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Ketosis In Cattle Ppt

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Effect Of Niacin Supplementation On Milk Production And Ketosis Of Dairy Cattle

Effect Of Niacin Supplementation On Milk Production And Ketosis Of Dairy Cattle

Two lactation trials were undertaken to evaluate the effect of a niacin supplement on milk production and 'the physiological symptoms of ketosis. Blood ketone and non-esterified fatty acid levels were lower and blood glucose concentrations higher in niacin-supplemented cows. These trends were exhibited regardless of whether supplementation began 2 wk prepartum or immediately after calving. A 6 g daily dose was found to be of equal or higher benefit than a 12 g supplement. Cows gi ven niacin consistently produced more milk than controls, though the difference was small. Conference: Dairy Day, 1984, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1984 Starting Page: 22, Ending Page: 23 Publisher: Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Continue reading >>

Proteins €“ Major Groups Are Caseins And Whey Proteins

Proteins €“ Major Groups Are Caseins And Whey Proteins

Lactose – unique to mammary gland Fat – droplets enveloped by membrane Ruminants – fatty acids synthesized from volatile fatty acids (acetate) Milk ejection Milk “letdown†Neuroendocrine reflex Milk not removed solely by suckling action Passive removal possible from gland cistern Controlled by myoepithelial cells Oxytocin stored in posterior pituitary gland Action within 30 – 60 seconds Milking 4x or 6x Milking frequency: ~ 8 lb per cow Early in lactation: increased peak and persistency Milk fresh cows first and last at each milking for first 21 d Increased labor, use of milking equipment, feed costs -- 0.5 lb DM for 1 lb milk Continue reading >>

Web Presentation

Web Presentation

Effects of Body Condition on Performance Using body condition scoring to fine tune herd nutrition and health management has become a widely accepted practice. This presentation will examine the influence of body condition on milk production, dry matter intake, reproduction, and health of cows in your herd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 Periods Month Freshening Body Stores Used for Milk Production Body Stores Regained for Next Lactation Dry Period Rumen Rehab Nutrient and Milk Yield Relationships in the Lactation and Gestation Cycle Dry Matter Intake Milk Production Body Weight BCS and Milk Production BCS at calving < 2.75  reduced milk yield > 3.25  reduced milk yield Penn State & Cornell research shows cows with a BCS >3.25 at calving produce 5 pounds less milk each day than cows with lower BCS during the first 30 days of lactation BCS change after calving Decrease of 1 BCS unit  increase of 930 lb milk in 305-d lactation Body reserves essential to support milk production Waltner et al., 1993 Pedron et al., 1993 BCS and Increased Health Risk Excess Body Condition Fat Cow Syndrome Ketosis Displaced Abomasum Milk Fever Metritis Mastitis Lameness Limited Dry Matter Intake Thin Body Condition Lameness Metabolic problems can set the stage for consequences of other nutritional-stress complications, including infections such as mastitis. BCS and Reproduction Cows > 3.75 BCS at dry off were 2.8 times more likely than cows with average BCS to experience the following reproductive problems in their next lactation Dystocia Retained placenta Uterine infection Cystic ovaries Abortion Gearhart et al., 1990 Relationship between BCS Loss in First 5 Weeks after Calving and Reproduction Body Condition Loss Item < 0.5 0.5 to 1.0 > 1.0 # Cows 17 64 12 Days to Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

250 Yearbook Of Agriculture 1956

To obtain best results in treatment, an adequate concentration of the drug must be maintained in the udder for a period of time. Best results are usually obtained when the drugs are administered once or twice daily over a period of 2 to 4 days, depending upon the causative agent and the nature of the case. Most staphylococcal infections must be treated longer than streptococcal infections. Clinical cases must be treated longer than cases not showing symptoms to produce a cure. Many of the antibiotics are available in various vehicles, such as ointments and water-in-oil emulsions, that are designed for infusion into the udder. The vehicles aid in maintaining an adequate therapeutic level of the anti- biotic in the udder for about 24 to 48 hours after i injection. Because anti- biotics can persist for several days in the udder, the milk from the treated cows should not be marketed during the period of treatment or for at least 72 hours after the last treatment. The antibiotics interfere with the growth of the bacteria necessary for the pro- duction of cheese. The drugs are administered by in- fusion into the infected quarter through the teat canal. First, though, the teat must be washed thoroughly and the teat orifice cleansed with a pledget of cotton wetted with alcohol. Because drugs do not cure all infec- tions caused by some of the bacteria and yeasts, the danger exists of intro- ducing these resistant micro-organisms into the udders while treating for another type of organism and of allow- ing a more severe form of mastitis to develop. Faulty technique in prepar- ing the teat for injection and contam- ination of the instruments, drug, or vehicle may be to blame. In treating acute mastitis, it is desir- able to have the drugs administered intravenously or intramuscula Continue reading >>

