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Ketosis Prevention Goats

06 Mara “magic” Potion For Goats To Fight Off Ketosis

06 Mara “magic” Potion For Goats To Fight Off Ketosis

Categorised Our Goats The first week of March has been extremely busy for us. With participating in the Cincinnati Home & Garden show plus the impending births with four of our does meant we’ve had to do double duty. I generally accompany Steve to the Home Show, but he was a loner this week. We have 4 does due (2 are due today as I am writing this). One has a history of coming a week early, one has a history of major multiple kids and the other two are extremely wide loads. Every doe reacts to birthing and delivery different, so I have spent quite a lot of time in the barn this week just watching and observing. Every kidding season, it is smart to wrap your mind around what you may need in terms of supplies, medications, etc. I packed the mid-wife bag and felt ready. Last Thursday, I noticed Rosie was beginning to pant, rapidly and it was not a warm day. My first thought was that labor was starting, but working from a tired mind, I later learned I was missing something. I called the vet as my concerns mounted over her breaths per minute. Then she said the word that made the light-bulb go on…..SUGAR. I kicked myself , I KNEW the calorie demands on such heavily pregnant does and could pre-treat for it. A condition can occur before birth called Pregnancy Toxemia. After the kids are born, it can also occur and is then called Ketosis. Sometimes the doe cannot consume enough calories to take care of body demands and the kids growing inside, particularly in the case of multiples. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe’s body starts breaking down her own body’s fat reserves. But this method of metabolism i Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

Ketosis-hypocalcemia

Ketosis-hypocalcemia

Written by Administrator-GL Monday, 28 May 2007 HYPOCALCEMIA… THE LINK BETWEEN CALCIUM and PHOSPHORUS in the DIET (And the link between Hypocalcemia and Ketosis as well!) By Sue Reith (2/06) As we goat owners sometimes painfully discover through the unnecessary loss of a doe in late gestation, the nutrients we provide for them during that period are more important than at any other time in their lives. Remember, it’s not just the mother we’re feeding, but all her fetuses as well. Two minerals especially critical now are calcium and phosphorus. If not available in sufficient amounts and balanced in relationship to each other, in the areas of bone development and muscle tone the physical needs of the mother and her fast-growing fetuses cannot be met.³ This is no simple task! The tricky part is that for her to handle those functions the doe must get a ration containing lots of calcium-rich foods* along with a lesser amount of phosphorus-rich foods*. By the fourth month a properly balanced calcium to phosphorus ratio must be available since that’s when those developing fetuses start rapidly draining calcium and phosphorus from her system for their bone development. Mom gets only “left-overs” for herself, and absent that mineral balance, thus with nothing left for her own muscle tone, she’ll be facing a deficiency that, if severe enough, will cause her pregnancy to falter. Too weak to perform her normal body functions, she’ll be unable even to eat! No appetite, along with wobbly legs, will be the first clues that she’s in trouble.** If this situation isn’t corrected fast she’ll be faced with starvation, her body left with no option but to rely on its own fat reserves to stay alive. As the fat reserves are processed in the liver, ketones get released in Continue reading >>

