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Ketosis In Other Animals

Dear Mark: Ketosis

Dear Mark: Ketosis

Dear Mark, What are ketones? How does ketosis play into the Primal Blueprint? Did our bodies evolve to run on ketones? If not, why do they exist? Ketones, to put it briefly, are compounds created by the body when it burns fat stores for energy. When you consume a diet very low in carbohydrates, the body responds to the significantly lowered levels of blood sugar by flipping the switch to another power source. The body converts fatty acids in the liver to ketones. Ketones, then, become the main energy source as long as blood sugar levels remain low. Recently, researchers have discovered more about the unique mechanisms behind this energy “switch.” It turns out a specific liver hormone, FGF21, is essential for the oxidation of the liver’s fatty acids. Furthermore, animals who were fed a ketogenic diet over time showed “increased expression of genes in fatty acid oxidation pathways and reduction in lipid synthesis pathways.” In other words, their bodies adapted metabolically and genetically to the diet. Ketosis was crucial to our evolution. Given the relatively minor role of carbohydrate-rich foods (even the consumption of many tubers is thought to have come later with the advent of cooking practices), our bodies were fairly frequently operating in the arena of ketosis. Add to this the fasts and famines of primal living, and it’s clear that ketones served as an essential energy source. The Primal Blueprint recommends “generally” about 100-150 grams of carbohydrates a day, but many who follow it or the related paleo principles choose diets that fall in the realm of 50-80 grams a day, a practice (along with IF) that spurs the body to turn on ketosis as needed. These practices encourage “upregulation” of the body’s fat-burning metabolic functioning and Continue reading >>

Tpns 58-61: Ketosis Is Natural. Natural Is Good.

Tpns 58-61: Ketosis Is Natural. Natural Is Good.

Primitive Nutrition 58: Ketosis Is Natural. Natural Is Good. Part I So far in my examination of low-carb diets I've shown you that they are nutritionally deficient, metabolically damaging, and unlikely to produce weight loss, if only because fats are so calorically dense. For the low-carbers, the solution to this last problem is ketosis. For them, this special metabolic state is the ultimate goal of their diets. They imagine it will effortlessly melt away all the fat they've accumulated from their prior unhealthy eating behavior. Low carbers' zeal for ketosis has lead some to make a questionable claim which I'd like to ponder in this section. Michael Eades presents it here in his blog explaining ketosis. Of course, like many other primitive fad diet promoters, he wants you to start from the assumption that the activity pictured to the left somehow represents man's true nature and the way he has historically obtained food. I don't see any women in that photo, which should give you a clue that this isn't the whole story. According to The Economist, among the hunter gatherers who provide the Paleo model, "men usually bring fewer calories than women, and have a tiresome tendency to prefer catching big and infrequent prey so they can show off." Eades is tapping into the same old macho vanity that has worked so well in marketing Paleo. If you'd like to see what a group spear hunt really looks like in live action, watch this video. Somehow the artist who created Dr Eades picture forgot to include all the blood. Having read a bit about how intelligent and social elephants are, I find this unappealing to say the least. If you watch it, see if you can imagine Michael Eades participating in such a hunt. But back to ketosis, despite his acknowledgement that ketogenic diets create a Continue reading >>

Hunters Of Wild Game Can’t Remain In Ketosis

Hunters Of Wild Game Can’t Remain In Ketosis

Below, I have another Duck Dodgers post for you, derived from a comment on a previous post. But first, you’ll recall a recent post; wherein, I made mention of Part 1 of a Catalyst episode on the gut microbiome: Australian Catalyst: Gut Reaction; It Signals The End of VLC and Ketogenic Diets For Everyone. Part 2 is now up and running. See what happens to the athlete’s insulin response after just a month on a high fiber diet. In other news, Tom Naughton, who has always been the kind of guy who can change his mind (evident even in how his views changed during his making of Fat Head), has now solidly come over to the The Dark Side. See: Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis. Alright, here’s Duck. ~~~ More nails in the coffin for those who think that it’s possible to stay ketogenic while consuming wild game. From: Energy Source, Protein Metabolism, and Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Strategies Our concern is with periods of high lean meat (i.e., high protein) consumption, when carbohydrates and animal fat would have been scarce or unavailable to hunters and gatherers as sources of calories… …It should be pointed out, however, that the few minimum values that do exist for wild ungulate meat may nevertheless tend to underestimate somewhat the actual amount of fat available to hunter-gatherers in a carcass, because the values do not include subcutaneous and visceral fat deposits, fat in the bone marrow, and so forth. On the other hand, as will be discussed more fully below, many of these fat reserves may become largely or totally depleted during the winter and spring, bringing the available fat levels more in line with the values for meat alone… ……Second, hunter-gatherers may augment their supplies of storable fat through labor-intensive activities such as rend Continue reading >>

