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Ketosis Kidney Stones

Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones

Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are a frequent occurrence on the ketogenic diet for epilepsy. [1, 2, 3] About 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet develop kidney stones per year, compared with one in several thousand among the general population. [4] On children who follow the ketogenic diet for six years, the incidence of kidney stones is about 25% [5]. A 100-fold odds ratio is hardly ever seen in medicine. There must be some fundamental cause of kidney stones that is dramatically promoted by clinical ketogenic diets. Just over half of ketogenic diet kidney stones are composed of uric acid and just under half of calcium oxalate mixed with calcium phosphate or uric acid. Among the general public, about 85% of stones are calcium oxalate mixes and about 10% are uric acid. So, roughly speaking, uric acid kidney stones are 500-fold more frequent on the ketogenic diet and calcium oxalate stones are 50-fold more frequent. Causes are Poorly Understood In the nephrology literature, kidney stones are a rather mysterious condition. Wikipedia has a summary of the reasons offered in the literature for high stone formation on the ketogenic diet [4]: Kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis) is associated with the diet for four reasons: Excess calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) occurs due to increased bone demineralisation with acidosis. Bones are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. The phosphate reacts with the acid, and the calcium is excreted by the kidneys. Hypocitraturia: the urine has an abnormally low concentration of citrate, which normally helps to dissolve free calcium. The urine has a low pH, which stops uric acid from dissolving, leading to crystals that act as a nidus for calcium stone formation. Many institutions traditionally restricted the water intake of patients on the diet to Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Ketogenic Diet Symptoms

Ketosis And Ketogenic Diet Symptoms

There are many symptoms and adverse effects reported by study groups on low carbohydrate diets such as the ketogenic diet. The main ketogenic diet symptoms are: headache, dizziness, presence of diarrhea and constipation, weakness, loss of concentration, bad breath, low blood pressure, increased heart rate, among many others. According to Dr. Mauro DiPasquale, a respected member of the international sports community as an athlete, administrator and physician, and author of the famous book “The Anabolic Diet”, he originally created this diet for bodybuilders and athletes, but since then he has developed other versions for the general public. This is a very interesting article about ketogenic diet from ncbi. about “Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients”. He says that in the first week of the ketogenic diet the body is going through the metabolic shift from being a carb and muscle-burning machine to being a fat burner, and that can be very difficult. This is called the induction phase and people may have some symptoms including lethargy, dizziness, mental fogginess, irritability, and irregular bowels, depending on how your body reacts to the radical shift in macronutrients. Some people will suffer few symptoms, others will be very affected. Your energy can also drop and there might be a frequent feeling of you being hungry. That’s because the body is going through a readjustment phase. Due to the low amount of nutrients, especially vitamins and minerals, may also occur weakening of the immune system, leaving the body more susceptible to several infections. So, the discipline and persistence during the first week of the ketogenic diet is very important to experience the benefits later. The energy will come back and you will feel better. This will Continue reading >>

What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis

What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis

Recently I wanted to explore the world of Ketosis. I thought I knew a little bit about ketosis, but after doing some research I soon realised how wrong I was. 3 months later, after reading numerous books, listening to countless podcasts and experimenting with various diets I know have a sound understanding of ketosis. This resource is built as a reference guide for those looking to explore the fascinating world of ketosis. It is a resource that I wish I had 3 months ago. As you will soon see, a lot of the content below is not mine, instead I have linked to referenced to experts who have a greater understanding of this topic than I ever will. I hope this helps and if there is something that I have missed please leave a comment below so that I can update this. Also, as this is a rather long document, I have split it into various sections. You can click the headline below to be sent straight to the section that interests you. For those that are really time poor I have created a useful ketosis cheat sheet guide. This guide covers all the essential information you should know about ketosis. It can be downloaded HERE. Alternatively, if you're looking for a natural and sustainable way to improve health and lose weight head to this page - What is Ketosis? What Are The Benefits from being in Ketosis? Isn’t Ketosis Dangerous? Ketoacidosis vs Ketosis What Is The Difference Between a Low Carb Diet and a Ketogenic Diet? Types of Ketosis: The Difference Between Nutritional, Therapeutic & MCT Ketogenic Diets Is The Ketogenic Diet Safe? Long Term Effects Thyroid and Ketosis - What You May Want To Know What is a Typical Diet/Macro Breakdown for a Ketogenic Diet? Do I Need to Eat Carbs? What do I Eat On a Ketogenic Diet? What Do I Avoid Eating on a Ketogenic Diet? Protein Consumption a Continue reading >>

Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones

Introduction Kidney stones are a painful disorder of the urinary tract, affecting about 10% of Americans. Stones occur two times more often in men than in women. The pain of having a stone has been compared to that of childbirth. The stones grow slowly over several months or years and are made of hard deposits of various minerals, including calcium, uric acid, and oxalate. Signs and Symptoms Asymptomatic stones may be found by an x-ray for an unrelated condition. Or you may have symptoms such as: Sudden onset of excruciating pain in the buttocks area Abdominal pain Nausea and vomiting Constant movement to relieve the pain Pain in the genital area as the stone moves Fever and chills Increased age Obesity What Causes It? People develop kidney stones because: Their small bowel absorbs too much calcium Their diets are too high in calcium or another mineral They have intestinal problems Urinary tract infections They may have inherited a certain disorder that makes their bodies more likely to form kidney stones Other factors that increase the risk of kidney stones include: Not drinking enough fluids (especially in the summer) Not exercising enough, or a sedentary lifestyle Hypertension, which makes people nearly 3 times more likely to develop kidney stones Stress Poor dietary habits Metabolic syndrome Obesity Family history of kidney stones Continual exposure to high temperatures, which makes people nearly 8 times more likely to form kidney stones Other medical conditions, such as gout, chronic diarrhea, certain cancers, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) What to Expect at Your Doctor's Office If you are in extreme pain, your health care provider may give you a strong pain reliever. Your provider will need a urine sample to check for infection and to see if your urine is ac Continue reading >>

Supplement Averts Kidney Stones In Ketogenic Diet

Supplement Averts Kidney Stones In Ketogenic Diet

LITTLE FALLS, N.J., July 22 -- Potassium citrate prevents kidney stones in epileptic children who are on the ketogenic diet, researchers have found. Giving prophylactic potassium citrate to any child who went on the diet reduced the risk of kidney stones from 6.7% to 0.9%, Eric H. Kossoff, MD, of Johns Hopkins, and colleagues reported online in Pediatrics. "We can confidently say this is a safe and powerful way to prevent kidney stones, and it should become part of standard therapy in all ketogenic dieters, not just those who already show elevated urine calcium levels," Dr. Kossoff said. The high-fat, ketogenic diet is used to control epileptic seizures in children who don't respond to medication. But the diet comes with a high risk of kidney stones, which occur in about 6% of children who adhere to it. The researchers theorized that daily potassium citrate, a supplement that alkalinizes the urine and makes urine calcium soluble, could reduce the risk of kidney stones. So they followed 313 children treated at Johns Hopkins Hospital from Jan.1, 2000 to Dec. 31, 2008. Those receiving treatment before 2005 were treated with daily potassium citrate only after being diagnosed with hypercalciuria. Those treated in 2006 or thereafter got the supplement as soon as they started the ketogenic diet. Among children who didn't receive the supplement at all, 10.5% developed kidney stones. In both treatment groups, preventive use decreased the incidence of kidney stones compared with those who didn't receive the supplement at all, the researchers said (P=0.003). But the larger decrease occurred in the youngsters who started the supplement as soon as they started the diet, with a kidney stone incidence of 0.9% compared with an incidence of 6.7% for those who received it only as a respo Continue reading >>

Clearing Up Kidney Confusion: Part Deux

Clearing Up Kidney Confusion: Part Deux

It’s funny how our mental state really affects how we write and what we are interested in. When I wrote the introduction to this piece I was just getting settled into our new place in Santa Fe, NM and was looking at over a month at home to work and write. Then a number of wacky events happened and I’ve been home about 7 days out of the last month and I’ve only made it about 70 pages into Kon-Tiki. Ouch. Now I’m home for 8 days and will then be gone for a project that will take me completely off the grid for nearly 3 weeks. No phone, email…nada. When I sat down to do this kidney piece it was with a mindset that I had a ton of time and could really sink my teeth into it. Now I’m time crunched and anxious that I will get it done at all! Up front here I’d like to thank Mat “The Kraken” Lalonde with his help on some literature for this piece. Any inaccuracies however are my own tomfoolery. If I wanted to cut to the chase I could boil this whole thing down to the following: 1-Dietary protein DOES NOT CAUSE KIDNEY DAMAGE. 2-Chronically elevated BLOOD GLUCOSE levels DO cause kidney damage. 3-Dietary fructose REALLY causes kidney damage. 4-Many kidney issues have either a hyperinsulinemic characteristic, an autoimmune characteristic, and or a combination of autoimmunity or hyperinsulinism. A standard, low-ish carb paleo diet can fix most of these issues. 5-For serious kidney damage a low-protein, ketogenic diet can be remarkably therapeutic. 6-If you get kidney stones that are from oxalates, reduce your green veggie intake (spinach for example) and have other types of veggies. 7-If you get kidney stones that are from urate salts, you are likely NOT following a low-ish carb paleo diet, you likely have insulin resistance and your liver is not processing uric acid Continue reading >>