Metabolic Challenges In Dairy Goats

Metabolic Challenges In Dairy Goats

SHARE ON: Goats are known for their selective feeding behavior, inquisitive nature and ability to adapt to challenging environments. The oft-quoted fable that goats eat anything and can survive on unconventional diets is somewhat misguided. Yes, they will nibble on virtually anything, including clothing and plastic, to investigate the nutritive value of such objects. In reality, goats still require adequate protein and energy nutrition and will quickly fall ill when diets are lacking. Dairy goats producing over 1 gallon of milk per day have a large range of energy and protein requirements during their lactation. The more that’s expected from them in either milk production or activity, the more critical the need for well-balanced diets. Energy is often the limiting nutrient, especially during late pregnancy and early lactation. Common metabolic condition The most common metabolic disorder associated with reduced dietary energy experienced by goats is ketosis, followed by two other challenges also related to nutrition – hypocalcemia and rumen acidosis. Ketosis in pregnant goats is often referred to as pregnancy toxemia. Ketosis is caused by a buildup of ketones, which are chemical byproducts produced by the liver during excessive mobilization of body fat. When goats need extra energy during the last weeks of pregnancy or when they are producing high levels of milk, they will mobilize and burn their body fat for the needed energy. The livers in ruminants cannot process this body fat quickly enough into glucose and, as a result, ketones are produced. When glucose is in short supply the cells are fooled into binding with ketones, which then prevents any further binding of glucose. The best way to prevent ketosis is to limit the mobilization of body fat by maintaining ene Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis (Pregnancy Toxaemia) This is a metabolic disorder in late pregnancy (mainly in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy) When goats are either to thin or too fat. A doe in late pregnancy needs extra energy, as she has to maintain her own body as well as the developing kids in the uterus In late pregnancy the uterus and its contents take up a large amount of space in the stomach cavity, if on poorquality fodder she cannot consume enough fodder to provide in all her needs. (see figure 2). Any concurrent disease or poor nutritional management may also reduce dietary energy intake. When blood glucose levels are too low to supply in doe and kid’s needs, body fat is metabolised into blood glucose, with this chemical process, ketones are released into her blood stream. In addition to this the ketone excretion in the urine causes the loss of very important electrolytes resulting in dehydration and central nervous system signs. Symptoms Lethargy and loss of appetite lie down, grinding of teeth and moaning, usually dies within a week if not treated. Neurological signs (salivating, facial twitching etc),depression and dehydration (sunken eyes). Sometimes the doe can start to kid and there will be decomposing foetal membranes protruding from the vulva. The foetus can die inside the uterus and cause a metritis and toxaemia. Treatment Response on treatment if not detected very early, is not very good. But always well worth the attempt. It is important to pen affected individuals in pens with fresh water, good quality hay and fresh concentrates. Give doe a readily usable form of energy, such as glucose, propylene Glycol or molasses diluted in water. Generally, daily dosing of a concentrated dextrose and electrolyte rehydration solution is recommended. A supplement of Vitamin B has also Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis) In Ewes And Does – 1.630

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis) In Ewes And Does – 1.630

by S. LeValley1 (8/2010) Quick Facts… Pregnancy toxemia in sheep and goats is also known as pregnancy disease, lambing sickness and twin-lamb/kid disease. The principal cause of pregnancy toxemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Onset of the disease is often triggered by one of several types of stress including nutritional or inclement weather. The disease is most prevalent in ewes and does carrying two or more lambs or kids. The disease also affects ewes and does that are extremely fat or excessively thin. The best preventive measure is increased feeding of high energy concentrates and grains during the last month of pregnancy. Occurrence and Causes Pregnancy toxemia in sheep and goats has also been called ketosis, lambing/kidding sickness, pregnancy disease and twin-lamb/kid disease. It occurs in all parts of the world and is an often fatal disease occurring only during the last month of pregnancy. Death occurs in two to 10 days in about 80 percent of the cases. It most often affects ewes/does pregnant with twins or triplets and is characterized by low blood sugar (glucose). Economic losses because of the disease have been considerable and it is the most commonly occurring metabolic disease of sheep and goats. It is generally accepted that the basic cause of pregnancy toxemia is a disturbance of carbohydrate or sugar metabolism. In earlier phases of the disease, blood glucose concentrations are less than 30 and may be as low as 10 mg/100 ml (normal 40-60). Blood ketone bodies, on the other hand, are usually greater than 15 and occasionally may be as high as 80 mg/100 ml (normal 1-4). The free fatty acid content of the blood plasma also is increased, meaning that body fat is being broken down and used for energy. Since glucose is essential for proper functioning of the Continue reading >>

How To Resolve Problems In Your Goat’s Pregnancy

How To Resolve Problems In Your Goat’s Pregnancy

If you have goats as part of your green, sustainable lifestyle, you might want to breed them. Pregnant goats require some special considerations even if the pregnancy is normal. Here are some conditions to watch for in the does you have bred and some solutions for dealing with pregnancy-related problems. A goat’s gestation is approximately 150 days, although it can vary between 145 and 155. Nigerian Dwarves frequently kid at only 145 days, and goats that have poor body condition or nutrition often kid later than 150 days. Always write on your calendar 145 days after the date that a doe was bred as the due date so you can start checking her ligaments and watching her around this time. False pregnancy In a false pregnancy, the goat has all the signs of being pregnant, such as an enlarged udder, milk production, and uterine cramping. During false pregnancy, a pregnancy test will even come out positive. False pregnancy is sometimes linked to uterine infection. It can end at any time, but most often go full term and end in a cloudburst, or the release of fluid but no kid or placenta. The goat will then go back into her normal cycle and can be bred again. Abortion and stillbirth Both of these problems can have a variety of causes, including the following: Malformation or genetic defect: Kids with genetic defects are usually aborted early in the pregnancy. These abortions cannot be prevented. Stress: Poor nutrition, cold weather, overcrowding, or poor diet can lead to abortion. You can prevent these stressors by providing proper shelter, not housing too many goats in a small area, and feeding a balanced diet. Infectious diseases: Fifty percent of abortions in goats are believed to be caused by infection. The list of infectious diseases that can cause abortion is quite length Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Ketosis

