diabetestalk.net

Ketosis Kidney Stones

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

If medicine doesn't control seizures in epilepsy, sometimes doctors prescribe a ketogenic (or keto) diet. A ketogenic diet is a strict high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that can reduce, and sometimes stop, seizures. It's called "ketogenic" because it makes ketones in the body. Ketones are made when the body uses fat for energy. By replacing carbs with fat in the diet, the body burns more fat and makes more ketones. The ketogenic diet is prescribed by a doctor. Kids on the diet need to be followed closely by a dietitian to make sure they follow the diet and get the nutrients they need. The diet starts with fasting during an overnight hospital stay. Who Needs a Ketogenic Diet? Children with seizures that are not well-controlled by medicines (called intractable epilepsy) and severe epilepsy syndromes (such as infantile spasms or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) might benefit from a ketogenic diet. Studies show that the ketogenic diet also may help treat other conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, and even cancer. How Does a Ketogenic Diet Work? Although the ketogenic diet for epilepsy has been around since 1920, doctors aren't exactly sure how the higher ketone levels works. Some seizure types seem to respond better than others to the ketogenic diet. In babies, the keto diet is given in formula. Young children may be fed by a tube that is place in the stomach by a surgeon. This helps the child stay on the diet. How Long Do Kids Need a Ketogenic Diet? You should know if a ketogenic diet works for your child within a few months. If it does, your doctor may recommend weaning your child off the diet after 2 years of seizure control. The weaning process is done over several months to avoid triggering seizures. Some people stay on a ketogenic diet for years. Are There Any Risks? The keto Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

Ketones, Ketosis, And Ketogenic Diets

Ketones, Ketosis, And Ketogenic Diets

An understanding of ketones and ketosis is essential for understanding how some high protein-low carbohydrate diets (also called Ketogenic Diets) such as Atkins diet works. Ketones are mild acids, a sort of reserve fuel released from burned fats for survival under conditions of starvation. When we go without food for even a few days our bodies begin living off our stored fats, and these release ketones. During ketosis, the body switches from using glucose for energy (sufficient dietary carbohydrates are not available) to using fat. Fatty acids are then released into the bloodstream and converted into ketones. The ketones themselves are produced by the metabolism of fat. Ketosis refers to the process of the conversion. The ketones are used by your muscles, your brain, and other organs as an energy source. Excess ketones are then eliminated during urination. Ketosis occurs when the amount of carbohydrate fuel- the fuel that is needed to run the body - drops below a critical level, forcing the body to turn first to protein and then to fat reserves to do the work carbohydrates normally do. When protein is deflected in this manner, it releases nitrogen into the blood stream, placing a burden on the kidneys as they try to excrete excessive urinary water due to sodium loss. When fat is likewise deflected, the breakup releases fatty acids, or ketones, into the bloodstream, further burdening the kidneys. If ketosis continues for long periods of time, serious damage to the liver and kidneys can occur, which is why most low-carbohydrate, or ketogenic diets recommend only short-term use, typically 14 days. Many nutritionists caution their patients-especially women in the early stages of pregnancy-against following them at all. Fasters experience a sensation of improved well-being a Continue reading >>

Can Ketogenic Diet Be The Cause Of Kidney Stones?

Can Ketogenic Diet Be The Cause Of Kidney Stones?

Nowadays, often we either suffer from kidney stone problem or we hear that our familiar persons are suffering from kidney stone. Most of us even believe that the diet habits of low-carb can be the cause of this problem. Before going into the arguments we must know why do we have kidney stones? Reason for kidney stones Generally, kidney stones are the crystal hard mass that get its form in our urinary tract. Obviously, it is tremendously painful, especially when it goes by the thin ureter in the body. Kidney stones are of different types, but the exact cause of kidney stones are still unknown. It is also true some people are prone to get the kidney stones in their body. Thus, we are not sure that ketogenic diet kidney stones are interlinked. What is the ketogenic diet? A low-carb diet is also known as the ketogenic diet. In these diets, we get protein and fat. The ketogenic diet produces ketosis and this is a condition of the body in which it uses the ketones and fat to burn the fat molecules to make the fuel in the body. This is the basic source of energy or fuel. These diets control your appetite and support to burn the fat, as a result you lose your weight. Benefits of ketogenic diet The ketogenic diet means controls of protein, fat, and carbohydrates which you take as you can only consume maximum fifty grams of carbohydrates per day. These diets not only help to reduce your body weight, but it also helps in certain diseases like epilepsy or malignant brain cancer, etc. However, after having too many ketones in the body, your urine changes into acidic and this gives stress to your kidneys which ultimately changes into kidney stones. Thus, ketogenic diet kidney stones are having the link to each other. Some people who intake too much of meat, fish or poultry protein al Continue reading >>