Importance Of Fluid Intake For Patients On The Ketogenic Diet

Importance Of Fluid Intake For Patients On The Ketogenic Diet

For children on the ketogenic (keto) diet, keeping hydrated is essential to prevent constipation and kidney stones. The high-fat content of the diet makes it more difficult for the body to break down the nutrients in foods and convert it to energy if it is not accompanied by water, which is quickly processed by the body. Your child’s keto meal plan includes their ideal fluid intake. To help prevent dehydration, your child can always have more fluid than what’s recommended. Dehydration is caused by a decreased fluid intake, increased sweating due to hot, humid weather, and an increase in physical activity without increasing fluids. Other causes can include fever, gastrointestinal issues such as vomiting and diarrhea, or viral illness such as rotavirus and norovirus. Signs of dehydration include: Dry mouth and lips No tears when crying Decrease in urine out-put Urine that is no longer light straw-colored Some children will cooperate when you tell them to drink more fluids. Other children may need a bit more coaxing. Try these ideas to encourage your child to increase their fluid intake: Novelty straws Decorative cups Popsicles made with Kool-Aid or Crystal Light (properly diluted) Caffeine-free ice tea Snow cones (if you purchase commercially made ice from a snow cone vendor, please confirm the ice is sugar-free) Sugar free Jell-O also counts as a liquid, but it is also a protein and should only be used as part of the meal plan Stickers and other reward systems — set a specific intake as the goal, and turn it into a game Remember, if your child is showing signs of dehydration, you should take them to the emergency room for evaluation. If intravenous fluids are required, a saline solution should be used. Make sure you tell the emergency room medical team that your ch Continue reading >>

Gallstones And Low Carb

Gallstones And Low Carb

Gallbladder in pink Do gallstones improve or worsen on a low carb / high fat diet? It’s a common question with an interesting answer. The gallbladder stores bile, a yellow-green fluid manufactured in the liver. The bile is used to digest the fat you eat. The question is: Is it good or bad for the gall bladder to eat fat? The conventional fat phobic answer The usual medical belief today is that fatty food can result in gall stones. This is because what happens if you already have gallstones in the gallbladder and eat fat: A gallstone can get stuck on the way to the intestines and give you a gallstone attack (pain in the top right part of your stomach). The conventional advice is thus to eat low fat – and take pain killers if you get a gallstone attack. If the attacks continue the gallbladder is removed by routine surgery and the problem usually goes away. Probably with the side effect of slightly decreased ability to absorb fat and nutrients from what you eat (there is a reason we have gallbladders). The conventional low fat advice rarely makes gallstone disease go away. Instead it often gets worse with time, until surgery is necessary. That is hardly a coincidence. How to get gallstones If you eat low fat less bile is needed to digest your food. More bile thus stays in the gallbladder. Long enough, perhaps, for stones to form. It’s been shown that people who (instead of fat) eat more carbohydrates are at increased risk of gallstones. It all sounds logical. And there is even better evidence. The risk of low fat diets have been tested at least three times: Studies of extreme low fat diets In a study of 51 obese people using an extremely low fat low calorie diet (just one gram of fat a day!) the gallbladder was examined by ultrasound before the diet and after one and Continue reading >>

12 Steps To Prevent Kidney Stones

12 Steps To Prevent Kidney Stones

12 Steps to Prevent Kidney Stones: In this article, you will find several steps to help prevent kidney stones. The pain of kidney stones is one of the worst possible pains one could possibly experience. While the causes behind kidney stones are not fully understood there is some common nutritional advice that can help prevent these stones from forming. Kidney stones come in a number of different forms. Understanding the type of stone is key to preventing it from re-forming. The most common kidney stones are by far calcium oxalate crystals which account for 80% and uric acid crystals which account for another 5-10% (1). The goal of this article is to help you find the best strategies to work with your unique genetic makeup to prevent kidney stones. We will discover the underlying mechanisms behind kidney stone formation and the unique nutrition and lifestyle tips to follow. Fructose and Kidney Stone Formation: Certain foods that are commonly consumed in the United States promote kidney stone formation. High fructose consumption is linked with an increased excretion of calcium, oxalates and uric acid, which are all associated with increased risk of kidney stones. Research has shown that high fructose diets are at greater risk for kidney stone formation (2, 3, 4) Soft drinks with phosphoric acid significantly increase calcium excretion and kidney stone formation (5). Soft drinks and sweet teas are perhaps the biggest dietary causes of kidney stone formation because they often contain high levels of both fructose and phosphoric acid (6) Major Factors With Kidney Stones: Here are 6 major factors often seen with kidney stone formation Dehydration: This causes low urine volume and less fluid to grab up calcium and other compounds in the urinary system. This is the easiest thin Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet Side Effects