Pregnancy Ketosis

New producers of small ruminants often learn about pregnancy ketosis first time the hard way—with a dead dam, fetuses or both. This article explains the causes of pregnancy ketosis (a.k.a. toxemia) and more importantly—how to prevent it. Sheep and goat fetuses add 70% of their final birth weight in the last six to eight weeks of gestation. A singleton increases a dam’s nutritional requirements by 1.5 to 2 times maintenance in the last trimester. Multiple fetuses greatly increase energy demands on their mother: twins require 1.75 to 2.5 times maintenance requirements and triplets demand up to 3 times maintenance. Twins and triplets are common in some breeds of sheep and goats; quadruplets and even more are not uncommon in Boer goats, Finnsheep and Romanov sheep. Concurrent with a pregnant dam’s increasing nutritional needs, her physical capacity for feed intake is reduced by the rapid abdominal expansion of her pregnant uterus. Without managerial changes, the dam will be unable to ingest the calories needed to support herself and her fetuses, sending her into negative energy balance. Detecting a drop in blood glucose levels, her body’s regulatory systems will liberate energy from reserves stored as body fat. The release of stored energy will address her low blood glucose issues (remember the Krebs cycle?), but not without side effects: by-products of fat mobilization called ketone bodies can accumulate to toxic levels and suppress appetite. Without intervention and sometimes despite it, affected does or ewes may spiral downward in a fatal negative energy balance, taking their unborn fetuses with them. Besides multiple fetuses, health and management factors can predispose a pregnant ewe or doe to ketosis during pregnancy. For example, if there isn’t enough fee Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Goats Symptoms And Treatment

Ketosis In Goats Symptoms And Treatment

Ketosis in goats: Symptoms and treatments Ketosis (Acetonemia) is caused when a pregnant doe’s increasing need for carbohydrates has not been met, and the fat from the doe’s body is broken down and turned into glucose. This presents during the late stage of pregnancy. Ketosis can also occur after the kids are born and the calorie intake is not enough to keep up with the milk production. Some goats are more likely to have this condition: lack of exercise, parasites, being over-weight, along with heredity, poor diet and stress, increases the chances of developing ketosis. Prevention: Obviously it is better for the doe not to develop this disease; look at does before they are bred, does that are too fat or too skinny are more susceptible. Pregnant does should have high quality forage and concentrates in their diet. She should gain at least half a pound a day. The doe needs an increase in carbohydrates, but not an increase in protein to keep her and the kids healthy. Symptoms of Ketosis It is imperative that the first early signs of ketosis do not go unnoticed. Watch for a lack of appetite or a decrease in the amount of food or water that is taken. Be alert for any pregnant doe that becomes sedentary and does not want to stand. Legs may become stiff or swollen and the doe is limping or staggering. A doe might grind her teeth or she has a sweet smelling urine or breath. A doe will separate from the rest of the herd. The doe may have dull eyes and is taking quick breaths. These symptoms do not show up in any specific order. If the disease is allowed to progress; the neurological function of the doe becomes compromised. Blindness, staggering, tremors, wandering about and uncoordinated movement and coma develops. The doe and the fetuses dies, and does that survive are still Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Contents Industry Background Management Nutrition Animal Health Breeding Fibre Production Fibre Marketing Meat Production and Marketing Pasture and Weed Control Economic Analysis Tanning Skins ketosis in goats The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically different and occur during different stages of pregnancy and lactation, the basis of the disorder is essentially the same: a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase in ketones. In ruminants, glucose is synthesised mainly from propionic acid (a volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen) and from amino acids. The amount of glucose that is absorbed directly depends on how much dietary carbohydrate escapes rumen fermentation and is digested in the small intestine. This form of glucose uptake varies with different feeds as well as their treatment. Ruminants can use products from rumen fermentation, such as volatile fatty acids, for most of their energy requirements. However, the nervous system, kidneys, mammary gland and foetus have a direct requirement for glucose. During periods of peak glucose requirement (late pregnancy and early lactation) problems may arise due to a glucose deficiency. The incidence of pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis varies with the two main types of goats. In dairy goats with a genetic potential for high milk production, ketosis may be a potential problem; in non-milch goats (Angora, Cashmere and meat) pregnancy toxaemia is more common. PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA Main causes The most important cause of pregnancy toxaemia is a decline in the plane of nutrition during the last six to eight weeks of pregnancy. This places the pregnant female in a difficult situation because the developing foetus imposes an unremitting drain on available m Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia In Goats

