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Ketosis Prevention Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis Of Ewes And Does.

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis Of Ewes And Does.

Abstract Pregnancy toxemia of ewes and does appears to occur when the animal cannot meet the glucose demands of the fetal-placental unit and hypoglycemia develops. There is individual variation in susceptibility, and there may be basic differences in glucose metabolism between susceptible animals and nonsusceptible animals. Increased serum NEFA and ketone body concentrations accompany the disease, but clinical signs do not appear to develop in the absence of hypoglycemia. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs, and the finding of ketone bodies in the urine. Numerous metabolic abnormalities develop subsequent to hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia, and these affect the prognosis. Important secondary abnormalities include acidosis, dehydration, and renal failure. Therapy is frequently unsuccessful, but frequent administration of small doses of glucose appears to be beneficial, if the other abnormalities, such as acidosis and dehydration, are controlled. Prevention can be readily achieved by nutritional means and is far more rewarding than therapy. Ewes and does must be fed in relation to their changing energy needs throughout the reproductive cycle. Continue reading >>

06 Mara “magic” Potion For Goats To Fight Off Ketosis

06 Mara “magic” Potion For Goats To Fight Off Ketosis

Categorised Our Goats The first week of March has been extremely busy for us. With participating in the Cincinnati Home & Garden show plus the impending births with four of our does meant we’ve had to do double duty. I generally accompany Steve to the Home Show, but he was a loner this week. We have 4 does due (2 are due today as I am writing this). One has a history of coming a week early, one has a history of major multiple kids and the other two are extremely wide loads. Every doe reacts to birthing and delivery different, so I have spent quite a lot of time in the barn this week just watching and observing. Every kidding season, it is smart to wrap your mind around what you may need in terms of supplies, medications, etc. I packed the mid-wife bag and felt ready. Last Thursday, I noticed Rosie was beginning to pant, rapidly and it was not a warm day. My first thought was that labor was starting, but working from a tired mind, I later learned I was missing something. I called the vet as my concerns mounted over her breaths per minute. Then she said the word that made the light-bulb go on…..SUGAR. I kicked myself , I KNEW the calorie demands on such heavily pregnant does and could pre-treat for it. A condition can occur before birth called Pregnancy Toxemia. After the kids are born, it can also occur and is then called Ketosis. Sometimes the doe cannot consume enough calories to take care of body demands and the kids growing inside, particularly in the case of multiples. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe’s body starts breaking down her own body’s fat reserves. But this method of metabolism i Continue reading >>

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

The most common health problems experienced by pregnant and lactating does are described in this article. Prolapses exist if either the vagina or the rectum is outside the doe's body. Prolapses in pregnant does usually happen during the final 30 days of pregnancy -- if they are going to occur at all. Rectal prolapses tend to occur in does that have been fed too much grain and are therefore too fat. Proper nutritional management makes rectal prolapses less likely to occur. Vaginal prolapses are mostly hereditary and usually can be bred out by mating the doe with an unrelated buck whose previous female offspring have not prolapsed. Does that prolapse more than once should be culled from the breeding herd and sold for slaughter. Returning a prolapse to the inside of the goat's body must be done very carefully. To prevent infection, clean the prolapse with a solution of Nolvasan, Clorhexadine, or similar product by gently pouring the slightly warmed mixture over it. This is very delicate and easily torn tissue. Take great care. Put on disposable gloves and apply a water-soluble lubricant like K-Y Jelly to the gloved hand being used to re-position the prolapse. Using the flat palm of the gloved hand, gently and with even pressure press the prolapse back inside the goat. This is a two-person job; one person has to hold the goat in a standing position while lifting its rear legs off the ground so that it can't push against the hand of the second person, who is attempting to return the prolapsed organ back inside the goat. Sometimes it is necessary to place the goat on its side in order to get the proper angle that allows reinsertion of the prolapse. If the prolapse has been outside the body for several hours or overnight, causing it to dry out and therefore become more difficu Continue reading >>