Any Other Animals In A State Of Ketosis

Any Other Animals In A State Of Ketosis

It's a good question - I think that we decided, from the little information available, that carnivorous cats have an upregulated gluconeogenesis pathway that would possibly meet their glucose needs without ketosis. I quite like Paul Jaminet's analysis (in his Perfect Health Diet Book) in which he shows that, at the intestine wall, all mammals digest very similar macro ratios (independent of what they actually put in their mouths): "It turns out that what differs among the animals is the composition of the digestive tract. Animals have evolved digestive tracts and livers to transform diverse food inputs into the uniform set of nutrients that all need. Herbivores have foregut organs such as rumens or hindgut chambers for fermenting carbohydrates, turning them into fats and volatile acids that can be used to manufacture fats. Carnivores have livers capable of turning protein into glucose and fat." "When we look past the digestive tract at what nutrients are actually delivered to the body, all mammals obtain a remarkably similar set of nutrients. By calories, mammalian diets are always composed of a majority, typically 50-75%, of saturated and monounsaturated fats (including the short-chain fatty acids produced by fermentation of fiber); a mix of carbohydrates and protein, usually totaling around 25-40%; and a modest amount of polyunsaturated fat, typically less than 10%. " Continue reading >>

Is There A Best Way To Monitor Ketosis

Is There A Best Way To Monitor Ketosis

Ketosis is underrecognized on most farms and is associated with several clinical diseases, lost milk, breeding problems, and greater risk of early culling. You should test cows for ketosis for three main reasons: It helps you diagnose and treat clinically sick cows. You can monitor and identify changes in transition cow performance earlier. You can establish the basis for herd investigations. Herd investigation and diagnosing and treating of sick cows are good reasons for testing and can be considered reactive approaches . . . you identify a problem and employ a ketone testing strategy as a diagnostic tool. Monitoring herd performance is a proactive approach. The idea is to track herd data over time so you can identify herd problems earlier than you might have using a reactive approach. Ketone tests Excess ketone production occurs in the liver in response to excess fat mobilization. The circulating ketones are acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). They are found in all body fluids including urine, blood, and milk. The predominant ketone in cows is BHBA. The gold standard for ketone testing is considered to be laboratory measurement of BHBA. However, taking a blood sample, shipping it to a lab, and then waiting for the results is costly and inconvenient. Fortunately, there are cowside tests for milk, urine, and blood tests. Milk tests. Milk ketone tests such as Ketocheck measure acetone and acetoacetate. These tests are very insensitive, but, when they are positive, they almost always are correct. Unfortunately, their poor sensitivity makes them essentially useless in ketone testing programs. The only useful milk ketone test is the Keto-Test. This test measures milk beta-hydroxybutyrate and is very easy to use. In a monitoring program, a cow that is tes Continue reading >>

How To Be In Ketosis?

How To Be In Ketosis?

Be a new-born baby reared on breast-milk [1] Use up your glycogen by exercising [3] Eat a high-fat diet [4], low in carbs with moderate protein Take exogenous ketones [5] (aka ketones in a pill) Ketosis is a metabolic state. It is normal for humans to be in and out of ketosis. Once your body starts relying on lots of fat for energy you get into ketosis. So why isn’t it called fatosis? Because when your body burns lots of fat it also turns some of that fat into ketones which then go on to be used for energy too. Is ketosis good for human body? During human evolution, we were probably in and out of ketosis. For instance, seasonal variation for our ancestors often meant little to no sugary and starchy foods which pushed us towards a higher-fat diet. Fatty nutrient dense foods like offal (the weird animal bits such as liver, tongue etc.) were seen as delicacies [6] and thus in high demand. The further North a population lived, the less vegetation was available which meant humans relied more on hunting large animals and gathering small ones (like eggs or insects! [7]). All of the essential micro and macronutrients for humans are found in animals, not plants, which directs human food gathering efforts towards animals (whose meat is low in carbs). Although the argument for ketosis isn’t as simple as “we did it back then so it’s good for us now”, the story of human evolution supports it being a normal metabolic state. In other words, it passes the first evolutionary filter (see more: Do ketogenic diets have a place in human evolution?) Ketogenesis as medicine There are many reasons to be in ketosis given to us by modern science. Lowering insulin resistance [10] (especially for the obese and diabetics) Increased fat oxidation capacity [13]…and many others. Sounds goo Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Can A Ketogenic Diet Help Fight Cancer?

