLUT-8 in the mammary gland both in the epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Finally, phosphorylated 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), a known regulator of intracellular energy status, was elevated in mammary glands of 5-HTP fed dams. Our results suggest that increasing 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation increases mRNA expression of enzymes involved in energy metabolism in the liver, and mRNA abundance and distribution of glucose transporters within the mammary gland. This suggests the possibility that 5-HT may Continue reading >>

Diet, Stress, And Your Neurotransmitters

Diet, Stress, And Your Neurotransmitters

Written by: Kevin Cann Stress and obesity have a strong link in our society. In order to combat the obesity epidemic effectively we need to recognize the connection and handle the underlying stressors. A group of hormones that are released when we are stressed are called glucocorticoids. These glucocorticoids remain in the blood for a significant time after the stressor is removed. Put a person under chronic stress and they will have constantly high amounts of glucocorticoids in their blood. The glucocorticoids initiate the release of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) which is a key player in our stress response. They also increase our cravings for sugary foods and they also act directly on increasing abdominal fat storage (Dallman, 2003). Dallman in her study concluded that “We believe people eat comfort food in an attempt to reduce the activity in the chronic-stress response network with its attendant anxiety.” This is due to the decreased CRF, catecholamines, and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity found in depressed people that overeat (Dallman, 2003). To understand these links more let us take a step back and look at what is going on in our bodies. There are two types of neurotransmitters; inhibitory and excitatory. The inhibitors are serotonin and GABA. These neurotransmitters are the ones that make us feel good and also are responsible for our self-esteem and sleep. These get depleted and we suffer from depression, insomnia, and even anger. The excitatory neurotransmitters are glutamate, catecholamines, PEA, and dopamine. These are responsible for making us alert, our thinking, focus, memory, ambition, and stress. To look at a few of these, if we have low dopamine we will generally be fatigued, have trouble with numbers, low libido, and decreased short Continue reading >>

Depression Treatment

Depression Treatment

Although the causes of depression can vary, depression treatment programs which involve changing the diet and healing a leaky gut can be very effective. More specifically, by removing grains and high carb foods from your diet, and making sure you get the right vitamins and minerals, you can heal your gut, heal your body, resolve behavioral issues, and lift your mood. The list of supplement recommendations at right is a good place to start. I want to reiterate that depression is linked to many different triggers, and a change in diet is by no means a comprehensive solution, but it is true that depression can be rooted in biochemical issues such as micro-nutrient deficiencies and fatty acid imbalances. Environmental factors and of course, tragic events over which a person has no control (death of a family member, for instance) are also major causes of depression, and in these cases, dietary changes may have a lesser effect. Gut Health and Depression Current research is linking depression to inflammation linked to a leaking gut. Leaky gut syndrome, a condition in which the lining of the intestines has been compromised by a food substance such as gluten. The damaged lining of the intestinal tract then leaks undigested food particles into the rest of the body, causing inflammatory responses from the immune system. This inflammation then leads to neurological changes which result in mood alterations. A paper by Kiecolt-Glaser et al. discusses how this inflammation in the body drives the symptoms of disease and depression. The authors state "Depression and inflammation fuel one another...Depression, childhood adversity, stressors, and diet can all influence the gut microbiome and promote intestinal permeability, another pathway to enhanced inflammatory responses." Does Followi Continue reading >>

Low-carb Diet = Depression??? Not So Fast!

Low-carb Diet = Depression??? Not So Fast!

I’ve noticed a few blogs on the internet recently and posts within our Community from people asking about the effects of Atkins on their sleep or whether doing Atkins would increase their risk of depression. I’ve addressed this topic before, but I thought it would be a great time to revisit it. One study that was well publicized in the past followed a group of adults who were separated into two weight-loss groups: a very low-carb plan and a restricted-calorie, moderately high-carb plan. Both groups lost about the same amount of weight over a year—30 pounds. But, according to the researchers, the low-carb group reported higher levels of anger, depression and confusion vs. the higher-carb group. The researchers suggested a link to better serotonin (a neurotransmitter involved in mood) synthesis with the higher-carb group while the low-carb group had lower levels of serotonin. Concluding that higher carbohydrate intake can increase serotonin concentrations in the brain, while fat and protein reduce concentrations. But it’s just not that simple. Even the researchers suggest that more studies need to be done to support this theory. Let’s start with this indisputable fact: The body needs tryptophan to make serotonin. No one denies this—tryptophan is an essential amino acid, and we need it for all sorts of things, including making serotonin. Tryptophan is a good guy. But no one knows just how much is needed; nor does anyone know exactly how much serotonin we need to make in order to “not be depressed”. What we do know: Depression is a function of an Internet-like maze of interrelationships between serotonin, dopamine, beta-endorphins and other neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and epinephrine. The making of any of these chemical messengers can be influenced Continue reading >>

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