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis / Pregnancy Toxaemia In Milk Goats Go Back Author: Milk Goat Breeders' Society Date Published: 01 March 2016

Ketosis (Pregnancy Toxaemia) This is a metabolic disorder in late pregnancy (mainly in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy) When goats are either to thin or too fat. A doe in late pregnancy needs extra energy, as she has to maintain her own body as well as the developing kids in the uterus In late pregnancy the uterus and its contents take up a large amount of space in the stomach cavity, if on poorquality fodder she cannot consume enough fodder to provide in all her needs. (see figure 2). Any concurrent disease or poor nutritional management may also reduce dietary energy intake. When blood glucose levels are too low to supply in doe and kid’s needs, body fat is metabolised into blood glucose, with this chemical process, ketones are released into her blood stream. In addition to this the ketone excretion in the urine causes the loss of very important electrolytes resulting in dehydration and central nervous system signs. Symptoms Lethargy and loss of appetite lie down, grinding of teeth and moaning, usually dies within a week if not treated. Neurological signs (salivating, facial twitching etc),depression and dehydration (sunken eyes). Sometimes the doe can start to kid and there will be decomposing foetal membranes protruding from the vulva. The foetus can die inside the uterus and cause a metritis and toxaemia. Treatment Response on treatment if not detected very early, is not very good. But always well worth the attempt. It is important to pen affected individuals in pens with fresh water, good quality hay and fresh concentrates. Give doe a readily usable form of energy, such as glucose, propylene Glycol or molasses diluted in water. Generally, daily dosing of a concentrated dextrose and electrolyte rehydration solution is recommended. A supplement of Vitamin B has also Continue reading >>

Metabolic Challenges In Dairy Goats

Metabolic Challenges In Dairy Goats

SHARE ON: Goats are known for their selective feeding behavior, inquisitive nature and ability to adapt to challenging environments. The oft-quoted fable that goats eat anything and can survive on unconventional diets is somewhat misguided. Yes, they will nibble on virtually anything, including clothing and plastic, to investigate the nutritive value of such objects. In reality, goats still require adequate protein and energy nutrition and will quickly fall ill when diets are lacking. Dairy goats producing over 1 gallon of milk per day have a large range of energy and protein requirements during their lactation. The more that’s expected from them in either milk production or activity, the more critical the need for well-balanced diets. Energy is often the limiting nutrient, especially during late pregnancy and early lactation. Common metabolic condition The most common metabolic disorder associated with reduced dietary energy experienced by goats is ketosis, followed by two other challenges also related to nutrition – hypocalcemia and rumen acidosis. Ketosis in pregnant goats is often referred to as pregnancy toxemia. Ketosis is caused by a buildup of ketones, which are chemical byproducts produced by the liver during excessive mobilization of body fat. When goats need extra energy during the last weeks of pregnancy or when they are producing high levels of milk, they will mobilize and burn their body fat for the needed energy. The livers in ruminants cannot process this body fat quickly enough into glucose and, as a result, ketones are produced. When glucose is in short supply the cells are fooled into binding with ketones, which then prevents any further binding of glucose. The best way to prevent ketosis is to limit the mobilization of body fat by maintaining ene Continue reading >>

Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In Sheep And Goats With Nutritional Management

Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In Sheep And Goats With Nutritional Management