To Ketone Or Not To Ketone: Mineral Salts

To Ketone Or Not To Ketone: Mineral Salts

Let me preface this article by stating that I am not affiliated, do not know any of these companies directly, and haven’t tested them in any way. Rather, due to the recent explosion of ketone supplements on the market, I wanted to cover the importance of considering mineral salt content of these supplements. Exogenous ketones are becoming more popular than ever as advancements in scientific research continue to show how they work to improve both health and performance. At first, the only options for delivering exogenous ketones were unpalatable ketone esters; however, now exogenous ketones can be taken in the form of ketone mineral salts that are easily blended and palatable in water. Making ketone mineral salts involves combining beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) with mineral salts such as sodium, calcium, magnesium, or potassium. Before considering whether ketone supplements are a good option, most people immediately look at the salt load, and rightfully so. It is important to take into account the nutritional and health impact of not only the BHB, but to consider the minerals that are used to make the product. Although there is more current evidence on the effectiveness of ketone esters , ketone salt supplementation has the potential to provide additional benefits through the extra electrolytes/nutrients that are required to make the ketones. While ketone esters are expensive due to the manufacturing process involved in making them, ketone salts might be a more convenient option for both inducing a state of ketosis and elevating blood ketone levels for various reasons we will discuss separately. Let’s take a look at some of the facts and misconceptions about three of the minerals used to make ketone mineral salts: sodium, calcium, and magnesium. (Potassium is very hygro Continue reading >>

Importance Of Fluid Intake For Patients On The Ketogenic Diet

Importance Of Fluid Intake For Patients On The Ketogenic Diet

For children on the ketogenic (keto) diet, keeping hydrated is essential to prevent constipation and kidney stones. The high-fat content of the diet makes it more difficult for the body to break down the nutrients in foods and convert it to energy if it is not accompanied by water, which is quickly processed by the body. Your child’s keto meal plan includes their ideal fluid intake. To help prevent dehydration, your child can always have more fluid than what’s recommended. Dehydration is caused by a decreased fluid intake, increased sweating due to hot, humid weather, and an increase in physical activity without increasing fluids. Other causes can include fever, gastrointestinal issues such as vomiting and diarrhea, or viral illness such as rotavirus and norovirus. Signs of dehydration include: Dry mouth and lips No tears when crying Decrease in urine out-put Urine that is no longer light straw-colored Some children will cooperate when you tell them to drink more fluids. Other children may need a bit more coaxing. Try these ideas to encourage your child to increase their fluid intake: Novelty straws Decorative cups Popsicles made with Kool-Aid or Crystal Light (properly diluted) Caffeine-free ice tea Snow cones (if you purchase commercially made ice from a snow cone vendor, please confirm the ice is sugar-free) Sugar free Jell-O also counts as a liquid, but it is also a protein and should only be used as part of the meal plan Stickers and other reward systems — set a specific intake as the goal, and turn it into a game Remember, if your child is showing signs of dehydration, you should take them to the emergency room for evaluation. If intravenous fluids are required, a saline solution should be used. Make sure you tell the emergency room medical team that your ch Continue reading >>

Clearing Up Kidney Confusion: Part Deux

Clearing Up Kidney Confusion: Part Deux

It’s funny how our mental state really affects how we write and what we are interested in. When I wrote the introduction to this piece I was just getting settled into our new place in Santa Fe, NM and was looking at over a month at home to work and write. Then a number of wacky events happened and I’ve been home about 7 days out of the last month and I’ve only made it about 70 pages into Kon-Tiki. Ouch. Now I’m home for 8 days and will then be gone for a project that will take me completely off the grid for nearly 3 weeks. No phone, email…nada. When I sat down to do this kidney piece it was with a mindset that I had a ton of time and could really sink my teeth into it. Now I’m time crunched and anxious that I will get it done at all! Up front here I’d like to thank Mat “The Kraken” Lalonde with his help on some literature for this piece. Any inaccuracies however are my own tomfoolery. If I wanted to cut to the chase I could boil this whole thing down to the following: 1-Dietary protein DOES NOT CAUSE KIDNEY DAMAGE. 2-Chronically elevated BLOOD GLUCOSE levels DO cause kidney damage. 3-Dietary fructose REALLY causes kidney damage. 4-Many kidney issues have either a hyperinsulinemic characteristic, an autoimmune characteristic, and or a combination of autoimmunity or hyperinsulinism. A standard, low-ish carb paleo diet can fix most of these issues. 5-For serious kidney damage a low-protein, ketogenic diet can be remarkably therapeutic. 6-If you get kidney stones that are from oxalates, reduce your green veggie intake (spinach for example) and have other types of veggies. 7-If you get kidney stones that are from urate salts, you are likely NOT following a low-ish carb paleo diet, you likely have insulin resistance and your liver is not processing uric acid Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Therapy And Anti-epileptic Medications

