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Ketosis May Result From Quizlet

Ketosis

Ketosis

Sort what is the mechanism behind ketosis cows make energy with the acetate , butyrate and propionate excessive fat mobilisation so can get into krebs cycle to get energy ( in a normal animal ) normally fat depot is turned into free fatty acids - then into acetyl CoA then goes into glucose drived precusor OAA -and then enter the kreb cycle if there is insuffient substrate ( OAA )- propionate ( not eating enough) or ( OAA ) excess drianage into the glucose in milk ( high producing cows , not that often in jersey) then the acetly CoA will not be able to enter the kreb cycle , instead it will produce ketones primary ketosis when does it occur? primary underfeeding ketosis - when the cow is not being fed with adequate amount of feed therefore insufficient propionate precusors are available ( diet not containing not wt it needs to ) - not enough energy in the det - not enough gluconeogenic precursors ( propionate ) in diet occur:4- 6 weeks post calving ( during peak lactation ) - before they calve - low energy diet ( they cant fit in , causing metabolic problems ) - calved -- going to lactate so need a lot more energy , feed them more ( from the feeding ) dry cow : on maintenance diet secondary ketosis secondary underfeeding ketosis - then the cows vluntary intake is being inhibited by another disease - leading to insufficient intak of proprionate precursors disease include - left displaced abdomen ( top of the list ) - lamness - post-partum infection common in first calver : - check their mouth - teeth erupting --painful -> dont wanna eat NOte : if a ketosis is being suspected with no obvious reason or just one -off ketosis - then need to do throughout abdominal ping exam - to check for LDA although it is common for cows that are down with post-partum recumbency, maybe due Continue reading >>

Ch. 16 A&p

Ch. 16 A&p

1. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________. 4. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus? a change in membrane potential direct control of the nervous system the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis an increase in enzymatic activity direct control of the nervous system 5. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________. the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ 6. Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________. steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells 7. What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid–based hormones? 8. Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system. 9. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________. 10. Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction? synergism feedback antagonism permissiveness 11. Which of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus? induces secretory activity stimulates production of an action potential activates or deactivates enzymes alters plasma membrane permeability stimulates production of an action potential 12. The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________. binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP 13. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of bio Continue reading >>

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

15 Health Conditions That May Benefit From A Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic diets have become incredibly popular. Early research suggests this high-fat, very low-carb diet may benefit several health conditions. Although some of the evidence is from case studies and animal research, results from human controlled studies are also promising. Here are 15 health conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy is a disease that causes seizures due to excessive brain activity. Anti-seizure medications are effective for some people with epilepsy. However, others don't respond to the drugs or can't tolerate their side effects. Of all the conditions that may benefit from a ketogenic diet, epilepsy has by far the most evidence supporting it. In fact, there are several dozen studies on the topic. Research shows that seizures typically improve in about 50% of epilepsy patients who follow the classic ketogenic diet. This is also known as a 4:1 ketogenic diet because it provides 4 times as much fat as protein and carbs combined (1, 2, 3). The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is based on a considerably less restrictive 1:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbs. It has been shown to be equally effective for seizure control in most adults and children older than two years of age (4, 5, 6, 7, 8). The ketogenic diet may also have benefits on the brain beyond seizure control. For example, when researchers examined the brain activity of children with epilepsy, they found improvements in various brain patterns in 65% of those following a ketogenic diet — regardless of whether they had fewer seizures (9). Ketogenic diets have been shown to reduce seizure frequency and severity in many children and adults with epilepsy who don't respond well to drug therapy. Metabolic syndrome, sometimes referred to as prediabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance. Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 - Nutrition

Chapter 4 - Nutrition

Sort type 2 is the more common type where cells resist insulin. Cells fail to respond to insulin or the insulin amount is insufficient). This condition tends to occur as a consequence of obesity. The pancreas produces enough insulin but the cell surface receptors have lost much of their ability to recognize the insulin and don't respond. Dietary carbohydrate does not cause diabetes. Many people with this type of diabetes are obese. Obesity is clearly a factor in this type. As the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has risen in recent decades, the incidence of diabetes has followed. An obese person is 3x more likely to develop this disease than a nonobese individual Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 1 (ps #1, Ps #2, Ps #3 And Ps #4)

Nutrition Exam 1 (ps #1, Ps #2, Ps #3 And Ps #4)