Ketogenic Diet Side Effects

Although the adverse effects related to the ketogenic diet are generally less serve than those of anticonvulsant medications used to treat epilepsy, individuals following the diet may experience a number of undesirable effects. Short-Term Side Effects There are several short-term side effects that are most evident at the beginning of therapy, particularly when patients commence the diet with an initial fast. Hypoglycemia is a common side effect in this instance, and noticeable signs may include: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Hunger Confusion, anxiety and/or irritability Tachycardia Lightheadedness and shakiness Sweating and chills Additionally, patients may also experience some constipation and low-grade acidosis. These effects tend to improve when the diet is continued, as the body adapts to the new diet and adjust the ways in which it sources energy. Alteration in Blood Composition As a result of the changes in dietary consumption and the body’s adaptive mechanisms to cope with the reduced carbohydrate intake, there are several changes in the blood composition of individuals following the ketogenic diet. In particular, the levels of lipids and cholesterol in the blood are commonly higher than what is considered to be normal. More than 60% of patients have raised lipid levels and more than 30% have high levels of cholesterol. If these changes are profound and there is some concern about the health of the child, slight changes to the diet can be made for the individual patient. For example, saturated fat sources can be substituted for polyunsaturated fats. In some cases, it may be necessary to lower the ketogenic ratio and reduce the proportion of fat to carbohydrate and protein in the diet. Long-Term Effects When the ketogenic diet is continued for exte Continue reading >>

Low-carb, High-fat Ketogenic Diet Provides Unusual Way To Slim Down

Low-carb, High-fat Ketogenic Diet Provides Unusual Way To Slim Down

CULVER CITY, Calif. -- His social media name is Ketogenic Steve. Culver City resident Steve Harvey lost 20 pounds after his mother suggested he try a Ketogenic diet after she lost 30 pounds on it. Harvey said he felt more energized and woke up every day saying "wow, this is amazing." "It's like a low-carb, high-fat diet, 60 percent fat, 30 percent protein and 10 percent carbs, but obviously those numbers kind of vary," Harvey said. Government guidelines suggest 45 to 65 percent of our food come from carbohydrates, which for a typical 2200-calorie daily diet equals 225 to 325 grams. A Ketogenic diet suggests 50 grams of carbs. But trying this diet program can make you feel pretty bad since carbs help boosting mood. "I felt a little crabby," Harvey said. This is called the "Keto flu." Reports of fatigue, dizziness and an upset stomach are common. Studies suggest long-term Ketogenic dieting may result in kidney stones, weakened bones and constipation. As fat is the primary source of fuel, weight loss is common as the body has more of this component stored. Nutrition expert Dr. Jonny Bowden says it has been used to fight cancer and diabetes. "It's not just for weight loss, it's not just for epilepsy, there's a lot to be said for Ketogenic diets if you can stick with it," Bowden said. Harvey makes all his own meals like jalapeño cheese poppers for snacking, creamy eggs and veggies as an entree. If you are giving "Keto" a go, you will want low-sugar, high-fiber carbohydrates - like leafy greens, bell peppers and broccoli. Continue reading >>

Dangers Associated With Ketogenic Diets

Dangers Associated With Ketogenic Diets

Whether you go on a ketogenic diet for weight loss or to manage a health condition, you'll be eating fewer carbohydrates, much more fat and moderately more protein than on a typical diet. You should talk to your doctor before attempting this form of diet as it does pose some risks. When on the ketogenic diet, your body uses fat for energy rather than its standard fuel, carbohydrates. At the beginning, your body has to adjust to using a different fuel source. If the diet is initiated too quickly, or the body is having a difficult time adjusting, you can experience low blood sugar levels -- and the fatigue, headaches and other side effects that come along with it. This is typically temporary, and once the body is fully in ketosis, blood sugar levels remain very stable and typically lower than average, according to a study published in 2008 in "Epilepsia." Ketones are an acid. Therefore, when you are in ketosis, your blood can become more acidic. However, the body is very good at adapting and will produce more bicarbonate to help buffer the acid present in the body. Despite this, you should regularly check blood values to ensure the body is appropriately adjusting for the increased acidic environment. Left untreated, acidosis can lead to kidney stones and bone breakdown. Acidosis is easily managed by the addition of baking soda mixed in water or a variety of pharmaceutical buffers, all of which need to be calculated by knowledgeable health professional for regular monitoring and adjustments -- meaning you should be medically supervised and shouldn't attempt to manage it on your own. Kidney Stones Kidney stones, otherwise called nephrolithiasis, can be a rare side effect of the ketogenic diet. The "Journal of Child Neurology" reports a 3 to 10 percent incidence of kidney st Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Kidney Stones Recurring

