diabetestalk.net

Ketosis In Boer Goats

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Home New New Kids on the Farm For Sale Articles SA-Boer Goat Shows, Sales & Seminars Does Bucks Dogs Shows Glossary Our Place Support Map Links Tell a Friend [Note: In this article the term "Pregnancy Toxemia" (or simply "Toxemia") and the word "Ketosis" are used interchangeably.] In the spring of 2005 we were anxiously awaiting the birth of NK M141 Kattie's babies. We had purchased Kattie, and she almost immediately gave us Samantha and Thunderbolt. In March 2004 we used Kattie as the donor doe for our flush. These 2005 babies would be her first after the flush and hernia repair. All was going well; Kattie (already a large doe) was getting bigger and bigger by the day. About 15 days before her due date, we noticed she was laying around all the time. We figured as heavy as she was with the pregnancy, walking just wasn't comfortable. Knowing Ketosis (excessive ketone levels in the blood - a medical condition caused by abnormally high levels of ketone bodies in the blood resulting from the metabolism of fats instead of carbohydrates for energy) was a possibility, we started dosing her with Magic. 10 days before her due date, Kattie (and her 4 kids) died. The two boys and two girls weighed a total of 28 pounds. After her death we realized that when Kattie started laying around and not walking, she also quit going to the water. We also realized we had not started treating her soon enough – or aggressively enough. The day Kattie died another doe who was due in 10 days delivered a healthy 9 pound little girl. We should have induced labor – but we had always read where kids born more than 5 days early were considered premies and the survival chance was slim. We purchased Melissa at a production sale in July 2005. In September 2005 we bred her to a friend's buck (who was pu Continue reading >>

How I Work To Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In My Herd

How I Work To Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In My Herd

How I work to prevent Pregnancy Toxemia in my herd How I work to prevent Pregnancy Toxemia in my herd at Sunny Springs Farm. I wanted to share with my goat friends some observations on Pregnancy Toxemia--ketosis and how I manage it on my farm. Over the years I have gone through all phases of pregnancy toxemia with my does, from drenching, to inducing labor, to dextrose IV drips, and C-sections. In some cases we were able to save both the doe and the kids and in other circumstances we lost both. I know each one of you have had to deal with the tragic loss of a doe and or her kids due to this metabolic imbalance. Pregnancy toxemia is a condition characterized by raised levels of ketones in the body and is associated with abnormal fat metabolism. The doe cannot metabolize enough carbohydrates (glucose) and turns to metabolizing fat to meet her energy requirements. Years ago I learned if the goat was foot sore and walking as though her feet hurt I had best start drenching or do whatever it took to correct the issue. I also used Ketone strips to check the doe's level of ketosis. Now, however, I can smell the ketone bodies in the does urine. For whatever reason, the choice of protocol to manage pregnancy toxemia was always based on being "reactive" to the does current metabolic state. I asked myself, why should I wait for the doe to have signs she is in trouble, if I can correct it once she has it, then why can't I prevent it? I started out using the goat electrolytes as part of the drenching protocol, and then progressed to offering it to them as a dry powder when I smelled the ketones. Now feeding electrolytes that are 50% or more dextrose are a major part of my feeding program for pregnant does. Over the last five years I have been working on a feeding protocol to prevent Continue reading >>

Kerens, Tx, 903-396-2674

Kerens, Tx, 903-396-2674

When Mike and I first entered the Boer Goat world, we followed the feeding recommendations of several large breeders that we met at shows. Their goats were winning, so we thought that was the only way to feed your goats. Our first kidding season was about to happen and we began having our first problems with Ketosis and Pregnancy Toxemia. One of our �very best does� was the worst offender. She was slow to breed, nearly 3 years old, but she looked like the show does, which is the way they are supposed to look, right? When she finally bred, she went down about 3 weeks prior to her due date, so we took her to the vet, and the first words out of his mouth were, �That animal is too fat!� Fat, we thought, she is perfect. Looks just like those goats that are winning at the shows. We treated her for Ketosis, and she delivered a single doe kid, but only with assistance. We ignored the vet�s advice about slimming our goats down, mainly because of the idea that all goats should look like the goats we see in the show ring. After nearly three years of similar problems, we took a second look at our herd and decided that if we were going to raise healthy animals, we needed to modify our feeding program. We researched on the web and asked questions of our vets and other breeders that were not in the Showing Business. We concluded that our goats were not healthy and needed to go on a �goat diet�. We fenced and opened some woods and cut them down to 3 meals a week of a lower protein and lower fat pellet with hay, free choice in the winter. After several months we saw a big difference. Instead of those girls that jiggled when they walked, we saw girls that were trim and actually had some visible muscle. Fat hides a myriad of flaws that are visible to the eye. We were finally Continue reading >>