PINE BLUFF, Ark. – Although kidding and lambing season does not usually occur until spring, winter is the time to prevent pregnancy toxemia in your herd or flock, said David Fernandez, Cooperative Extension Program livestock specialist at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Pregnancy toxemia, or ketosis, is a metabolic disorder caused by increasing demands on the bodies of does or ewes during late pregnancy, he says. At this time the fetuses will complete nearly 80 percent of their growth, and the female’s nutritional needs double. But, the space in her rumen is reduced because of the room taken up by the growing fetuses. If does or ewes cannot consume enough high quality feed, they will begin to mobilize their body fat reserves. To generate energy from fat stores, females still need a certain amount of blood sugar. If they cannot get enough energy from feed, ketones created during fat metabolism build up to toxic levels. A common example of a ketone is the acetone in nail polish remover. “Imagine having nail polish remover in your blood,” he said. “Does or ewes stop eating which makes matters worse. They become lethargic, have difficulty walking, grind their teeth and eventually go down. Their breath will smell sweetish or foul because of the ketones in their blood. Finally, they go into a coma and die. Once the female is down, the likelihood of recovering drops dramatically.” If a doe or ewe becomes affected, early treatment while she can still stand is critical. Fernandez suggests providing a high energy feed to increase the amount of glucose in her blood and giving 60 to 90 milliliters of propylene glycol two to three times daily until she recovers or gives birth. In a pinch, producers can make a syrup of table sugar or use molasses. The pregnancy Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Ewes And Does

Pregnancy Toxemia In Ewes And Does

Pregnancy toxemia affects ewes and does during late gestation and is characterized by partial anorexia and depression, often with neurologic signs, progressing to recumbency and death. It is seen more often in animals carrying multiple fetuses. Generally, clinically affected animals have other risk factors, at either the individual or flock/herd level. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis: The primary predisposing cause of pregnancy toxemia is inadequate nutrition during late gestation, usually because of insufficient energy density of the ration and decreased rumen capacity as a result of fetal growth. In the last 4 wk of gestation, metabolizable energy requirements rise dramatically. For example, the energy requirement of a 70-kg ewe carrying a single lamb is 2.8 Mcal/day in early gestation compared with 3.45 Mcal/day in late gestation, or an increase of 23%. This change is more dramatic in ewes bearing twins, with an energy requirement of 3.22 Mcal/day in early and 4.37 Mcal/day in late gestation (36% increase), and in ewes bearing triplets, with an energy requirement of 3.49 Mcal/day in early and 4.95 Mcal/day in late gestation (42% increase). Dairy goats have similar changes in needs. In late gestation, the liver increases gluconeogenesis to facilitate glucose availability to the fetuses. Each fetus requires 30–40 g of glucose/day in late gestation, which represents a significant percentage of the ewe’s glucose production and which is preferentially directed to supporting the fetuses rather than the ewe. Mobilization of fat stores is increased in late gestation as a way to assure adequate energy for the increased demands of the developing fetus(es) and impending lactation. However, in a negative energy balance, this increased mobilization may overwhelm the liver’s c Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia

Pregnancy Toxaemia

Ketosis, or pregnancy toxaemia, occurs in cattle, sheep and goats. It is caused by abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and volatile fatty acids. Conditions when ketosis is likely to occur Late pregnant cows, ewes and does in the last six weeks of pregnancy grazing dry poor quality pasture (less than 1,000-1,500kg DM/ha), stubbles or green pasture (less than 800kg DM/ha). Fat cows, ewes or does (ie fat score greater than 3.5-4) or light cows, ewes or does on very poor pasture. Twin-bearing ewes or does. Previous history of pregnancy toxaemia. Cold wet windy weather. Extensive grazing situations where the last third of pregnancy coincides with a late break in the season followed by cold weather leading to little pasture growth. Short periods without feed (yarding). Stress (due to climatic conditions, handling, being chased or management procedures). Heavy worm infestation. Diagnosing and identifying ketosis Clinical signs that would lead producers to suspect ketosis include the following: Cattle -Pregnant, recumbent or neurological signs such as staggering, aggression, delirium (often associated with another disease). Sheep and goats - Pregnant, apparent blindness, staggering, star gazing, drowsiness, convulsions. Prevention strategies for ketosis Avoid grazing cows, ewes and does on pasture when rapid weight loss is likely in late pregnancy or supplement to avoid rapid weight loss. Avoid getting cows, ewes and does too fat (ie fat score greater than 3.5-4) or too thin (ie fat score less than 2-2.5) in late pregnancy. Avoid handling heavily pregnant animals. More information Module 6 from MLA's Going into Goats Guide: A profitable producers' best practice guide Department of Primary Industries Victoria publication: Pregnancy Toxaemia in beef cows New South Wales Industry Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis) In Ewes And Does – 1.630

