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Ketosis May Result From Quizlet

Like This Study Set?

Like This Study Set?

Sort b,c,d In the body as dissociated electrolytes Held in significant amounts in reserve in the body Include sodium, potassium, and chloride Minerals are: Continue reading >>

3,947 Possible Causes For Hyperammonemia + Hypoglycemia + Ketosis In Usa

3,947 Possible Causes For Hyperammonemia + Hypoglycemia + Ketosis In Usa

Propionic Acidemia Hypoglycemia Ketosis Hyperammonemia Neonatal clinical onset is characterized by severe metabolic acidemia accompanied by hyperammonemia, hyperglycemia, lethargy, vomiting, hypotonia; and hepatomegaly.[icd10data.com] Serum (during an acute episode) metabolic acidosis with a wide anion gap, dehydration, hypoglycemia secondary hyperammonemia secondary carnitine deficiency serum amino acids[pedbase.org] Elevated accumulation and excretion of glycine accompanied by ketosis that is secondary to methylmalonicacidemia, isovalericacidemia and other organic acidemias, as distinguished[icd10data.com] List represents a sample of symptoms, diseases, and other queries. Updated weekly. Hungry Bones Syndrome Altitude Sickness Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Posterior Subcapsular Cataract Cellulitis Splenic Infarction Megaloblastic Anemia Islet Cell Tumor Chronic Phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Penile Fracture Tuberous Sclerosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Odynophagia, unilateral throat pain Costovertebral Angle Tenderness Dyspepsia Tenesmus Oliguria Scrotal Ulcer Choledochal Cyst Anal Fistula Essential Hypertension Enthesitis-Related Arthritis Glioblastoma Multiforme Leiomyosarcoma Brain Neoplasm Hyperventilation Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Ethmoid Sinusitis Dementia with Lewy Bodies Infarction vaginal discharge, weight loss hemoglobin decreased, typhoid fever Fever, Polyserositis Hyponatremia, Ileus Burning Sensation Autoamputation of Digits Bradycardia Reduced Fetal Movement Calcaneal Spur Arteriovenous Malformation Berry Aneurysm Arachnoiditis Lateral Medullary Syndrome Myiasis Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies Cheilitis Clonus, Hyperreflexia, muscle hypotonia Absent Triceps Reflex Cul De Sac Mass Delayed Bone Age Nystag Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet

The Ketogenic Diet

Sort The 3 ketone bodies are 1. acetoacetate, which isn't very prevalent 2. β-hydroxybutyric acid, the primary ketone though it's actually strictly speaking not a ketone 3. acetone, which doesn't really do much except give you the distinct 'keto breath' when it is expelled via the lungs, causing a somewhat sweet and fruity odor that some people smell during a ketogenic diet. Role of glucose levels in ketosis. That's why you only have to count net carbs, which are equal to your total carb intake minus your fiber intake. A diet with 40 grams of fiber and 90 grams of carbohydrate thus only has 50 grams of net carbs, possibly sufficient to be a ketogenic diet. Since amino acids can be converted to glucose, you also have to take into account protein intake. 57 Grams of glucose can be created from 100 grams of protein. As a guideline, you can count half of your excess protein intake towards your net carb intake. (See the topic on protein for what constitutes the excess: anything above 1.8 g / kg / d is a good guideline.) Keto diets and performance The Cori cycle provides the body with an important pathway to maintain adequate muscle glycogen levels without glucose from the diet. The liver effectively recycles the lactate produced during anaerobic exercise back into glucose. The energy for this process can be derived from fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, the glycerol backbone of the fats in your diet can be converted to glucose. Though the contribution of glycerol to glucose production is normally modest, the body is capable of deriving a significant percentage of its glucose needs from glycerol and the limits of this have not been adequately tested. Continue reading >>

