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Ketosis Prevention Goats

Ketosis-hypocalcemia

Ketosis-hypocalcemia

Written by Administrator-GL Monday, 28 May 2007 HYPOCALCEMIA… THE LINK BETWEEN CALCIUM and PHOSPHORUS in the DIET (And the link between Hypocalcemia and Ketosis as well!) By Sue Reith (2/06) As we goat owners sometimes painfully discover through the unnecessary loss of a doe in late gestation, the nutrients we provide for them during that period are more important than at any other time in their lives. Remember, it’s not just the mother we’re feeding, but all her fetuses as well. Two minerals especially critical now are calcium and phosphorus. If not available in sufficient amounts and balanced in relationship to each other, in the areas of bone development and muscle tone the physical needs of the mother and her fast-growing fetuses cannot be met.³ This is no simple task! The tricky part is that for her to handle those functions the doe must get a ration containing lots of calcium-rich foods* along with a lesser amount of phosphorus-rich foods*. By the fourth month a properly balanced calcium to phosphorus ratio must be available since that’s when those developing fetuses start rapidly draining calcium and phosphorus from her system for their bone development. Mom gets only “left-overs” for herself, and absent that mineral balance, thus with nothing left for her own muscle tone, she’ll be facing a deficiency that, if severe enough, will cause her pregnancy to falter. Too weak to perform her normal body functions, she’ll be unable even to eat! No appetite, along with wobbly legs, will be the first clues that she’s in trouble.** If this situation isn’t corrected fast she’ll be faced with starvation, her body left with no option but to rely on its own fat reserves to stay alive. As the fat reserves are processed in the liver, ketones get released in Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Ewes And Does

Pregnancy Toxemia In Ewes And Does

Pregnancy toxemia affects ewes and does during late gestation and is characterized by partial anorexia and depression, often with neurologic signs, progressing to recumbency and death. It is seen more often in animals carrying multiple fetuses. Generally, clinically affected animals have other risk factors, at either the individual or flock/herd level. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis: The primary predisposing cause of pregnancy toxemia is inadequate nutrition during late gestation, usually because of insufficient energy density of the ration and decreased rumen capacity as a result of fetal growth. In the last 4 wk of gestation, metabolizable energy requirements rise dramatically. For example, the energy requirement of a 70-kg ewe carrying a single lamb is 2.8 Mcal/day in early gestation compared with 3.45 Mcal/day in late gestation, or an increase of 23%. This change is more dramatic in ewes bearing twins, with an energy requirement of 3.22 Mcal/day in early and 4.37 Mcal/day in late gestation (36% increase), and in ewes bearing triplets, with an energy requirement of 3.49 Mcal/day in early and 4.95 Mcal/day in late gestation (42% increase). Dairy goats have similar changes in needs. In late gestation, the liver increases gluconeogenesis to facilitate glucose availability to the fetuses. Each fetus requires 30–40 g of glucose/day in late gestation, which represents a significant percentage of the ewe’s glucose production and which is preferentially directed to supporting the fetuses rather than the ewe. Mobilization of fat stores is increased in late gestation as a way to assure adequate energy for the increased demands of the developing fetus(es) and impending lactation. However, in a negative energy balance, this increased mobilization may overwhelm the liver’s c Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Metabolic Challenges In Dairy Goats

Metabolic Challenges In Dairy Goats

SHARE ON: Goats are known for their selective feeding behavior, inquisitive nature and ability to adapt to challenging environments. The oft-quoted fable that goats eat anything and can survive on unconventional diets is somewhat misguided. Yes, they will nibble on virtually anything, including clothing and plastic, to investigate the nutritive value of such objects. In reality, goats still require adequate protein and energy nutrition and will quickly fall ill when diets are lacking. Dairy goats producing over 1 gallon of milk per day have a large range of energy and protein requirements during their lactation. The more that’s expected from them in either milk production or activity, the more critical the need for well-balanced diets. Energy is often the limiting nutrient, especially during late pregnancy and early lactation. Common metabolic condition The most common metabolic disorder associated with reduced dietary energy experienced by goats is ketosis, followed by two other challenges also related to nutrition – hypocalcemia and rumen acidosis. Ketosis in pregnant goats is often referred to as pregnancy toxemia. Ketosis is caused by a buildup of ketones, which are chemical byproducts produced by the liver during excessive mobilization of body fat. When goats need extra energy during the last weeks of pregnancy or when they are producing high levels of milk, they will mobilize and burn their body fat for the needed energy. The livers in ruminants cannot process this body fat quickly enough into glucose and, as a result, ketones are produced. When glucose is in short supply the cells are fooled into binding with ketones, which then prevents any further binding of glucose. The best way to prevent ketosis is to limit the mobilization of body fat by maintaining ene Continue reading >>