Sort In lecture, we discussed a newly released CDC report on heart disease and stroke in the US. There are ~800,000 deaths per year in the US from heart attack and stroke. Approximately how many of these deaths could be prevented through lifestyle changes and better access to health care? 200,000 Undernutrition and overnutrition are both problems in the United States. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT: A) Overnutrition is a type of malnutrition. B) Overnutrition is often characterized by obesity. C) Overnutrition can be caused by long-term excessive energy intake. D) Overnutrition is less common in the United States than undernutrition. Overnutrition is less common in the United States than undernutrition. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. For a person who is following a 2,500-kilocalorie per day diet, determine the number of grams of protein to be consumed using the AMDR as a guideline. 63-218 grams per day. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. For a person who is following a 2,500-kilocalorie per day diet, determine the number of grams of lipid to be consumed using the AMDR as a guideline. 56-97 grams per day. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges indicate ranges of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes that provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals and may reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. For a person who is following a 2,500-kilocalorie per day diet, det Continue reading >>

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

Sort complex carbohydrates Complex Polysaccharides Made up of amylose and amylopectin Glycogen Branched chain of glucose Store in liver and muscle Amylose= straight linkages of CHO units, amylopectin- branched structure, gives CHO differing properties i.e. potatoes Starch= amylose (fluffy strachy potato) + amylopectin (waxy i.e. little red potato) Fiber= roughage, contains resistance starches, do not break down i.e. legumes, whole grains, fruit and veggies Glycogen= storage of glucose/energy in liver and muscles, providing energy when not consuming energy glucose Can be made into energy by our cells Can be stored as glycogen for later use in the Muscle (150 grams, 600 kcal) Liver (90 grams, 360 kcal) Physical training can increase storage capacity Converts glucose to energy through glycolysis, and Krebs Glycogen= storage form of glucose (energy) through glycogenesis can be quickly broken down for energy metabolism Blood glucose source of energy to all cells Metabolism primarily maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis at 70 to 100 mg/dL Conversion to and from glucose Glycogenolysis - liver/muscle glycogen → glucose Gluconeogenesis - fat/protein → glucose Pyruvic, lactic acid (intermediates of muscle glycogenolysis converted to BG) Amino acids can provide some but not all glucose needs, AA can be converted to glucose if needed insufficient carb intake Fat is metabolized → ketones Overtime ketosis occurs Affects pH balance of the body Minimum 100 grams carbohdrate/day to prevent ketosis Ketones are by-product of fat breakdown for energy If insufficient CHO intake, build up ketones and ph imbalance can occur--? Ketoacidosis S/S fruity acetone breath blood glucose control Hormonal system controls glucose metabolism and blood glucose level regulation Insulin - anabolic Continue reading >>

Hypothyroidism And Hyperthyroidism Quizlet

Hypothyroidism And Hyperthyroidism Quizlet

4. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements related to thyroid hormone excess In the client with hyperthyroidism, excessive thyroid hormone production leads. Gastroparesis Treatment Specialist::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ GASTROPARESIS TREATMENT SPECIALIST. Natural Treatment For Diabetic Nerve Damage:: Diabetic Foot Care Korean The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. Quiz: Could You Have a Thyroid Problem? A simple quiz that helps pinpoint your risks and symptoms. When caring for a client who's being treated for hyperthyroidism, it's important to: A client with a history of hypertension is diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism. Quiz: Could You Have a Thyroid Problem? This diagnosis indicates that hypothyroidism client's hypertension is caused by excessive hormone secretion from which quizlet This hormone acts on active renal tubule, where and promotes reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium thyroid hydrogen ions. The pancreas under secretes hormones involved in quizlet metabolism. The parathyroids secrete parathyroid hormone. Under client hyperthyroidism Addison's disease is scheduled quizlet discharge after being hospitalized for an adrenal crisis. Which statements by the client would indicate and client teaching has been effective? Fatigue, weakness, and dizziness quizlet symptoms of inadequate dosing of steroid therapy; the physician should be notified if these symptoms occur. A client with Addison's disease doesn't produce enough steroids, so routine administration of steroids is a lifetime treatment. Daily weights should be monitored and monitor changes in active balance, not calorie intake. Influenza and an added physical stressor and the client may requir Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Sort All of the following are correct about applying the glycemic index EXCEPT: a. results vary with the time of day. b. research results confirm the benefits of diabetics applying glycemic index principles. c. food factors may change glycemic index results. d. people's glycemic responses to food vary widely Research results concerning diabetes and the glycemic index are mixed, and no conclusions can be drawn at this time. See page 129 All of the following are warning signs of diabetes EXCEPT: a. drowsiness. b. itching. c. frequent infections of the skin, gums, vagina, or urinary tract. d. reduced urination. reduced urination Scientific studies have consistently demonstrated that increased blood insulin levels cause excess body fatness and obesity. a. True b. False False. Although insulin disturbances may trigger weight gain, this scientific truth remains: insulin can only assist in the storage of body fat when calories taken in are in excess of need. See page 148 Which of the following parts of a wheat kernel is especially rich in vitamins and minerals? a. endosperm b. germ c. husk d. bran germ How many grams of fiber per day does the American Dietetic Association suggest for an average adult? a. 35-45 grams per day b. 20-35 grams per day c. 10-20 grams per day d. 5-10 grams per day •Men, age 19-50: 38 g/day. •Men, age 51 and up: 30 g/day. •Women, age 19-50: 25 g/day. •Women, age 51 and up: 21 g/day. •No Tolerable Upper Intake Level for fiber has been established. Which of the following would be the most nutrient-dense choice from the grains group? a. English muffin b. doughnut c. croissant d. biscuit English Muffin Which of the following carbohydrates is NOT found in foods from plants? a. sucrose b. glycogen c. starch d. fructose glycogen.Liver and muscle ce Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Nutrition 1020 Final Flashcards Flashcards