Pregnancy Toxaemia In Goats

Goat Diseases The later stages of pregnancy and early lactation require a lot of energy from the mother and this must be met by feed intake or pregnancy toxaemia or ketosis may occur. Also known as Twin kid disease, Ketosis, Ketonaemia and Hypoglycaemia Pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder of pregnant ruminants (pre-parturition) caused by abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, which occurs in the final stages of pregnancy. Ketosis (or ketonaemia) is also a metabolic disorder associated with fat and carbohydrate metabolism but occurs after kidding during the early lactation stages. Both conditions are closely link and associated with negative energy balance. Although many animals are able to cope and recover from a negative energy balance by metabolising body fat albeit with a negative impact on productivity at the sub-clinical stage, some metabolise too much fat, become overwhelmed with the associated by-products (ketone bodies), and develop pregnancy toxaemia (before kidding) and ketosis (after kidding). What is Negative Energy Balance (NEB)? The final stages of pregnancy and the onset of milk production (lactation) requires a lot of energy, this high demand is usually met by feed intake and topped up by body reserves. If the (metabolisable) energy from feed intake and the body reserves is less than required for the foetus to grow or to produce milk – the body is in a Negative Energy Balance (NEB). NEB is considered the normal in high yielding animals during early lactation, however stress can cause further reduction in feed intake and lead to the onset of sub-clinical or clinical ketosis. NEB a detrimental consequence of human selection for high yielding animals, hence the emerging trends in diary cattle and reduction in milk yield and gain in animal w Continue reading >>

Hypocalcemia - Feed For Prevention

Hypocalcemia - Feed For Prevention

HYPOCALCEMIA IN LATE-GESTATION (and lactating) DOES: Feeding to Prevent it Hypocalcemia is a life-threatening condition that shows up when a doe is either pregnant or lactating, but getting fed an unbalanced diet that doesn’t provide her with enough calcium for both herself and her growing fetuses or for milk production. It canappear at any time during the last 2 months of pregnancy, right up to the doe'sdue date, as well as at any time while she’s lactating. Symptoms: The firstthing she'll do is refuse to eat her grain. Soon after that she won’t want her hay either. Without quick intervention she’ll become weak and wobbly, lethargic and depressed. If still untreated by then, she’ll lie down and not want to get up. If you take her temperature when you first see these changes, it’ll be normal (102.3), but soon after that it’ll drop to sub-normal (below 102). Unless corrective measures are begun right away you’ll lose both the doe and her fetuses. Treatment: If, because you're unsure as to why the doe is behaving this way, you call a veterinarian in for advice, he or she will probably (and unfortunately) tell you that her problem is “pregnancy toxemia”, or “pregnancy disease”, or perhaps the most likely diagnosis will be “ketosis” a secondary condition that happens when the doe stops eating (in this case because she's too weak to do so) thus has to start living on her own body's reserves*. While ketosis was not the initial cause of the doe's difficulty, after a couple of days of being too weak to eat any food it will certainly become a major part of her problem! So it, too, must be dealt with fast! A veterinarian, recognizing the ketosis but not the hypocalcemia that caused it, will want to treat with glucose, etc. But it's absolutely essential Continue reading >>

Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In Sheep And Goats With Nutritional Management

Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In Sheep And Goats With Nutritional Management

PINE BLUFF, Ark. – Although kidding and lambing season does not usually occur until spring, winter is the time to prevent pregnancy toxemia in your herd or flock, said David Fernandez, Cooperative Extension Program livestock specialist at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Pregnancy toxemia, or ketosis, is a metabolic disorder caused by increasing demands on the bodies of does or ewes during late pregnancy, he says. At this time the fetuses will complete nearly 80 percent of their growth, and the female’s nutritional needs double. But, the space in her rumen is reduced because of the room taken up by the growing fetuses. If does or ewes cannot consume enough high quality feed, they will begin to mobilize their body fat reserves. To generate energy from fat stores, females still need a certain amount of blood sugar. If they cannot get enough energy from feed, ketones created during fat metabolism build up to toxic levels. A common example of a ketone is the acetone in nail polish remover. “Imagine having nail polish remover in your blood,” he said. “Does or ewes stop eating which makes matters worse. They become lethargic, have difficulty walking, grind their teeth and eventually go down. Their breath will smell sweetish or foul because of the ketones in their blood. Finally, they go into a coma and die. Once the female is down, the likelihood of recovering drops dramatically.” If a doe or ewe becomes affected, early treatment while she can still stand is critical. Fernandez suggests providing a high energy feed to increase the amount of glucose in her blood and giving 60 to 90 milliliters of propylene glycol two to three times daily until she recovers or gives birth. In a pinch, producers can make a syrup of table sugar or use molasses. The pregnancy Continue reading >>

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