Dairy On A Ketogenic Diet

Dairy On A Ketogenic Diet

Dairy has received both good and bad press over the years with respect to its effects on weight and overall health. Although milk, ice cream and nonfat dairy products don't belong in a keto diet, butter, cheese and other types of full-fat dairy may be a good fit, depending on the individual. This article takes a look at dairy's positive and negative health effects and provides recommendations for making the healthiest keto-friendly choices if you want to include dairy in your diet. What Are the Components of Dairy? A dairy product is technically any food or beverage made from the milk of mammals. Although dairy from cow milk is by far the most common type consumed in the US and Europe, goat and sheep dairy products are also popular in many areas. These are the main components of dairy: Lactose is a disaccharide, or two-unit sugar, consisting of one molecule each of the simple sugars glucose and galactose. Enzymes in your small intestine break down lactose into these simple sugars, which are transported into your bloodstream. Casein Casein accounts for 80% of the total protein in dairy, including all nine essential amino acids. When milk is treated with the enzyme rennet to make cheese, the casein coagulates into curds, and the liquid portion containing whey is removed. Compared to whey and other proteins, casein takes longer to digest (1). Whey Whey protein makes up the remaining 20% of protein in milk. Most, but not all, of the whey is removed during the process of making cheese. Like casein, whey contains all the essential amino acids, although it is digested much more rapidly (1). There are hundreds of different fatty acids in milk, and the great majority are saturated (2): Saturated: 70% of total dairy fat, including 11% as short-chain fatty acids like butyrate and Continue reading >>

Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In Sheep And Goats With Nutritional Management

Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In Sheep And Goats With Nutritional Management

PINE BLUFF, Ark. – Although kidding and lambing season does not usually occur until spring, winter is the time to prevent pregnancy toxemia in your herd or flock, said David Fernandez, Cooperative Extension Program livestock specialist at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Pregnancy toxemia, or ketosis, is a metabolic disorder caused by increasing demands on the bodies of does or ewes during late pregnancy, he says. At this time the fetuses will complete nearly 80 percent of their growth, and the female’s nutritional needs double. But, the space in her rumen is reduced because of the room taken up by the growing fetuses. If does or ewes cannot consume enough high quality feed, they will begin to mobilize their body fat reserves. To generate energy from fat stores, females still need a certain amount of blood sugar. If they cannot get enough energy from feed, ketones created during fat metabolism build up to toxic levels. A common example of a ketone is the acetone in nail polish remover. “Imagine having nail polish remover in your blood,” he said. “Does or ewes stop eating which makes matters worse. They become lethargic, have difficulty walking, grind their teeth and eventually go down. Their breath will smell sweetish or foul because of the ketones in their blood. Finally, they go into a coma and die. Once the female is down, the likelihood of recovering drops dramatically.” If a doe or ewe becomes affected, early treatment while she can still stand is critical. Fernandez suggests providing a high energy feed to increase the amount of glucose in her blood and giving 60 to 90 milliliters of propylene glycol two to three times daily until she recovers or gives birth. In a pinch, producers can make a syrup of table sugar or use molasses. The pregnancy Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Contents Industry Background Management Nutrition Animal Health Breeding Fibre Production Fibre Marketing Meat Production and Marketing Pasture and Weed Control Economic Analysis Tanning Skins ketosis in goats The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically different and occur during different stages of pregnancy and lactation, the basis of the disorder is essentially the same: a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase in ketones. In ruminants, glucose is synthesised mainly from propionic acid (a volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen) and from amino acids. The amount of glucose that is absorbed directly depends on how much dietary carbohydrate escapes rumen fermentation and is digested in the small intestine. This form of glucose uptake varies with different feeds as well as their treatment. Ruminants can use products from rumen fermentation, such as volatile fatty acids, for most of their energy requirements. However, the nervous system, kidneys, mammary gland and foetus have a direct requirement for glucose. During periods of peak glucose requirement (late pregnancy and early lactation) problems may arise due to a glucose deficiency. The incidence of pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis varies with the two main types of goats. In dairy goats with a genetic potential for high milk production, ketosis may be a potential problem; in non-milch goats (Angora, Cashmere and meat) pregnancy toxaemia is more common. PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA Main causes The most important cause of pregnancy toxaemia is a decline in the plane of nutrition during the last six to eight weeks of pregnancy. This places the pregnant female in a difficult situation because the developing foetus imposes an unremitting drain on available m Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis Of Ewes And Does.