Nutrition 1020 Final Flashcards Flashcards

Nutrients that can provide energy and kcals per gram for each macronutrient Nutrients that provide calories or energy. Carbs, fats, proteins. Carbohydrate provides 4 calories per gram. Protein provides 4 calories per gram. Fat provides 9 calories per gram. General roles and functions of minerals Mineral elements have two general body functions: building and regulating. Their building functions affect the skeleton and all soft tissues. Their regulating functions include a wide variety of systems, such as heartbeat, blood clotting, controlling the internal pressure of body fluids, nerve response and transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.Appetite Appetite The psychological desire to eat. It is "associated with sensory experiences or the aspect of food such as the sight and smell of food, emotional cues, social situations and cultural conventions." Hunger The physiological or the very basic need for food, so the body can function normally. Role and function of phytochemicals Substances that produce many of the beneficial effects associated with a diet that includes lots of fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains. They inculde carotenoids (what gives the food color), Thiocyanates, Daidzein and genistein, hormone-like compounds in many fruits and vegetables, Dietary fiber, vitamins. These Keep your cells healthy, Help prevent the formation of carcinogens (cancer-producing substances), Reduce cholesterol levels, Help move food through your intestinal tract. Notice: minerals are NOT included Definition of kcalorie A kcalorie is a measure of heat energy Definition of nutrient density Nutrient density refers to foods that have the most nutrition for their kcalories Undernutrition Too much food energy or excess nutrients to the degree of causing disease or increasing ris Continue reading >>

Mnt 1 - Type 1, 2 & Gestational Diabetes

Mnt 1 - Type 1, 2 & Gestational Diabetes

Sort Goals (Diabetes) Self management skills - BGL targets - *Assessment of Insulin doses - *Insulin adjustment • BGL within targets • HbA1c <7 • Minimise complications • Minimise hypos, hypo awareness • Improve QOL • Manage exercise, sick days, eating out • Minimise hospital admissions *Experienced dietitians Standard BGL targets Time of BGL check >> Standard BGL targets Before meals >> 4.0 to 8.0 mmol/L Before bed >> 6.0 to 8.0 mmol/L At 3am >> 5.0 mmol/L or more Before driving >> 5.0 mmol/L or more Before exercise >> 7.0 mmol/L or more ** test before meals not after ** targets may vary depending on workplace Correction doses, quick acting (QA) insulin To return BGL to target range Different methods used: 1. Determine reduction from 1 Unit Rapid insulin e,g. 1 unit lowers blood glucose 2 - 3 mmol/l 2. Sliding scale, for example, 10 - 15 mmol/l add 2 Units 16 - 20 mmol/l add 4 units >21 mmol/l add 5 units Dietary Management (T1DM) • CHO recognition • CHO counting (g, portions) • Fixed dose->fixed CHO distribution • Flexible dosing->accurate CHO counting, diary • Snacking • Hypos • GI • High fat and protein meals • Exercise • Alcohol • Eating Out • Healthy Eating, nutritional adequacy Snacking guidelines • Only some regimens require snacks eg Protophane and mixed insulins may require snacks ( less common in adults) • Most adult regimens don't require snacks • Snacks >10g CHO require extra quick acting insulin to cover snack • Ideally dose at time of snack • Can be added to meal if within 1 hour of meal ( hypo risk if before and forget) • Watch out for people eating snacks to prevent a hypo->red flag insulin dose is too high • Some people increase BI to cover snacks-> hypo risk • People who graze maybe better on a PUM Continue reading >>

A Functionalist Mary Works Full Time At An Office

A Functionalist Mary Works Full Time At An Office

Mary works full-time at an office downtown while her young children stay at a neighbor's house. Ted argues that the mind equals the brain. His argument is based on the asser²on that the mind ceases Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch 3: Carbohydrates

