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Ketosis May Result From Quizlet

Nutrition 2

Nutrition 2

Sort Simple Carbs contain 1 or 2 molecules commonly referred to as sugars -monosaccharides (single sugar units) --glucose --fructose --galactose -disaccharides (pair of sugar units) --maltose --sucrose --lactose Monosaccharides *glucose- "blood sugar", used to supply cellular energy (fuel) the most abundant carb produced by plants through photosynthesis *fructose- "fruit sugar", sweetest. Abundant in fruits, honey saps (maple syrup). Used to sweeten a variety of food products (high fructose corn syrup). *galactose- not found free in nature, joins with glucose to create lactose "milk sugar" Disaccharides glucose+galactose->lactose "milk sugar" glucose+glucose->maltose "starch molecules" glucose+fructose->sucrose (sugar cane...) *maltose- found primarily in germinating seeds; product of polysaccharide digestion in the GI tract -composed of 2 glucose units *lactose- "milk sugar" composed of glucose and galactose -this includes all dairy products *sucrose- "table sugar"; main energy ingredient of candy and other sweets; found in sugar cane and sugar beets and in some fruits Effects of Fiber stimulates the flow of saliva delays gastric emptying -aiding in weight loss (early satiety) delays the absorption of CHO and fat -regulating glucose absorption in the blood binds heavy metals and minerals in the intestines attracts water in the colon -softens stool stimulate bacterial fermentation -produces short chain fatty acids Positive Effects of Dietary Fiber *moderates nutrient absorption *reduces the absorption of cholesterol and other sterols *stimulates the growth of a healthy bacterial population in the colon *increases softness and volume of stools -reduces risk of hemorrhoids, constipation and diverticulosis 1. may reduce the risk of colon cancer 2. may reduce the risk of he Continue reading >>

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Sort Benefits of fiber Weight Management Fiber increases satiety Reduce risk of heart disease Lower triglycerides and cholesterol Diabetes control Stabilizes blood glucose levels Slows down rate of absorption Colon Cancer Digestive Health Reduce risk of developing hemorrhoids Diverticular Disease Summary carb recommendations Carbohydrates 45-65% of calorie intake per day Primarily complex carbohydrates Primarily plant based diet Fruits and veggies Legumes Whole grains Nuts and seeds Continue reading >>

Chapter 4-8 Test Review

Chapter 4-8 Test Review

Sort If a diet does not provide adequate carbohydrate to meet immediate energy needs, the body compensates by altering its metabolism of other nutrients. Insufficient dietary carbohydrate can lead to elevated levels of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the byproducts of partial breakdown of: Fat Recommended Dietary Allowances differ for various stages of life and gender. While adult needs for most nutrients are generally greater than those of children, this is not the case for carbohydrate. Because their bodies are developing so quickly, children aged 1-3 have very high carbohydrate needs that equals the same number of grams of carbohydrate an adult should have each day. What is the RDA for carbohydrate for both children aged 1-3 and adults? 130 grams Match the activity of dietary fiber that is related to its health benefit. 1. Fiber increases satiety Helps promote weight loss correct 2. Fiber reduces cholesterol absorption and increases cholesterol excretion Reduces Cardiovascular disease risk correct 3. Soluble fiber slows down digestion and blood glucose spikes Improves diabetes management correct 4. Insoluble fiber increases stool bulk and increases regularity Promotes colon health correct Brandy's seven-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and research indicates that Brandy should not feed her daughter any refined sugar products because sugar intake causes hyperactivity in children. False Contrary to popular belief, all of the alternative sweeteners approved for sale in the U.S. are safe for human consumption and have never been proven to be carcinogenic (cancer-causing) in humans. Of the following alternative sweeteners, which one is banned for sale in the U.S. because of controversial research that indicated Continue reading >>

1,663 True/false Questions

1,663 True/false Questions

119. In assessing a 70-year-old patient who has had a recent cerebrovascular accident, the nurse notices right-sided weakness. What might the nurse expect to find when testing his reflexes on the right side? A) Lack of reflexes B) Normal reflexes C) Diminished reflexes D) Hyperactive reflexes → A) These are normal findings resulting from aging. Page: 659. Senile tremors occasionally occur. These benign tremors include an intention tremor of the hands, head nodding (as if saying yes or no), and tongue protrusion. Tremors associated with Parkinson disease include rigidity, slowness, and weakness of voluntary movement. The other responses are incorrect. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch 3: Carbohydrates