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis Of Ewes And Does.

Abstract Pregnancy toxemia of ewes and does appears to occur when the animal cannot meet the glucose demands of the fetal-placental unit and hypoglycemia develops. There is individual variation in susceptibility, and there may be basic differences in glucose metabolism between susceptible animals and nonsusceptible animals. Increased serum NEFA and ketone body concentrations accompany the disease, but clinical signs do not appear to develop in the absence of hypoglycemia. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs, and the finding of ketone bodies in the urine. Numerous metabolic abnormalities develop subsequent to hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia, and these affect the prognosis. Important secondary abnormalities include acidosis, dehydration, and renal failure. Therapy is frequently unsuccessful, but frequent administration of small doses of glucose appears to be beneficial, if the other abnormalities, such as acidosis and dehydration, are controlled. Prevention can be readily achieved by nutritional means and is far more rewarding than therapy. Ewes and does must be fed in relation to their changing energy needs throughout the reproductive cycle. Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis) In Ewes And Does – 1.630

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis) In Ewes And Does – 1.630

by S. LeValley1 (8/2010) Quick Facts… Pregnancy toxemia in sheep and goats is also known as pregnancy disease, lambing sickness and twin-lamb/kid disease. The principal cause of pregnancy toxemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Onset of the disease is often triggered by one of several types of stress including nutritional or inclement weather. The disease is most prevalent in ewes and does carrying two or more lambs or kids. The disease also affects ewes and does that are extremely fat or excessively thin. The best preventive measure is increased feeding of high energy concentrates and grains during the last month of pregnancy. Occurrence and Causes Pregnancy toxemia in sheep and goats has also been called ketosis, lambing/kidding sickness, pregnancy disease and twin-lamb/kid disease. It occurs in all parts of the world and is an often fatal disease occurring only during the last month of pregnancy. Death occurs in two to 10 days in about 80 percent of the cases. It most often affects ewes/does pregnant with twins or triplets and is characterized by low blood sugar (glucose). Economic losses because of the disease have been considerable and it is the most commonly occurring metabolic disease of sheep and goats. It is generally accepted that the basic cause of pregnancy toxemia is a disturbance of carbohydrate or sugar metabolism. In earlier phases of the disease, blood glucose concentrations are less than 30 and may be as low as 10 mg/100 ml (normal 40-60). Blood ketone bodies, on the other hand, are usually greater than 15 and occasionally may be as high as 80 mg/100 ml (normal 1-4). The free fatty acid content of the blood plasma also is increased, meaning that body fat is being broken down and used for energy. Since glucose is essential for proper functioning of the Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia

Pregnancy Toxaemia

Ketosis, or pregnancy toxaemia, occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. It is caused by abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and volatile fatty acids. Conditions when ketosis is likely to occur Late pregnant cows, ewes and does in the last six weeks of pregnancy grazing dry poor quality pasture (less than 1,000-1,500kg DM/ha), stubbles or green pasture (less than 800kg DM/ha). Fat cows, ewes or does (ie fat score greater than 3.5-4) or light cows, ewes or does on very poor pasture. Twin-bearing ewes or does. Previous history of pregnancy toxaemia. Cold wet windy weather. Extensive grazing situations where the last third of pregnancy coincides with a late break in the season followed by cold weather leading to little pasture growth. Short periods without feed (yarding). Stress (due to climatic conditions, handling, being chased or management procedures). Heavy worm infestation. Diagnosing and identifying ketosis Clinical signs that would lead producers to suspect ketosis include the following: Cattle -Pregnant, recumbent or neurological signs such as staggering, aggression, delirium (often associated with another disease). Sheep and goats - Pregnant, apparent blindness, staggering, star gazing, drowsiness, convulsions. Prevention strategies for ketosis Avoid grazing cows, ewes and does on pasture when rapid weight loss is likely in late pregnancy or supplement to avoid rapid weight loss. Avoid getting cows, ewes and does too fat (ie fat score greater than 3.5-4) or too thin (ie fat score less than 2-2.5) in late pregnancy. Avoid handling heavily pregnant animals. More information Module 6 from MLA's Going into Goats Guide: A profitable producers' best practice guide Department of Primary Industries Victoria publication: Pregnancy Toxaemia in beef cows New South Wales Industry Continue reading >>

Hypocalcemia & Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Hypocalcemia & Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