Can A Ketogenic Diet Help Fight Cancer?

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States (1). Researchers estimate that 595,690 Americans will die from cancer in 2016. That means about 1,600 deaths per day, on average (1). Cancer is most commonly treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Many different diet strategies have been studied, but none have been particularly effective. Interestingly, there is some early research suggesting that a very low-carb ketogenic diet may help (2, 3, 4). Important note: You should never, ever delay or avoid conventional medical treatment of cancer in favor of an alternative treatment like the ketogenic diet. You should discuss all treatment options with your doctor. The ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat diet that shares many similarities with Atkins and other low-carb diets. It involves drastically reducing your intake of carbs and replacing them with fat. This change leads to the metabolic state called ketosis. After several days, fat becomes your body's primary energy source. This causes a significant increase in the levels of compounds called ketones in your blood (5). In general, a ketogenic diet used for weight loss is about 60-75% of calories as fat, with 15-30% of calories from protein and 5-10% of calories from carbs. However, when a ketogenic diet is being used therapeutically to treat cancer, the fat content may be significantly higher (up to 90% of calories) and the protein content lower (6). The ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat diet. For cancer treatment, fat intake may be as high as 90% of total calorie intake. Many cancer therapies are designed to target the biological differences between cancer cells and normal cells. Nearly all cancer cells share one common trait: they feed off carbs or blood sugar Continue reading >>

Cattle Diseases

Cattle Diseases

Ketosis Also known as: Acetonemia, Fat Cow Syndrome, Hypoglycemia and Pregnancy Toxemia. Primary ketosis, or acetonemia, is a metabolic disorder and is largely a disease that is influenced by management of dairy cows in early lactation. Ketosis is an important clinical and subclinical disease, as there are several metabolic disorders and diseases that commonly occur in the calving and the early lactation period that are linked to ketosis (including milk fever, retained foetal membranes and displaced abomasum). Hypoglycemia is the major factor involved in the onset and development of clinical ketosis. There is a gradual loss of body condition over several days or even weeks. There is also a moderate to marked decline in milk yield (up to 5 liters per day) over five to six days before the onset of obvious clinical signs (Edwards and Tozer, 2004). This can persist for up to two weeks after diagnosis (Rajala-Schultz et al., 1999). The disease is most commonly seen in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation. Secondary ketosis due to lack of appetite as a result of another disease can be seen at any stage of lactation. Beef cows may also suffer from ketosis during pregnancy, although this is less commonly recognized. Primary ketosis in dairy cows To satisfy the requirements of milk production, the cow can draw on two sources of nutrients – feed intake and body reserves. During early lactation, the energy intake is insufficient to meet the energy output in milk and the animal is in a negative energy balance. In conventional farming, this is considered to be a normal metabolic situation in high-yielding dairy cows. Cows in early lactation are, therefore, in a vulnerable situation, and any stress that causes a reduction in feed intake may lead to the onset of clinical keto Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Guide To The Vegan Ketogenic Diet

A Comprehensive Guide To The Vegan Ketogenic Diet

Animal suffering, climate change, and health are three vitally important issues that can all be addressed with one solution — the vegan diet. At least, this is the idea that many health documentaries promote, however, the truth is much more nuanced. For example, some people have much better health when they go low-carb and eat some animal products, while others feel much better on a high-carb vegan diet. A vegan diet is not the best diet for every health issue either. For example, people with conditions like obesity, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy can be helped tremendously by the ketogenic diet, while a vegan diet doesn’t help nearly as much. Does this mean that vegans should forget about ethical concerns and swallow down animal products like a supplement? Not at all. So, what do you are supposed to do if a moderate to high-carb vegan diet doesn’t work for you and a standard ketogenic diet may be what you need, but it contains too many animal products? Combine the two. An Overview of The Vegan Ketogenic Diet The Vegan ketogenic diet is one of the most restrictive diets, but it is possible to pull it off while maintaining your sanity, decreasing animal suffering, and improving your health. To implement the diet correctly, you must follow these rules: Limit your total carbohydrate consumption to 35 grams or less per day. Eliminate all meat, fish, and other animal products from your diet. Get at least 70% of your calories from plant-based fats. Consume around 25% of your calories from plant-based proteins. Supplement with nutrients that you may not be getting enough of like vitamins D3, B12, & B6, DHA & EPA, iron, zinc, and taurine. Not a fan of math? Not sure how much of each macronutrient you need? Use Continue reading >>

Do Ketogenic Diets Have A Place In Human Evolution?