Ketogenic Therapy And Anti-epileptic Medications

Written by: Elizabeth Neal MSc PhD RD Research Dietitian, Matthew’s Friends Clinics Honorary Research Associate, UCL – Institute of Child Health Ketogenic therapy includes the classical ketogenic diet (KD), the medium chain triglyceride KD, the modified Atkins diet (MAD) (or variants which may be termed modified KD) and the low glycaemic index treatment. Many studies, including randomised trials, have reported reduced seizure frequency and severity in children and adults receiving ketogenic therapy. These diets are usually used to treat intractable seizures which have not responded to appropriate medication so most who start them will be on at least one concurrent anti-epileptic drug (AED); a reduced dependence on AEDs being a goal and frequently attained outcome of ketogenic therapy. This insight reviews the literature and discusses evidence for any interaction between ketogenic therapy and AEDs. 1. Does ketogenic therapy affect blood levels of AEDs? Four studies have examined this question. The first measured plasma levels of valproic acid (VPA), lamotrigine, topiramate, clonazepam and phenobarbital in 51 children on the classical KD. Although some AED doses were adjusted, no significant effect on plasma concentrations was seen after three months on the diet and the authors concluded it is not necessary to adjust drug doses due to pharmacokinetic interactions when starting a KD (1). Another study measured plasma levels of VPA and phenobarbital in 36 children and adolescents after one month on the classical KD given as a ketogenic formula either on its own or providing 80% of diet intake. Doses of AEDs were not changed during the month (although some patients had concomitant benzodiazepine doses changed during this time). Concentrations of phenobarbital did not cha Continue reading >>

Does Ketosis Cause Kidney Damage?

Does Ketosis Cause Kidney Damage?

The ‘Lean for Life’ program is mildly ketotic, and only for a brief portion of the program. It has not been associated with kidney damage or disease in individuals who have normally functioning kidneys. Concerns regarding undue stress on the kidneys are often aimed at very low carbohydrate, very high protein ketogenic diets. Few studies have shown any actual damage, however. (Note: Although the Weight Loss portion of the ‘Lean for Life’ program is mildly ketogenic, it is not considered to be exceptionally “high protein” for most individuals.) Dietary ketosis is among the most maligned and misunderstood concepts in nutrition medicine. Particularly among researchers who don’t actually treat patients, ketosis (the presence of ketone bodies in the urine) is often confused with ketoacidosis, which is a life-threatening build-up of ketone bodies due to muscle wasting and dehydration as in states of shock or uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes. In the Type 1 diabetic, the absence of insulin leads to a toxic build-up of blood glucose and an extreme break-down of fat and muscle tissue. This condition doesn’t occur in individuals who have even a small amount of insulin, whether from natural production or artificially administered. Whereas patients in ketoacidosis are closely monitored in Intensive Care Units, individuals in ketosis are amongst the healthy, active population. Dietary ketosis is a natural adjustment to the body’s reduced intake of carbohydrates as the body shifts its primary source of energy from carbohydrates to stored fat. The presence of insulin keeps ketone production in check so that a mild, beneficial ketosis is achieved. Blood glucose levels are stabilized within a normal range and there is no break-down of healthy muscle tissue. It would be diffi Continue reading >>

Is Keto And Ketosis Safe?

Is Keto And Ketosis Safe?