Pregnancy Toxemia (ketosis) In Ewes And Does – 1.630

by S. LeValley1 (8/2010) Quick Facts… Pregnancy toxemia in sheep and goats is also known as pregnancy disease, lambing sickness and twin-lamb/kid disease. The principal cause of pregnancy toxemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Onset of the disease is often triggered by one of several types of stress including nutritional or inclement weather. The disease is most prevalent in ewes and does carrying two or more lambs or kids. The disease also affects ewes and does that are extremely fat or excessively thin. The best preventive measure is increased feeding of high energy concentrates and grains during the last month of pregnancy. Occurrence and Causes Pregnancy toxemia in sheep and goats has also been called ketosis, lambing/kidding sickness, pregnancy disease and twin-lamb/kid disease. It occurs in all parts of the world and is an often fatal disease occurring only during the last month of pregnancy. Death occurs in two to 10 days in about 80 percent of the cases. It most often affects ewes/does pregnant with twins or triplets and is characterized by low blood sugar (glucose). Economic losses because of the disease have been considerable and it is the most commonly occurring metabolic disease of sheep and goats. It is generally accepted that the basic cause of pregnancy toxemia is a disturbance of carbohydrate or sugar metabolism. In earlier phases of the disease, blood glucose concentrations are less than 30 and may be as low as 10 mg/100 ml (normal 40-60). Blood ketone bodies, on the other hand, are usually greater than 15 and occasionally may be as high as 80 mg/100 ml (normal 1-4). The free fatty acid content of the blood plasma also is increased, meaning that body fat is being broken down and used for energy. Since glucose is essential for proper functioning of the Continue reading >>

Ketosis-hypocalcemia

Ketosis-hypocalcemia

Written by Administrator-GL Monday, 28 May 2007 HYPOCALCEMIA… THE LINK BETWEEN CALCIUM and PHOSPHORUS in the DIET (And the link between Hypocalcemia and Ketosis as well!) By Sue Reith (2/06) As we goat owners sometimes painfully discover through the unnecessary loss of a doe in late gestation, the nutrients we provide for them during that period are more important than at any other time in their lives. Remember, it’s not just the mother we’re feeding, but all her fetuses as well. Two minerals especially critical now are calcium and phosphorus. If not available in sufficient amounts and balanced in relationship to each other, in the areas of bone development and muscle tone the physical needs of the mother and her fast-growing fetuses cannot be met.³ This is no simple task! The tricky part is that for her to handle those functions the doe must get a ration containing lots of calcium-rich foods* along with a lesser amount of phosphorus-rich foods*. By the fourth month a properly balanced calcium to phosphorus ratio must be available since that’s when those developing fetuses start rapidly draining calcium and phosphorus from her system for their bone development. Mom gets only “left-overs” for herself, and absent that mineral balance, thus with nothing left for her own muscle tone, she’ll be facing a deficiency that, if severe enough, will cause her pregnancy to falter. Too weak to perform her normal body functions, she’ll be unable even to eat! No appetite, along with wobbly legs, will be the first clues that she’s in trouble.** If this situation isn’t corrected fast she’ll be faced with starvation, her body left with no option but to rely on its own fat reserves to stay alive. As the fat reserves are processed in the liver, ketones get released in Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Inside: Ketosis in goats: how to prevent this condition, the symptoms and the treatment. It is preventable and you can help your goat avoid it. This is one post in our Raising Goats series.  Although I worked in an Alzheimer home in Boise when I was going to school, I can’t say that I had or gained a passion for the medical side of life. Truly, it was a wonderful experience working with and helping the residents but it wouldn’t become a long-term profession. So, when I first heard the word “ketosis”, I said, “huh??” But it is an important term to know when you are dealing with goats who have recently kidded and their health. As a goat owner, it is your primary responsibility to provide your goats with adequate nutrition so that you never have to work on the treatment side of these problematic conditions. Let’s start off by answering the question: It is a metabolic condition after kidding Ketosis is a metabolic problem caused by an animal living on its own body reserves because it has stopped eating food. The higher nutritional needs of a doe continue as they did in the last weeks of her pregnancy because now she is producing large quantities of milk. So a doe in the early stages of lactation may experience a net loss of energy. Usually, four to six weeks after kidding, the doe’s hormonal stimuli for lactation overcomes the effects of inadequate food intake. Ketosis in goats can be a very detrimental condition for your herd. What else do you need to know about this condition? • Prevention is key: • Never should the doe be excessively fat. • Any changes in diet should be introduced slowly. The addition of protein grain concentrate not only is important for the health of the doe and kid during pregnancy but for the health of the goat as she begins l Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