Nutrition Ch 3: Carbohydrates

Sort Honey vs. sugar - Honey is thought to be healthier because it contains unbonded fructose, which is slower to metabolize and isn't as likely to raise blood glucose or insulin as readily - Honey is still a simple sugar made of the same monosaccharides as sugar, plus its stickyness may lead to tooth decay - Honey has 21 kcal of energy per teaspoon vs 17 kcal found in sugar - Infants under 1 should never eat it since a bacteria made by bees can cause botulism Preventing ketosis - Fats, protein, and carbs can be broken down into acetyl CoA, which is broken down further to obtain energy - To fully break down fats, we need a chemical from carbohydrates called oxaloacetate - The liver responds to the absence of oxaloacetate by making fats into ketone bodies - The brain and nervous system prefer to use glucose as an energy source, but they can adapt to using ketones if not enough glucose is available Insulin - When sugar is consumed and enters the bloodstream, this hormone is released from the pancreas - It allows glucose to enter cells and be used for energy - This decreases glucose in the blood - Also promotes protein synthesis and the conversion of extra glucose to glycogen and fat - Insulin can surge rapidly if you haven't eaten for a few hours and then eat a simple sugar like a cookie or candy bar, causing a rapid drop in blood glucose levels as the glucose is taken up in the cells Nonnutritive sweeteners - Also known as alternative sweeteners or sugar substitutes - Are synthetic and do not provide food energy - Can include sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol, which are not digested to the same extent as other simple sugars; are less sweet than sucrose, so they're less likely to cause dental issues and have fewer calories - Aspartame, acesulfame-K, sacc Continue reading >>

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic diets have become incredibly popular. Early research suggests this high-fat, very low-carb diet may benefit several health conditions. Although some of the evidence is from case studies and animal research, results from human controlled studies are also promising. Here are 15 health conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy is a disease that causes seizures due to excessive brain activity. Anti-seizure medications are effective for some people with epilepsy. However, others don't respond to the drugs or can't tolerate their side effects. Of all the conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet, epilepsy has by far the most evidence supporting it. In fact, there are several dozen studies on the topic. Research shows that seizures typically improve in about 50% of epilepsy patients who follow the classic ketogenic diet. This is also known as a 4:1 ketogenic diet because it provides 4 times as much fat as protein and carbs combined (1, 2, 3). The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is based on a considerably less restrictive 1:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbs. It has been shown to be equally effective for seizure control in most adults and children older than two years of age (4, 5, 6, 7, 8). The ketogenic diet may also have benefits on the brain beyond seizure control. For example, when researchers examined the brain activity of children with epilepsy, they found improvements in various brain patterns in 65% of those following a ketogenic diet — regardless of whether they had fewer seizures (9). Ketogenic diets have been shown to reduce seizure frequency and severity in many children and adults with epilepsy who don't respond well to drug therapy. Metabolic syndrome, sometimes referred to as prediabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance. Continue reading >>

Like This Study Set?

Like This Study Set?

Sort b,c,d In the body as dissociated electrolytes Held in significant amounts in reserve in the body Include sodium, potassium, and chloride Minerals are: Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Sort All of the following are correct about applying the glycemic index EXCEPT: a. results vary with the time of day. b. research results confirm the benefits of diabetics applying glycemic index principles. c. food factors may change glycemic index results. d. people's glycemic responses to food vary widely Research results concerning diabetes and the glycemic index are mixed, and no conclusions can be drawn at this time. See page 129 All of the following are warning signs of diabetes EXCEPT: a. drowsiness. b. itching. c. frequent infections of the skin, gums, vagina, or urinary tract. d. reduced urination. reduced urination Scientific studies have consistently demonstrated that increased blood insulin levels cause excess body fatness and obesity. a. True b. False False. Although insulin disturbances may trigger weight gain, this scientific truth remains: insulin can only assist in the storage of body fat when calories taken in are in excess of need. See page 148 Which of the following parts of a wheat kernel is especially rich in vitamins and minerals? a. endosperm b. germ c. husk d. bran germ How many grams of fiber per day does the American Dietetic Association suggest for an average adult? a. 35-45 grams per day b. 20-35 grams per day c. 10-20 grams per day d. 5-10 grams per day •Men, age 19-50: 38 g/day. •Men, age 51 and up: 30 g/day. •Women, age 19-50: 25 g/day. •Women, age 51 and up: 21 g/day. •No Tolerable Upper Intake Level for fiber has been established. Which of the following would be the most nutrient-dense choice from the grains group? a. English muffin b. doughnut c. croissant d. biscuit English Muffin Which of the following carbohydrates is NOT found in foods from plants? a. sucrose b. glycogen c. starch d. fructose glycogen.Liver and muscle ce Continue reading >>