The ketogenic diet and ketosis are safe. Not only are they safe, but they are useful in helping people with many different conditions. The ketogenic diet has helped cancer patients, people with diabetes (type 1 and type 2), women with polycystic ovary syndrome, people with heart disease, and many others. So, where does the rumor that the ketogenic diet and ketosis may not be safe come from? Well, it starts with ketones. Rumors Spread Like Ketones in an Insulin Deficient Body One of the primary goals of the ketogenic diet is to enter ketosis (a normal metabolic process when ketones are produced for fuel). Ketosis is primarily regulated by the liver, which helps produce enough ketones to meet the body’s needs. However, ketone production can get out of hand when insulin is deficient, leading to ketoacidosis. This may be where the rumor that keto and ketosis are not safe came from. Ketoacidosis — A Serious Condition That Is Not Caused By The Ketogenic Diet Ketoacidosis is a serious condition caused by uncontrolled diabetes. It is brought on by being born without the ability to produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or living a lifestyle that promotes insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes). In both cases, there isn’t enough insulin to tell that cells that energy is available (insulin deficiency). The lack of insulin signaling causes the fat cells and liver cells to go into starvation mode, even after a calorically dense meal. The fat cells begin to dump triglycerides into the blood to provide the other cells with energy because the cells are perceiving that there is no fuel available. Meanwhile, the liver starts mobilizing stored glycogen and using gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis to provide the body with sugar and ketones that it doesn’t need. All of this causes bloo Continue reading >>

Do Low-carb Diets Increase Kidney Stone Risk? Let’s Ask The Low-carb Experts

Do Low-carb Diets Increase Kidney Stone Risk? Let’s Ask The Low-carb Experts

People have all sorts of ideas about low-carb diets based on what they’ve heard somewhere or just on what they think they know about them. It’s why concepts like “artery-clogging” saturated fats still pervade our culture despite all the scientific evidence to the contrary. It doesn’t help that these myths surrounding healthy carbohydrate-restricted diets are perpetuated on a daily basis by so many so-called health “experts” in both the medical and nutrition fields and the general public is none-the-wiser to contradict any of it since they are merely living their lives and trusting the sources of information they are paying attention to. It’s what makes the idea of creating a cultural shift in thinking in favor of low-carb living that much more difficult–but it won’t deter me or the many others who are out here fighting the good fight to educate, encourage and inspire others to give livin’ la vida low-carb a try for themselves. I literally receive hundreds upon hundreds of e-mails daily from readers who are searching for answers to their questions about their low-carb lifestyle, help with weight loss, or managing some chronic disease they are dealing with. Although I’m not a doctor or nutritionist, I’m always happy to share from my own experiences to see if that information can be beneficial to the person who wrote to me. It’s my pleasure to hear from readers and to offer up assistance in any way that I can. However, from time to time I’ll receive an e-mail from a reader who has an interesting question that is beyond my scope of full understanding enough to share a detailed explanation of what’s possibly going on. It’s okay that I don’t know everything there is to know about nutrition and it’s relationship to being healthy. The good Continue reading >>

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Kidney stones may not be on your mind when beginning a weight-loss diet, but if you plan to follow a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet plan, they should be. While many popular low-carb commercial diet plans encourage your body to shift into a fat-burning state called ketosis, the production of ketones that results can alter your urine chemistry and raise the risk of kidney stones. Understanding the risks to your kidneys can help you decide whether the weight loss promises of a high-protein, low-carb diet are worth it. Video of the Day Kidney stones develop when a hard mass of crystals develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones are often extremely painful, especially when they pass through the thin ureter to exit the body. There are a few different types of kidney stones, each made up of different materials. The cause of kidney stones remains unknown, but some people seem to be more prone to developing them than others, so there may be a hereditary component. Ketones are compounds formed by the breakdown of fat as the body shifts from burning carbohydrates to burning fat for fuel. During a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, ketones become the main source of energy in the body. After a few days or weeks on this type of diet, the brain begins to use ketones as fuel instead of glucose. However, when too many ketones build up in the bloodstream, the pH of the urine changes from neutral to slightly acidic, which can put stress on the kidneys and potentially raise the risk of developing kidney stones. A 2002 study published in the "American Journal of Kidney Diseases" found that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet raised the acidity of the blood over a six-week period, a condition known to contribute to kidney stones. The study found up to a 90-percent increase in acid Continue reading >>