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic diets have become incredibly popular. Early research suggests this high-fat, very low-carb diet may benefit several health conditions. Although some of the evidence is from case studies and animal research, results from human controlled studies are also promising. Here are 15 health conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy is a disease that causes seizures due to excessive brain activity. Anti-seizure medications are effective for some people with epilepsy. However, others don't respond to the drugs or can't tolerate their side effects. Of all the conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet, epilepsy has by far the most evidence supporting it. In fact, there are several dozen studies on the topic. Research shows that seizures typically improve in about 50% of epilepsy patients who follow the classic ketogenic diet. This is also known as a 4:1 ketogenic diet because it provides 4 times as much fat as protein and carbs combined (1, 2, 3). The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is based on a considerably less restrictive 1:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbs. It has been shown to be equally effective for seizure control in most adults and children older than two years of age (4, 5, 6, 7, 8). The ketogenic diet may also have benefits on the brain beyond seizure control. For example, when researchers examined the brain activity of children with epilepsy, they found improvements in various brain patterns in 65% of those following a ketogenic diet — regardless of whether they had fewer seizures (9). Ketogenic diets have been shown to reduce seizure frequency and severity in many children and adults with epilepsy who don't respond well to drug therapy. Metabolic syndrome, sometimes referred to as prediabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance. Continue reading >>

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Sort complex carbohydrates Complex Polysaccharides Made up of amylose and amylopectin Glycogen Branched chain of glucose Store in liver and muscle Amylose= straight linkages of CHO units, amylopectin- branched structure, gives CHO differing properties i.e. potatoes Starch= amylose (fluffy strachy potato) + amylopectin (waxy i.e. little red potato) Fiber= roughage, contains resistance starches, do not break down i.e. legumes, whole grains, fruit and veggies Glycogen= storage of glucose/energy in liver and muscles, providing energy when not consuming energy glucose Can be made into energy by our cells Can be stored as glycogen for later use in the Muscle (150 grams, 600 kcal) Liver (90 grams, 360 kcal) Physical training can increase storage capacity Converts glucose to energy through glycolysis, and Krebs Glycogen= storage form of glucose (energy) through glycogenesis can be quickly broken down for energy metabolism Blood glucose source of energy to all cells Metabolism primarily maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis at 70 to 100 mg/dL Conversion to and from glucose Glycogenolysis - liver/muscle glycogen → glucose Gluconeogenesis - fat/protein → glucose Pyruvic, lactic acid (intermediates of muscle glycogenolysis converted to BG) Amino acids can provide some but not all glucose needs, AA can be converted to glucose if needed insufficient carb intake Fat is metabolized → ketones Overtime ketosis occurs Affects pH balance of the body Minimum 100 grams carbohdrate/day to prevent ketosis Ketones are by-product of fat breakdown for energy If insufficient CHO intake, build up ketones and ph imbalance can occur--? Ketoacidosis S/S fruity acetone breath blood glucose control Hormonal system controls glucose metabolism and blood glucose level regulation Insulin - anabolic Continue reading >>

Lipids 4

Lipids 4

Sort Lipids are included in the diet for several reasons. Lipids in the diet provide a source of the ___ ___ ___. They are often added to the diet as a concentrated source of ___. A small amount of added fat increases ___ and decreases ___ of a feed. They are required in the diet ONLY to provide ___ ____ ____. essential fatty acids energy palatability dustiness essential fatty acids There are few stated requirements for the EFA. This is a current area of research and greater detail on the requirements and roles of specific fatty acids will likely be available as more research is completed. While these amounts are small, they are critical to ____ function. body ___-___ acid (ω-3) is required, although there are few specifics on the required amount. Generally the thinking is that a ___ percentage in the diet is required than for linoleic acid. A recent publication of Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats (NRC, 2006) suggests the sum of ____ (EPA, C20:5, ω-3) and ____ (DHA, C22:6, ω-3) fatty acids, included in the diet should be ___ to ___%. alpha-linolenic smaller eicosapentaenoic docosahexaenoic 0.01 0.04 Dairy cow - ___ to ___% added fat: This is usually included in early ____ to increase energy without adding more grain. It also gives the flexibility to add energy and maintain ___ levels in the diet. The fiber is needed for proper ____ function. ____ ____ is a feedstuff that is often used. ____, an escape fat source, is another example. 4-6 lactation fiber rumen whole cottonseed megalac Horse - ___ to ___% added: Fat may be added to the diet of high ___ horses. The fatty acids provide energy for ___ and spare ___ because a greater proportion of the energy used by muscle is generated from ___. Vegetable oils, such as ___ oil, ___ oil, or ___ oil are often added. 8-1 Continue reading >>