How To Prevent Kidney Stones Recurring

Kidney stones affect around 10% of the population at some time in their lives. Data from the US shows that about 12% of men and 6% of women will get it at some stage in their life(1). This figure has been increasing over the last generation or two, presumably due to changes in diet and lifestyle that make stone formation more likely. White caucasian people are at increased risk, especially between ages 20-50. Once you’ve had a stone you are quite likely to develop another one. There are various types of stone, and the best treatment depends on which type you have. The most common are calcium stones, either calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. Stones made of uric acid are also fairly commonplace. Complications Kidney stones can cause serious complications if left untreated. Blockage of the kidney ducts can lead to dangerous infections and ultimately kidney failure. Risk factors Caffeine has been reported to increase risk according to the Journal of Urology 2004. Caffeine is thought to bring about changes in the urine that allows for quicker precipitation out of solution of the chemicals that form stones. However there are plenty of studies that link tea and coffee consumption with lower risk of kidney stones. High doses of supplemental vitamin C may lead to increased risk of stone formation as some calcium oxalate stones are formed from vitamin C breakdown products. Alcohol impairs vitamin A status and as we see below this could lead to increased risk due to imbalance of fat soluble vitamins. Low carb or ketogenic diets result in increased levels of uric acid in the urine. Uric acid can crystallise and form the seeds for subsequent growth of a kidney stone. Increased acidity in the blood and urine enhances this problem(2). An imbalance of fat soluble vitamins could le Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

This article is about a dietary therapy for epilepsy. For information on ketogenic diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss, see Low-carbohydrate diet and No-carbohydrate diet. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fueling brain-function. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.[1] Almost half of children, and young people, with epilepsy who have tried some form of this diet saw the number of seizures drop by at least half, and the effect persists even after discontinuing the diet.[2] There is some evidence that adults with epilepsy may benefit from the diet, and that a less strict regimen, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective.[1] The most common adverse effect is constipation, affecting about 30% of patients—this was due to fluid restriction, which was once a feature of the diet, but this led to increased risk of kidney stones, and is no longer considered beneficial.[2][3] The original therapeutic diet for paediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories[Note 1] to maintain the correct weight for age and height. The classic therapeutic ketogenic diet was develope Continue reading >>

​what Is The Ketogenic Diet And Is It Safe?

​what Is The Ketogenic Diet And Is It Safe?

The ketogenic diet is all the rage in the low-carbohydrate dieting world. It’s so low-carb in fact that many people wonder if it’s a safe long-term diet. How is the keto diet (short for “ketogenic”) diet different than the Atkins diet plan? Is it an effective and healthy means of weight loss? Is it safe??? These are just some of the many questions that we hear surrounding the keto diet in the health and fitness community. While any diet that requires sacrifice and adjustments to your daily routine (and this diet requires more of that than most, with the exception of veganism) will take some effort to maintain, the overall benefits may be worth the commitment. A variety of celebrities, fitness personalities, and doctors endorse the ketogenic eating plan and its philosophies for overall health improvement and quick weight loss. According to advocates of the ketogenic diet, forcing your body into ketosis could be the answer to long-term fat loss and better health. For years, we’ve heard about the benefits of low-carb eating and consuming healthy fats. We absolutely agree with the low-carb approach for weight loss, because it is the main principle in our 21-Day Fat Loss Challenge. Below, we will explore what the ketogenic diet entails, including the change in lifestyle, and discuss its safety. The Ketogenic Diet What is the keto diet? You might already know that the keto diet is a low-carb diet plan. You might not know that it was originally designed for patients with epilepsy, as Dr. Axe discusses in his post on the subject. Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medical center initially found that fasting helped treat seizures in patients with epilepsy. How did this turn into what we know as the keto diet today? Since fasting wasn’t a healthy long-term option for elimin Continue reading >>

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