Physical Exams Of Cattle

Physical Exams Of Cattle

Agricultural Sciences Waterford, WI Physical Exams A physical exam is a routine medical procedure in which the physical symptoms of a patient are measured in order to determine if those symptoms fall within the normal range of that animal. Physical exams should always follow a consistent routine – in most cases, every examination should follow the same order of steps. Even if you find a suspicious symptom, you should not stop the examination – there may be more symptoms to discover! Source: itsthelittlethings.info Steps of a Physical Exam The first step of an animal physical exam is to speak with the owner in order to get a history of the patient. The following 8 questions should always be asked: What is the problem? Why did you call? What symptoms have you observed? When did this problem start? Has this affected her feed consumption? ? Questions (cont.) Has this affected her milk production or rate of gain? How long ago did she calve? How old is she? Do any other animals have similar symptoms? Follow-up questions should also be asked to get all needed details. ? Steps of a Physical Exam After you’ve taken the patient history, you should begin to examine the animal’s head and neck. You should assess the following: Ears – erect or drooping? Hot or cold? Eyes – sunken or normal? Emotional status? Nose – does she have any mucus discharge? Mouth – is she grinding her teeth? Circulation? Jaw – does she have any swelling? Neck – does she have swollen lymph nodes? Skin – is she dehydrated? Source: cdfa.ca.gov Ears & Eyes Ears are a quick indicator of the cow’s physical well-being. If her ears are cold, there is a problem. If her ears are warm, there might still be a problem. Eyes are a quick in Continue reading >>

Latent Class Evaluation Of A Milk Test, A Urine Test, And The Fat-to-protein Percentage Ratio In Milk To Diagnose Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Latent Class Evaluation Of A Milk Test, A Urine Test, And The Fat-to-protein Percentage Ratio In Milk To Diagnose Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Abstract In this study, 3 commonly used tests to diagnose ketosis were evaluated with a latent class model to avoid the assumption of an available perfect test. The 3 tests were the KetoLac BHB (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan) test strip that tests milk for β-hydroxybutyrate, the KetoStix (Bayer Diagnostics Europe Ltd., Dublin, Ireland) test strip that tests urine for acetoacetate, and the fat-to-protein percentage ratio (FPR) in milk. A total of 8,902 cows were included in the analysis. The cows were considered to be a random sample from the population of Danish dairy cattle under intensive management, thus representing a natural spectrum of ketosis as a disease. All cows had a recorded FPR between 7 and 21 d postpartum. The KetoLac BHB recordings were available from 2,257 cows and 6,645 cows had a KetoStix recording. The recordings were analyzed with a modified Hui-Walter model, in a Bayesian framework. The specificity of the KetoLac BHB test and the KetoStix test were both high [0.99 (0.97–0.99)], whereas the specificity of FPR was somewhat lower [0.79 (0.77–0.81)]. The best sensitivity was for the KetoStix test [0.78 (0.55–0.98)], followed by the FPR [0.63 (0.58–0.71)] and KetoLac BHB test [0.58 (0.35–0.93)]. Continue reading >>