Ch. 16 A&p

Ch. 16 A&p

1. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________. 4. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus? a change in membrane potential direct control of the nervous system the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis an increase in enzymatic activity direct control of the nervous system 5. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________. the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ 6. Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________. steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells 7. What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid–based hormones? 8. Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system. 9. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________. 10. Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction? synergism feedback antagonism permissiveness 11. Which of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus? induces secretory activity stimulates production of an action potential activates or deactivates enzymes alters plasma membrane permeability stimulates production of an action potential 12. The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________. binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP 13. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of bio Continue reading >>

Chapter 4-8 Test Review

Chapter 4-8 Test Review

Sort If a diet does not provide adequate carbohydrate to meet immediate energy needs, the body compensates by altering its metabolism of other nutrients. Insufficient dietary carbohydrate can lead to elevated levels of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the byproducts of partial breakdown of: Fat Recommended Dietary Allowances differ for various stages of life and gender. While adult needs for most nutrients are generally greater than those of children, this is not the case for carbohydrate. Because their bodies are developing so quickly, children aged 1-3 have very high carbohydrate needs that equals the same number of grams of carbohydrate an adult should have each day. What is the RDA for carbohydrate for both children aged 1-3 and adults? 130 grams Match the activity of dietary fiber that is related to its health benefit. 1. Fiber increases satiety Helps promote weight loss correct 2. Fiber reduces cholesterol absorption and increases cholesterol excretion Reduces Cardiovascular disease risk correct 3. Soluble fiber slows down digestion and blood glucose spikes Improves diabetes management correct 4. Insoluble fiber increases stool bulk and increases regularity Promotes colon health correct Brandy's seven-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and research indicates that Brandy should not feed her daughter any refined sugar products because sugar intake causes hyperactivity in children. False Contrary to popular belief, all of the alternative sweeteners approved for sale in the U.S. are safe for human consumption and have never been proven to be carcinogenic (cancer-causing) in humans. Of the following alternative sweeteners, which one is banned for sale in the U.S. because of controversial research that indicated Continue reading >>

Health & Nutrition - Unit 5 - Carbohydrates - Diabetes

Health & Nutrition - Unit 5 - Carbohydrates - Diabetes

Sort Monosaccharides The three most important dietary monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Milk = vitamins, calcium, protein Glucose: Fruits and vegetables, especially berries, grapes, corn, and carrots, are good food sources of glucose. Glucose is the most important monosaccharide in the human body because it is a primary fuel for muscle and other cells. In fact, red blood and nervous system cells, including brain cells, must use glucose for energy under normal conditions. Thus, a healthy body maintains its blood glucose levels carefully. Glucose is also called dextrose and may be referred to as blood sugar. Fructose: (fruit sugar or levulose) is naturally found in fruit, honey, and a few vegetables, cabbage, green beans, and asparagus. Since fructose tastes much sweeter than glucose and is easily made from corn, food manufacturers use large amounts of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a food additive to satisfy Americans' demand for "regular" soft drinks, candies, and baked goods. The body has little need for fructose; therefore, most fructose is converted into glucose or fat. Galactose: Unlike glucose and fructose, galactose is not commonly found in foods. Galactose is a component of lactose, the form of carbohydrate in milk. After a woman gives birth, special glands in her breasts convert glucose into galactose, which is necessary for production of lactose in breast milk.Unlike glucose and fructose, galactose is not commonly found in foods. Galactose is a component of lactose, the form of carbohydrate in milk. After a woman gives birth, special glands in her breasts convert glucose into galactose, which is necessary for production of lactose in breast milk. - Part of "milk sugar" (lactose) Disaccharides Disaccharides include maltose, sucrose, and l Continue reading >>