The Truth About Ketosis & Low-carb Diets, Backed By Science

The Truth About Ketosis & Low-carb Diets, Backed By Science

A lot of people are confused by the term “ketosis.” You may read that it is a “dangerous state” for the body, and it does sound abnormal to be “in ketosis.” But ketosis merely means that our bodies are using fat for energy. Ketones (also called ketone bodies) are molecules generated during fat metabolism, whether from the fat in the almonds you just ate or fat you were carrying around your middle. When our bodies are breaking down fat for energy, most of it gets converted to energy, but ketones are also produced as part of the process. When people eat less carbohydrates, their bodies turn to fat for energy, so it makes sense that more ketones are generated. Some of those ketones (acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate) are used for energy; the heart muscle and kidneys, for example, prefer ketones to glucose. Most cells, including the brain cells, are able to use ketones for at least part of their energy. Is ketosis a bad thing? There is an assumption that if a body is burning a lot of fat for energy, it must not be getting “enough” glucose. However, there is no indication, from studying people on reduced carbohydrate diets, that this is the case (though there is usually a short period of adjustment, less than a week, in most cases). It takes about 72 hours to burn up all of the reserve glycogen (sugar loads). Although it’s true that our bodies can’t break fat down directly into glucose (though, interestingly, they easily use glucose to make fat), our bodies can convert some of the protein we eat into glucose. Indeed, this works well for people who don’t tolerate a lot of sugar, because this conversion happens slowly so it doesn’t spike blood glucose. What is the danger of ketosis? It is important that if you are following a ketogenic nutritional pro Continue reading >>

Empiric Use Of Potassium Citrate Reduces Kidney-stone Incidence With The Ketogenic Diet

Empiric Use Of Potassium Citrate Reduces Kidney-stone Incidence With The Ketogenic Diet

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Kidney stones are an adverse event with the ketogenic diet (KD), occurring in ∼6% of children who are started on this therapy for intractable epilepsy. Potassium citrate (Polycitra K) is a daily oral supplement that alkalinizes the urine and solubilizes urine calcium, theoretically reducing the risk for kidney stones. METHODS: Children who started the KD from 2000 to 2008 at Johns Hopkins Hospital, with at least 1 month of follow-up, were evaluated (N = 313). From 2000 to 2005, children were treated with daily Polycitra K at 2 mEq/kg per day only in the setting of identified hypercalciuria, whereas, since 2006, it has been started for all children empirically at KD onset. RESULTS: Polycitra K was administered to 198 children preventatively overall, 4 (2.0%) of whom developed kidney stones, compared with 11 (10.5%) of 105 who did not receive Polycitra K (P = .003). Two children since 2006 refused Polycitra K, 1 of whom developed a kidney stone. Successful empiric administration of Polycitra K at KD onset resulted in a kidney-stone incidence of 0.9% (1 of 106) compared with administration only because of hypercalciuria, 6.7% (13 of 195; P = .02). Polycitra K resulted in less acidic urine (mean pH: 6.8 vs 6.2; P = .002) but not reduced serum acidosis. No adverse effects of oral citrates were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Oral potassium citrate is an effective preventive supplement against kidney stones in children who receive the KD, achieving its goal of urine alkalinization. Universal supplementation is warranted. Abstract OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare on a national cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) the concurrent use of ≥3 psychotropic medications between children in foster care and children who have disabili Continue reading >>

How To Get Into Ketosis For Optimal Cognitive Performance

How To Get Into Ketosis For Optimal Cognitive Performance

Contents Here’s a sample protocol. I’ve given more options below for you to tinker with, but if you just want clear and simple instructions, here you go. I think this is simple enough and doable. You don’t have to follow everything here, but it’s just a sample protocol. A bright light device by the workstation. Keep it about a foot away and use for 15-30 minutes, if you aren’t exposed to a good amount of bright light in the day. Before supper You can eat whatever you want for supper. Follow a diet that you can keep to and that suits your individual health needs. I recommend 20-50g of carbs depending on your individual needs. I’ve gotten into ketosis before but it didn’t work out very well. This protocol is my attempt to make it work more quickly. Getting into “Ketosis” is considered a state where your brain uses ketones for fuel. The most common fuel for your brain is glucose. Recently, I thought about what went wrong and thought about how I could change this. I’ve been experimenting with a modified ketosis version for about a month on and off. This protocol will be updated as I do more experiments and tweak it. This modified version solves most of the problems I had with ketosis when I previously tried it. I had a lot of issues with low carb diets in general, but this protocol is NOT a very low carb diet. I don’t do this protocol anymore because I need more carbs. I still recommend that you try this or a variation of it if you want to get into ketosis. These days I do a lectin avoidance diet, with carbs. But I may revisit ketosis later. My protocol doesn’t rely on ketones for fuel only. I like to get brain fuel from 4 different sources. This is one way in which this protocol is unique. I find if I get too much of one of these four fuels then it Continue reading >>

More in ketosis