The Basic Clinical Exam: Key To Early Identification Of Sick Animals

The Basic Clinical Exam: Key To Early Identification Of Sick Animals

Ralph Bruno, DVM, MS; Ellen Jordan, PhD; Juan Hernandez-Rivera, PhD; and Kevin Lager, MS - Texas AgriLife Extension Service Mireille Chahine, PhD – University of Idaho Robert Hagevoort, PhD – New Mexico State University The entities involved in the development of this material do not support one product over another and any mention herein is meant as an example, not an endorsement. Finding and treating sick animals early is the key to maintaining a safe, nutritious food supply. On dairies, this begins with a basic physical exam of the cow. 1 Physical Exam of the Dairy Cow Frequently a staff member, trained by the herd veterinarian, identifies cows that appear abnormal and conducts a basic exam. Goals of a Physical Exam Program Identify sick cows early Treat sick cows early Prevent spread of diseases Protect the food supply Improve animal welfare The goals of a Physical Exam Program include: Identify sick cows early, Treat sick cows early, Prevent spread of diseases, Protect the food supply, and Improve animal welfare. Besides these common goals, dairy employees may be the first to see abnormal symptoms that may indicate a foreign or emerging disease. Anytime unfamiliar symptoms are seen, the herd owner, veterinarian or manager should be notified. 3 The Normal Cow Parameters Parameter Normal Value Heart rate 60-70/minute Respiration rate 30/minute Temperature 101.5 - 102 °F Rumen contractions 1-2/minute To conduct a basic physical exam, learn the normal characteristics of a cow. For example, the cow’s normal heart rate is 60-70 beats per minute; respiration rate is 30 breaths per minute; temperature is 101.5 to 102 °F; and rumen contractions occur once or twice per minute. 4 Potential Disorders Ketosis (urine or milk) Displaced abomasum (DA) Ma Continue reading >>

Fresh Cow Diseases

Fresh Cow Diseases

The Fresh Period Cows are considered “fresh†for the first 21 days post-calving This is the period of most stress Starting a new/first lactation Transitioning from dry cow to lactating ration Milk production increasing New/different housing & penmates She just had a baby with no maternal leave! The Fresh Cow High stress level can lead to immunosuppression Should be monitored closely for the first 3 weeks Prevention is key! Early treatment is essential A bad start can lead to a bad lactation Factors that Increase Stress Overcrowding Inadequate/infrequent feeding Poor quality feed Poor quality water Heat/cold stress Competition Dystocia Fat or Thin Cows 4 Common Fresh Cow Disease Milk Fever Displaced Abomasum Ketosis Metritis Milk Fever Milk fever = low blood Calcium (hypocalcemia) Role of Calcium Production of milk Structure of bones and teeth Cardiac and skeletal muscle function Movement and heart function Smooth muscle function Gastrointestinal tract Uterus Milk Fever Clinical Milk Fever Cow is weak or recumbent (down) Extremities and ears are cold Muscle twitching Subclinical Milk Fever Cow does not appear sick or weak Manifests as other diseases Displaced abomasum Retained placenta Milk Fever If left untreated, these cows can die Treatment depends on the status of the animal Clinical Milk Fever IV 23% Calcium Gluconate GO SLOW!!!! Subclinical or Mild Milk Fever Oral Calcium supplements Drenches, boluses, gels, etc. Displaced Abomasum 4 compartments of the cow stomach: Rumen Reticulum Omasum Abomasum Displaced Abomasum Displaced Abomasum Usually something else going on Cow off feed Rumen Empty Too much free space in abdomen Subclinical hypocalcemia Decreased gastrointestinal motility Abomasum fills with air and flips Displaced Abomasum Left Sided DA LDAs are Continue reading >>

Dairy Cattle

Dairy Cattle

Unit Map Set Up Unit name: Dairy Cattle Industry Unit Essential Question: How does the dairy industry operate? Dairy Cattle Industry Most difficult to manage High producing dairy cows bred to give large amounts of milk that can overwhelm the animal without proper management Value of dairy products exceeded $37 billion nationally Most labor intensive Milking 2-3 times a day, 7 days a week Dairy Cattle Industry 2008- 70,000 operational dairy farms 40 years ago- 2 million dairy farms # of farm declines, but pounds of milk increased by 20,000 pounds per cow What does this mean? How is this possible? Learn about what you eat! Read the articles and answer the questions in your packet on a separate sheet of paper. Staple it to the back when finished. Use complete sentences. Return packets Holstein Dominate the industry Well over 90% of the dairy cattle in the US Officially known as Holstein-Fresians From Netherlands and Northern Germany Arrived in US in mid-1800s Since 1970- genetic progress due to rigorous selection Total solids % are lower Mature Holstein weighs 1500 to 1750 pounds Jersey Weigh about 1000 pounds Developed on the island of Jersey, off the coast of France First imported early 1800s Coat color ranges from light tan to almost black 2008 registrations- 94,774 (2nd in popularity) Ability to efficiently convert feed to milk Lower body maintenance needs Amount of milk lower Total solids %- highest of all breeds Brown Swiss 3rd most popular Registrations totaled 10,824 in 2008 Originated Switzerland Came to US in mid-1800s Normally brown to gray Similar to Holsteins in size Known for ability to produce milk in hot climates 2nd in milk production Total solids % in middle of all breeds Guernsey Developed Island of Guernsey (coast of France) Imported early 1800s Medium Continue reading >>

Dairy Cattle Introduction.