1,663 True/false Questions

1,663 True/false Questions

119. In assessing a 70-year-old patient who has had a recent cerebrovascular accident, the nurse notices right-sided weakness. What might the nurse expect to find when testing his reflexes on the right side? A) Lack of reflexes B) Normal reflexes C) Diminished reflexes D) Hyperactive reflexes → A) These are normal findings resulting from aging. Page: 659. Senile tremors occasionally occur. These benign tremors include an intention tremor of the hands, head nodding (as if saying yes or no), and tongue protrusion. Tremors associated with Parkinson disease include rigidity, slowness, and weakness of voluntary movement. The other responses are incorrect. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Mid-term Studies

Nutrition Mid-term Studies

Sort A meal with fat has been eaten. Immediately after, these newly consumed fats are digested and then absorbed. They will then appear in the lymphatic system and then the blood system as part of which transport vehicle? Chylomicrons Continue reading >>

Human Nutrition Chapter 7 - Metabolism

Human Nutrition Chapter 7 - Metabolism

Sort What is the process of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA? Requires oxygen (aerobic) Utilized if cell needs energy Remove COOH from pyruvate and is released as two CO2 to external environment Enzyme derived from Vitamin B and central to the energy metabolism of nutrients Remaining two carbon compounds attaches to CoA becoming Acetyl CoA which is used as building blocks for fatty acids Not reversible, cannot retrieve CO2 Continue reading >>

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Sort Benefits of fiber Weight Management Fiber increases satiety Reduce risk of heart disease Lower triglycerides and cholesterol Diabetes control Stabilizes blood glucose levels Slows down rate of absorption Colon Cancer Digestive Health Reduce risk of developing hemorrhoids Diverticular Disease Summary carb recommendations Carbohydrates 45-65% of calorie intake per day Primarily complex carbohydrates Primarily plant based diet Fruits and veggies Legumes Whole grains Nuts and seeds Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 1 (ps #1, Ps #2, Ps #3 And Ps #4)

Nutrition Exam 1 (ps #1, Ps #2, Ps #3 And Ps #4)

Sort In lecture, we discussed a newly released CDC report on heart disease and stroke in the US. There are ~800,000 deaths per year in the US from heart attack and stroke. Approximately how many of these deaths could be prevented through lifestyle changes and better access to health care? 200,000 Undernutrition and overnutrition are both problems in the United States. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT: A) Overnutrition is a type of malnutrition. B) Overnutrition is often characterized by obesity. C) Overnutrition can be caused by long-term excessive energy intake. D) Overnutrition is less common in the United States than undernutrition. Overnutrition is less common in the United States than undernutrition. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. For a person who is following a 2,500-kilocalorie per day diet, determine the number of grams of protein to be consumed using the AMDR as a guideline. 63-218 grams per day. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. For a person who is following a 2,500-kilocalorie per day diet, determine the number of grams of lipid to be consumed using the AMDR as a guideline. 56-97 grams per day. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. For a person who is following a 2,500-kilocalorie per day diet, det Continue reading >>

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Despite the similarity in name, ketosis and ketoacidosis are two different things. Ketoacidosis refers to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is a complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It’s a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and blood sugar. This combination makes your blood too acidic, which can change the normal functioning of internal organs like your liver and kidneys. It’s critical that you get prompt treatment. DKA can occur very quickly. It may develop in less than 24 hours. It mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies do not produce any insulin. Several things can lead to DKA, including illness, improper diet, or not taking an adequate dose of insulin. DKA can also occur in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have little or no insulin production. Ketosis is the presence of ketones. It’s not harmful. You can be in ketosis if you’re on a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting, or if you’ve consumed too much alcohol. If you have ketosis, you have a higher than usual level of ketones in your blood or urine, but not high enough to cause acidosis. Ketones are a chemical your body produces when it burns stored fat. Some people choose a low-carb diet to help with weight loss. While there is some controversy over their safety, low-carb diets are generally fine. Talk to your doctor before beginning any extreme diet plan. DKA is the leading cause of death in people under 24 years old who have diabetes. The overall death rate for ketoacidosis is 2 to 5 percent. People under the age of 30 make up 36 percent of DKA cases. Twenty-seven percent of people with DKA are between the ages of 30 and 50, 23 percent are between the ages of 51 and 70, and 14 percent are over the age of 70. Ketosis may cause bad breath. Ket Continue reading >>

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