How To Resolve Problems In Your Goat’s Pregnancy

How To Resolve Problems In Your Goat’s Pregnancy

If you have goats as part of your green, sustainable lifestyle, you might want to breed them. Pregnant goats require some special considerations even if the pregnancy is normal. Here are some conditions to watch for in the does you have bred and some solutions for dealing with pregnancy-related problems. A goat’s gestation is approximately 150 days, although it can vary between 145 and 155. Nigerian Dwarves frequently kid at only 145 days, and goats that have poor body condition or nutrition often kid later than 150 days. Always write on your calendar 145 days after the date that a doe was bred as the due date so you can start checking her ligaments and watching her around this time. False pregnancy In a false pregnancy, the goat has all the signs of being pregnant, such as an enlarged udder, milk production, and uterine cramping. During false pregnancy, a pregnancy test will even come out positive. False pregnancy is sometimes linked to uterine infection. It can end at any time, but most often go full term and end in a cloudburst, or the release of fluid but no kid or placenta. The goat will then go back into her normal cycle and can be bred again. Abortion and stillbirth Both of these problems can have a variety of causes, including the following: Malformation or genetic defect: Kids with genetic defects are usually aborted early in the pregnancy. These abortions cannot be prevented. Stress: Poor nutrition, cold weather, overcrowding, or poor diet can lead to abortion. You can prevent these stressors by providing proper shelter, not housing too many goats in a small area, and feeding a balanced diet. Infectious diseases: Fifty percent of abortions in goats are believed to be caused by infection. The list of infectious diseases that can cause abortion is quite length Continue reading >>

Dairy On A Ketogenic Diet

Dairy On A Ketogenic Diet

Dairy has received both good and bad press over the years with respect to its effects on weight and overall health. Although milk, ice cream and nonfat dairy products don't belong in a keto diet, butter, cheese and other types of full-fat dairy may be a good fit, depending on the individual. This article takes a look at dairy's positive and negative health effects and provides recommendations for making the healthiest keto-friendly choices if you want to include dairy in your diet. What Are the Components of Dairy? A dairy product is technically any food or beverage made from the milk of mammals. Although dairy from cow milk is by far the most common type consumed in the US and Europe, goat and sheep dairy products are also popular in many areas. These are the main components of dairy: Lactose is a disaccharide, or two-unit sugar, consisting of one molecule each of the simple sugars glucose and galactose. Enzymes in your small intestine break down lactose into these simple sugars, which are transported into your bloodstream. Casein Casein accounts for 80% of the total protein in dairy, including all nine essential amino acids. When milk is treated with the enzyme rennet to make cheese, the casein coagulates into curds, and the liquid portion containing whey is removed. Compared to whey and other proteins, casein takes longer to digest (1). Whey Whey protein makes up the remaining 20% of protein in milk. Most, but not all, of the whey is removed during the process of making cheese. Like casein, whey contains all the essential amino acids, although it is digested much more rapidly (1). There are hundreds of different fatty acids in milk, and the great majority are saturated (2): Saturated: 70% of total dairy fat, including 11% as short-chain fatty acids like butyrate and Continue reading >>

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