877 Possible Causes For Bicarbonate Increased + Hypokalemia During Periodic Paralysis + Metabolic Alkalosis In Usa

877 Possible Causes For Bicarbonate Increased + Hypokalemia During Periodic Paralysis + Metabolic Alkalosis In Usa

Bartter's Disease Metabolic Alkalosis Bicarbonate Increased Hypochloremic Metabolic Alkalosis hypokalemia during periodic paralysis Hypokalaemia may cause metabolic alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis may cause hypokalaemia. [ 1 , 2 ] Liddle's syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by early[patient.info] , and frequently severe, hypertension associated with hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, low plasma renin activity, and suppressed aldosterone secretion.[patient.info] Hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis may be caused by diarrhoea, vomiting, laxative or diuretic abuse, liquorice ingestion, antacid medication abuse or excess alcohol intake.[patient.info] Addison's Disease Alkaline Phosphatase Increased Alopecia Bilateral Hilar Adenopathy Cardiomyopathy Cervical Lymphadenopathy Choroiditis Complete Blood Count Abnormal Conduction Disorder of the Heart Conjunctival Biopsy Abnormal Conjunctival Nodule Dactylitis Diabetes Insipidus Edema of the Hands and Feet Elevated Sedimentation Rate Enlarged Submandibular Lymph Gland Erythema Nodosum Exertional Dyspnea Facial Nerve Disorder Gammaglobulins Increased Globulins Increased Granulomatous Lung Disease Headache Hepatomegaly Hilar Adenopathy Hyperglobulinemia Hypersplenism Hyperuricemia Hypocapnia Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Immunoglobulin A Increased Immunoglobulin G Increased Immunoglobulin M Increased Interstitial Lung Disease Intrahepatic Cholestasis Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Left Ventricular Aneurysm Leukoerythroblastic Anemia Limb Pain Loss of Vision Lung Biopsy showing Multinucleated Giant Cells Lymphangiogram Abnormal Massive Splenomegaly Mediastinal Mass Miliary Infiltrate of the Lung Monocyte Count Increased Mononeuritis Multiplex Nephrolithiasis Neutrophil Count Decreased Night Sweats PO2 De Continue reading >>

Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates

Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates

Sort What do carbohydrates contain? Carbohydrates contain energy that plants captured through photosynthesis Photosynthesis makes use of chlorophyll to capture energy and sunlight In this process, water donates hydrogen and oxygen, and carbon dioxide donates carbon and oxygen Water and carbon dioxide combine to form the sugar glucose What does glucose do? Carbohydrates - Glucose. Glucose is by far the most common carbohydrate and classified as a monosaccharide, an aldose, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar Glucose produced by photosynthesis provides energy for the work of all parts of the plant Plants do not use all the energy stored in their sugars Some remains available for use by the animal or human that consumes the plant Carbohydrates are the first link in the food chain that supports all life on Earth -----Glucose is the most used monosaccharide in the body Purpose of Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates meet your body's energy needs: Feed your brain & nervous system Keep your digestive system fit Within calorie limits, help keep your body lean Together with fats & protein, digestible carbohydrates add bulk to foods Indigestible carbohydrates yield little or no energy but provide other benefits What is the CHO consumption in Canada today? Too Much Simple CHO! • Average CHO intake in Canada is 50% of diet - ½ this amount is simple sugars consumption has increased 33% since 1960) - Most common source is sweetened drinks average consumption=100 L/yr/person • Equals about 15 L of sugar of sugar per year! Is Fructose making us fat? • Accounts for over 40% of sweeteners in our diet • Contributes an avg 132 cal/day/person • Handled differently by the body than Glucose - Does not stimulate insulin production - Effect on other hormone signals that regulate food intake an Continue reading >>