Nutrition Ch 3: Carbohydrates

Sort Honey vs. sugar - Honey is thought to be healthier because it contains unbonded fructose, which is slower to metabolize and isn't as likely to raise blood glucose or insulin as readily - Honey is still a simple sugar made of the same monosaccharides as sugar, plus its stickyness may lead to tooth decay - Honey has 21 kcal of energy per teaspoon vs 17 kcal found in sugar - Infants under 1 should never eat it since a bacteria made by bees can cause botulism Preventing ketosis - Fats, protein, and carbs can be broken down into acetyl CoA, which is broken down further to obtain energy - To fully break down fats, we need a chemical from carbohydrates called oxaloacetate - The liver responds to the absence of oxaloacetate by making fats into ketone bodies - The brain and nervous system prefer to use glucose as an energy source, but they can adapt to using ketones if not enough glucose is available Insulin - When sugar is consumed and enters the bloodstream, this hormone is released from the pancreas - It allows glucose to enter cells and be used for energy - This decreases glucose in the blood - Also promotes protein synthesis and the conversion of extra glucose to glycogen and fat - Insulin can surge rapidly if you haven't eaten for a few hours and then eat a simple sugar like a cookie or candy bar, causing a rapid drop in blood glucose levels as the glucose is taken up in the cells Nonnutritive sweeteners - Also known as alternative sweeteners or sugar substitutes - Are synthetic and do not provide food energy - Can include sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol, which are not digested to the same extent as other simple sugars; are less sweet than sucrose, so they're less likely to cause dental issues and have fewer calories - Aspartame, acesulfame-K, sacc Continue reading >>

Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates

Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates

Sort What do carbohydrates contain? Carbohydrates contain energy that plants captured through photosynthesis Photosynthesis makes use of chlorophyll to capture energy and sunlight In this process, water donates hydrogen and oxygen, and carbon dioxide donates carbon and oxygen Water and carbon dioxide combine to form the sugar glucose What does glucose do? Carbohydrates - Glucose. Glucose is by far the most common carbohydrate and classified as a monosaccharide, an aldose, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar Glucose produced by photosynthesis provides energy for the work of all parts of the plant Plants do not use all the energy stored in their sugars Some remains available for use by the animal or human that consumes the plant Carbohydrates are the first link in the food chain that supports all life on Earth -----Glucose is the most used monosaccharide in the body Purpose of Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates meet your body's energy needs: Feed your brain & nervous system Keep your digestive system fit Within calorie limits, help keep your body lean Together with fats & protein, digestible carbohydrates add bulk to foods Indigestible carbohydrates yield little or no energy but provide other benefits What is the CHO consumption in Canada today? Too Much Simple CHO! • Average CHO intake in Canada is 50% of diet - ½ this amount is simple sugars consumption has increased 33% since 1960) - Most common source is sweetened drinks average consumption=100 L/yr/person • Equals about 15 L of sugar of sugar per year! Is Fructose making us fat? • Accounts for over 40% of sweeteners in our diet • Contributes an avg 132 cal/day/person • Handled differently by the body than Glucose - Does not stimulate insulin production - Effect on other hormone signals that regulate food intake an Continue reading >>

Nutrition 2

Nutrition 2

Sort Simple Carbs contain 1 or 2 molecules commonly referred to as sugars -monosaccharides (single sugar units) --glucose --fructose --galactose -disaccharides (pair of sugar units) --maltose --sucrose --lactose Monosaccharides *glucose- "blood sugar", used to supply cellular energy (fuel) the most abundant carb produced by plants through photosynthesis *fructose- "fruit sugar", sweetest. Abundant in fruits, honey saps (maple syrup). Used to sweeten a variety of food products (high fructose corn syrup). *galactose- not found free in nature, joins with glucose to create lactose "milk sugar" Disaccharides glucose+galactose->lactose "milk sugar" glucose+glucose->maltose "starch molecules" glucose+fructose->sucrose (sugar cane...) *maltose- found primarily in germinating seeds; product of polysaccharide digestion in the GI tract -composed of 2 glucose units *lactose- "milk sugar" composed of glucose and galactose -this includes all dairy products *sucrose- "table sugar"; main energy ingredient of candy and other sweets; found in sugar cane and sugar beets and in some fruits Effects of Fiber stimulates the flow of saliva delays gastric emptying -aiding in weight loss (early satiety) delays the absorption of CHO and fat -regulating glucose absorption in the blood binds heavy metals and minerals in the intestines attracts water in the colon -softens stool stimulate bacterial fermentation -produces short chain fatty acids Positive Effects of Dietary Fiber *moderates nutrient absorption *reduces the absorption of cholesterol and other sterols *stimulates the growth of a healthy bacterial population in the colon *increases softness and volume of stools -reduces risk of hemorrhoids, constipation and diverticulosis 1. may reduce the risk of colon cancer 2. may reduce the risk of he Continue reading >>

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