I promised this post awhile back. Then the rest of spring and summer happened, which means busy times on the homestead. I've picked it up again because I'm working on my next book, Critter Tales. Like 5 Acres & A Dream The Book, I not only want to tell an interesting story, but I want to weave in useful information as well. Surprise's near death experience and what I learned from it is something I want to include. Here it is as a blog post, preliminary to being included in the book. Last spring I had a frightening experience with Surprise, one of my pregnant Nubian does. It started with her being picky with her feed and losing interest. She soon became weak and disoriented. She went down and I could not get her up. With the help of the internet I figured out some things and managed to save both her and her twins. At the time I had to sift through a lot of information, which I had difficulty sorting out in my emergency state of mind. It's taken some study to clarify and understand what happened. This post is my attempt to write out and restate what I've learned. Pregnancy toxemia (also called ketosis or twin lamb disease) and hypocalcemia (milk fever), are life threatening conditions which must be addressed immediately or the doe (or ewe) will die. Neither are diseases, but rather metabolic conditions which are primarily feed related. The symptoms are nearly identical: loss of appetite lethargy weakness disorientation goes down and can't get up The cause and treatment are different. The response to treatment determines diagnosis, but since hypocalcemia can lead to ketosis, treating for both is a good idea anyway. Pregnancy toxemia occurs when the body's demand for energy (carbohydrates in the form of glucose) exceed what the diet provides. It usually happens late in preg Continue reading >>

Clinical And Haematological Studies On Subclinical Lactational Ketosis In Dairy Goats

Clinical And Haematological Studies On Subclinical Lactational Ketosis In Dairy Goats

Abstract The most common metabolic diseases in small ruminants are peri-parturient hypocalcemia, pregnancy toxemia (ketosis), rumen acidosis and hypomagnesaemia. While pregnancy toxemia is well known medical condition, lactational ketosis is almost unknown in small ruminant practice. A total of 58 dairy goats, up to day 30 of lactation were included in the study. Clinical examination (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rates, rumen contractions and inspection of conjunctival mucous membrane), BCS and determining the values of β-hydroxybutyrate was performed on all goats. Animals were divided into two groups, control one consists of 30 goats (BCS > 2.0 and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate < 0.8 mmol/l), and second group consists of 28 goats with subclinical lactational ketosis (BCS ≤ 2.0 and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate ≥ 0.8 mmol/l). Blood samples were obtained and analyzed for red blood cell (RBC, Т/l), haemoglobin (HGB, g/l), haematocrit (HCT, l/l), mean corpuscular volume (MCV, fl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, pg), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/l), white blood cell counts (WBC, G/l), lymphocytes (LYM, %), monocytes (MON, %), granulocytes (GRA, %), red blood cell distribution width (RDW, %) and red blood cell distribution width absolute (RDWa, fl). From our study, no changes were found in the examined clinical signs. Haematologic analysis showed changes in the quantities of erythrocytes, while the other parameters (HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC, LYM, MON, GRA, RDW and RDWa) fluctuated around control values via e-mail to [email protected] no reliable numeric data for morbidity rates referring both to assessment not only of nutritional status of animals in a given effect relationships between negative energy Continue reading >>

Ketosis Toximia Or Acetonemia In Goats

Ketosis Toximia Or Acetonemia In Goats

Acetonemia is also known as pregnancy toxemia and ketosis so it is possible that you know the condition by either of those names. A goat doe not having enough carbohydrates during pregnancy causes it. Pregnancy requires a higher amount of carbohydrate based energy for the development of the fetus. The need for carbohydrates triples when a doe is carrying twins. The need is even higher when the doe is carrying triplets. When the doe does not get enough carbohydrates then her body fat is metabolized into glucose. Further causing problems is the fact that the doe has to flush the waste products from the fetuses from her system. When this does not happen, the doe can become toxic. There are several risk factors involved in Acetonemia. The number of fetuses is certainly a key factor. Some of the other factors include the quality and quantity of the feed, the living environment of the doe, the lack of exercise, and a heavy parasitic infection. Obesity and genetic factors can also cause Acetonemia. Typically it strikes overweight does that gets little exercise, but it also affects underweight does that are fed a substandard quality of food. Being confined in a small pen with little room to exercise not only cause problems with the doe not utilizing its feed well, but also causes a greater probability of a doe becoming infected with worms. One of the key factors in preventing Acetonemia is providing the does with good quality feed and plenty of it. Roughage is very important during the first three months of the pregnancy. It provides both nutrition and fiber in the doe’s diet. Watch that your doe does not put on too much weight by making sure that they have healthy food of a high quality. Make sure that the does have a clean area with plenty of room to exercise. Check with yo Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

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