Metabolism

Metabolism

Sort Describe factors that affect metabolic rate (production body heat) Exercise increases metabolic rate as much as 15 times Hormones regulate metabolic rate (thyroxine, insulin, growth hormone and testosterone) Higher body temp raised BMR ingestion of food raise BMR 10-20% Childrens BMR is double that of an elderly person sympathetic nervous systems release of epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (noradrenaline) increases BMR Continue reading >>

Nutrition Mid-term Studies

Nutrition Mid-term Studies

Sort A meal with fat has been eaten. Immediately after, these newly consumed fats are digested and then absorbed. They will then appear in the lymphatic system and then the blood system as part of which transport vehicle? Chylomicrons Continue reading >>

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Sort complex carbohydrates Complex Polysaccharides Made up of amylose and amylopectin Glycogen Branched chain of glucose Store in liver and muscle Amylose= straight linkages of CHO units, amylopectin- branched structure, gives CHO differing properties i.e. potatoes Starch= amylose (fluffy strachy potato) + amylopectin (waxy i.e. little red potato) Fiber= roughage, contains resistance starches, do not break down i.e. legumes, whole grains, fruit and veggies Glycogen= storage of glucose/energy in liver and muscles, providing energy when not consuming energy glucose Can be made into energy by our cells Can be stored as glycogen for later use in the Muscle (150 grams, 600 kcal) Liver (90 grams, 360 kcal) Physical training can increase storage capacity Converts glucose to energy through glycolysis, and Krebs Glycogen= storage form of glucose (energy) through glycogenesis can be quickly broken down for energy metabolism Blood glucose source of energy to all cells Metabolism primarily maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis at 70 to 100 mg/dL Conversion to and from glucose Glycogenolysis - liver/muscle glycogen → glucose Gluconeogenesis - fat/protein → glucose Pyruvic, lactic acid (intermediates of muscle glycogenolysis converted to BG) Amino acids can provide some but not all glucose needs, AA can be converted to glucose if needed insufficient carb intake Fat is metabolized → ketones Overtime ketosis occurs Affects pH balance of the body Minimum 100 grams carbohdrate/day to prevent ketosis Ketones are by-product of fat breakdown for energy If insufficient CHO intake, build up ketones and ph imbalance can occur--? Ketoacidosis S/S fruity acetone breath blood glucose control Hormonal system controls glucose metabolism and blood glucose level regulation Insulin - anabolic Continue reading >>

3,065 Possible Causes For Alkalosis + Hyperkalemia + Ketosis + Flattened T Wave In Usa

3,065 Possible Causes For Alkalosis + Hyperkalemia + Ketosis + Flattened T Wave In Usa

Hypokalemia Flattened T Wave Alkalosis […] overdose Beta 2 sympathomimetics Decongestants Xanthines Amphotericin B Verapamil intoxication Chloroquine (Aralen) intoxication Barium intoxication Cesium intoxication Alkalosis[aafp.org] EKG changes show a flattened T wave with an eventual emergence of a prominent U wave.[prezi.com] “Via a variety of physiologic mechanisms many of the treatments used for ketosis actually serve to exacerbate hypokalemia whilst treating the ketosis.[bovinevetonline.com] Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum.[en.wikipedia.org] Hyperkalemia Acne Vulgaris Agitated Delirium Arterial Blood pH Increased Aseptic Necrosis of Head of Femur Asthenia Atrophy of the Thigh Muscles Back Pain Bartter's Disease Behavior Problem Complete Blood Count Abnormal Cutaneous Candidiasis Decreased Taste Sensation Diastolic Hypertension Edema Emotional Lability Emotional Outbursts Eosinophils Decreased Erythrocytes Increased Facial Edema Facial Swelling Glaucoma Glucose Increased Growth Retardation Head and Neck Swelling Hematocrit Increased Hemoglobin Increased Hirsutism Hyperuricemia Hypokalemic Nephropathy Hypomagnesemia Hyponatremia Hyposmia Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Increased Abdominal Girth Increased Body Hair Infertility Irritability Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase Increased Leukocytosis Male Sterility Metabolic Encephalopathy Metyrapone Challenge Test Abnormal Muscular Atrophy Nephrolithiasis Neutrophil Count Increased Osteoporosis Peptic Ulcer Periorbital Fullness Phosphate Decreased Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Potassium Decreased Progesterone Increased Psychiatric Manifestation Psychosis Recurrent Infection Relative Impotence Short PR Interval Skin Infection Supraclavicular Fat Pads Systolic Hypertension Thin Extremiti Continue reading >>

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