Dairy Cattle Introduction.

Presentation on theme: "Dairy Cattle Introduction."— Presentation transcript: 2 Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet 3 Know Understand Do! Know Variation in cattle purposes Do 4 Key Learning: Dairy Cattle Industry 5 Dirty Jobs Dairy Cow Midwife: Intro Video 6 Let’s Review Mike’s Activities 11 Holstein Dominate the industry Officially known as Holstein-Fresians 13 Jersey 2nd in popularity 15 Brown Swiss 3rd most popular Originated Switzerland 17 Ayrshire Red and white Imported early 1800s 19 Guernsey Developed Island of Guernsey (coast of France) 21 Milking Shorthorn 26 Dairy Judging for Production 27 Activity: 1 Find Answer, all Write Round Robin Students will be given a packet on how to judge dairy cattle. They will answer the questions and then judge the pictures they are given. 28 Summary What is Dairy judging and why it important? What is the MOST important area/category that is “graded” with points when dairy Judging? Give an example of a POSITIVE trait in this category to support your answer 34 Summarize and Share 35 Dairy Cattle Industry Most difficult to manage 40 Dairy Cattle Industry: Important Trend 41 Dairy Cattle Industry 2008- 70,000 operational dairy farms 42 Hoard’s Dairymen Activity: Exploring the Industry 43 Hoard’s Dairyman Activity Choose an article in the magazine. Read the magazine. Provide a summary. Include something interesting you learned in the article. Why do you think this article was written. These magazines contain research related articles. Find a research related article and explain what was researched, why it was researched, and why dairy farmers might find the information useful. Does the research suggest a change in practices? If so, what changes? 47 The Milking Process 1. At milking time, wash the teats, wear gloves 53 Continue reading >>

Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases

Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases

Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases Caused by: Acute deficiency of Ca Results in: Paralysis Circulatory collapse Coma Death 6% incidence rate in dairy cattle Occurs within 24 hrs of calving Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases Incidence increases with milk production and age Some susceptibility differences between dairy breeds Sub clinical hypocalcemia rates can affect 50% of dairy cows Leads to: Decreased DMI Ketosis RP’s DA’s Decreased reproductive efficiency Decreased milk production in that lactation Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases Rare in beef cattle Goats – similar incidence rate to dairy Cause Initiation of lactation causes severe outflow of Ca Ca interacts with other minerals in the blood Incidence may be influenced by levels of: Mg, K, P, estrogen levels, Acid-base balance Can either help cow adjust and mobilize Ca, or can inhibit parathyroid glands and renal synthesis of Vit D which restricts blood Ca levels Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases Feeding high Ca diets prior to parturition Cow doesn’t adapt to mobilizing own Ca reserves Clinical Signs Stage I Hypertensive, weakness, anorexic, hypersensitive Stage II Flaccid paralysis, lying on sternum, depression, small muscle tremors, low body temp, cold extremities, muffled heart beat, bloat, dilated pupils Stage III Lying on side, comatose Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases Treatment Stage I Oral or IV Ca salts Oral gels can absorb into the blood in ~15 min Oral treatment allows for higher Ca dosage May help prevent relapse Stages II & III Must treat w/ IV Ca Administer slowly over period of 10 min May require subsequent treatments Should respond w/in 30 min of treatment and be standing Unit 14: Metabolic & Deficiency Diseases Prevention Avoid excessively Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

1. KETOSIS  Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood.  If there is not enough glucose present, the body will resort to an alternative strategy in order to fuel itself. Excess fat will begin to be broken down in order to provide a source of glucose. A by-product of this process are ketones 2. CONT.  In normal circumstances, the body gets its energy from glucose. Typically, glucose comes from carbohydrates - sugar and starchy foods such as bread and pasta - which the body is able to break down. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or stored in the liver and muscles as a chemical called glycogen. 3. WHEN DOES KETOSIS OCCUR?  Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body.  This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high.  Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet.  A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells.  A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. 4.  In dairy cattle, ketosis is a common ailment that usually occurs during the first weeks after giving birth to a calf. Ketosis is in these cases sometimes referred to as acetonemia.  Healthy animals can be recognized by high levels of milk glycerophosphocholine and low levels of milk phosphocholine 5.  In sheep, ketosis, evidenced by hyperketonemia with beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood over 0.7 mmol/L, occurs in pregnancy toxemia. This may develop in late pr Continue reading >>

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