Do Ketogenic Diets Have A Place In Human Evolution?

Part 1: How to think about ketogenic diets within human evolutionary history In the past decade ketogenic diets in humans have started to attract the attention of a few forward thinking researchers as well as a small number of online health enthusiasts. In any diet there are three main elements called macronutrients – fat, protein and carbohydrate. On a ketogenic diet most calories come from fat (65-90%), a moderate amount from protein (<10-25%) and a small amount from carbohydrate (0-15%). A ketogenic diet is often mistaken for a high-protein diet. This is not accurate. A ketogenic diet means eating food that produces ketones, a kind of molecule in the blood that provides energy, like glucose does. Producing a high enough level of ketones is called being in ketosis and it is a metabolic state in which the body relies much less on glucose. The who’s who of low-carbohydrate ketogenic research, headed by Accuros et al. in 2008 (1), defined ketogenic diets as containing <10% of calories from carbohydrates. There are two reasons that I prefer to give a range of 0-15%. First, scientists have not fed large populations in a controlled manner to see how much of each macronutrient is needed to shift more than half of them into nutritional ketosis (we lack empirical data on this). This is complicated by that fact that different people get into nutritional ketosis more or less easily because of various factors, like their level of insulin resistance for example. Second, scientists have not yet defined what the nutritional ketosis threshold is exactly, despite their being good approximations. Before exploring the appropriateness of ketogenic diets for humans, I’d like to justify why I approach questions of human health and nutrition the way I do by introducing 2 concepts; evo Continue reading >>

Effect Of The Ketogenic Diet On The Activity Level Of Wistar Rats

Effect Of The Ketogenic Diet On The Activity Level Of Wistar Rats

Children, adolescents, and adults with epilepsy often also show symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ketogenic diet, which is administered to children with epilepsy refractory to drug therapy, seems to improve behavior in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. The basis for this improvement is unknown, although it seems to be unrelated to seizure control. The present research was designed to investigate the effect of two ketogenic diets on the behavior of normal adult male rats. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 36 subjects were placed on one of three diets: a control diet, a 6.3:1 ketogenic diet, and a 4:1 ketogenic diet. In experiment 2, 20 subjects were placed either on a control diet or on a 4:1 ketogenic diet. The activity level of each subject was measured using an open field test. Time spent immobile, grooming, and in exploratory behavior was measured for 600 s. Subjects were tested once before initiation of the diets and once while on the diets. No significant group differences were found in activity level before initiation of the diets. After initiation of the diets, subjects in both ketogenic groups showed a significantly lower activity level than the rats on the control diet. The ketogenic diet decreases activity level in an animal model. This behavioral change may relate to the improved behavior seen when children with symptoms of ADHD are placed on the diet. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children, adolescents, and adults. The symptoms of the disorder include inattentiveness, impulsiveness, and overactivity (1). The cause of the disorder is unknown, although there is evidence that it is, in part, heritable (2–4). The most common treatment for ADHD is stimulant medication. Regardl Continue reading >>

The Best Animal Fats And Plant Fats To Eat

The Best Animal Fats And Plant Fats To Eat

I like to make sure I am eating a combination of both animal fats and plant based fats during the day so that I am getting a wide variety of nutrients and fatty profiles into my diet. There are both similarities and differences between animal fats and plant fats, and there are also some types of fats that I won’t touch with a barge pole if I can help it! ‘Fat’ is a generic term used for any kind of lipid, which in an ester between fatty acids and glycerol. Both plant fats and animal fats are triglycerides, which means they are molecules that are composed of one glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains. The primary difference between plant fats and animal fats are their ratios of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid chains. Animal fat has been vilified in the past (and still somewhat nowadays), due to the higher saturated fat content found in it. For the last 50 years or so, people thought that saturated fat was the cause of heart disease, obesity, and other diseases. But more and more people are starting to wake up to the fact that saturated fat is actually incredibly good for you and it is, in fact, sugar that is the primary cause of these things. In truth, for pretty much the entire of human history, up until the latter half of the 20th century, fatty meats and organs from animals were prized as the most nutritious and delicious part of the animal. Great Plant Fats Coconut Oil Coconut Oil is a wonderful fat that I pretty much use every day. Both for cooking, infatty teas/coffees and on my skin! It is full of medium chain fatty acids – caprylic acid, lauric acid, and capric acid. These are unlike the long chain fatty acids found in other plant-based fats because they are immediately processed by the liver (and therefore not stored as fat), anti-mic Continue reading >>

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