Nutritional Feeding Management Of Meat Goats

Nutritional Feeding Management Of Meat Goats

Feeding may be the highest expense of any meat goat operation. Goats raised for meat need high quality feed in most situations and require an optimum balance of many different nutrients to achieve maximum profit potential. Because of their unique physiology, meat goats do not fatten like cattle or sheep, and rates of weight gain are smaller, ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 lb/day. Therefore, profitable meat goat production can only be achieved by optimizing the use of high quality forage and browse and the strategic use of expensive concentrate feeds. This can be achieved by developing a year round forage program allowing for as much grazing as possible throughout the year. Many people still believe that goats eat and do well on low quality feed. Attempting to manage and feed goats with such a belief will not lead to successful meat goat production. The goat is not able to digest the cell walls of plants as well as the cow because feed stays in its rumen for a shorter time period. A distinction as to what is meant by "poor quality roughage" is necessary in order to make decisions concerning which animal can best utilize a particular forage. Trees and shrubs, which often represent poor quality roughage sources for cattle, because of their highly lignified stems and bitter taste, may be adequate to high in quality for goats. This is so because goats avoid eating the stems, don't mind the taste, have the ability to detoxify tannins, and benefit from the relatively high levels of protein and cell solubles found in the leaves of these plants. On the other hand, straw, which is of poor quality due to high cell wall and low protein, can be used by cattle but will not provide even maintenance needs for goats because goats don’t utilize the cell wall as efficiently as cattle. In addit Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Magic And Revive Treatment For Goats

Magic And Revive Treatment For Goats

Without getting into a long explanation, to put it simply, pregnancy toxemia in goats is the result of high carbohydrate (energy) demands of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the mother causing the ketotic condition. Revive recipe for does with pregnancy toxemia *Give Revive during the day 500ML 50% Dextrose 500ML Amino Acid Solution (50ml if it is the concentrate) 200ML Calcium Gluconate **(see note below) 20ML B complex 2 grams Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)I use the injectable 5ML B12 (3,000mcg/ml) 5ML 500mg/ml Thiamin Give 200cc 3x per day (oral drench) Use a large, clean canning jar to make and store this. Store it in a cool, dark place because B vitamins are destroyed by light. Scald the jar with boiling water after you clean it and turn it upside down on a clean towel. Scald the lid also. When you mix the ingredients, do not contaminate the mouth of the jar or the contents. Do not add water to the Revive until you are ready to give it. Mix 50:50 with water. Add 2-3 scoops Calf Pac with the morning dose of Revive. Use a pan of hot water to warm it if needed. Do NOT Microwave. **Calcium Gluconate is not necessary in Revive unless the doe is showing symptoms of calcium deficiency. The most common first symptom is tender feet, like she is walking on eggshells. Offer sweet feed, a little corn and free choice alfalfa hay to these does. Revive is also helpful for animals that are stressed at shows or that need supportive care for some reasons other than pregnancy toxemia. For regular use, omit the Amino Acid solution, Calcium Gluconate and Ascorbic acid. MAGIC RECIPE 1 part corn oil 1 part molasses 2 parts Karo syrup It is helpful to warm it just Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Now that it has been a week since our Boer doe HPF Rose unexpectedly kidded, and she's now on top of the game, I'm able to post about it. A little background is in order. Rose's first freshening two years ago brought about a stillborn runt buckling, a live buckling, and yet another stillborn buckling. The first kid was presented butt first but delivered in that position with just a tiny bit of assistance. He was only about two pounds but fully developed. It was my first kidding by myself without CamoQueen to assist. GoatPrincess was there but we were flying blind. I blamed myself for the two stillborn kids as these were the prize kids that were to be delivered by CamoQueen's two-time county fair champion Boer doe. It just wasn't right. Long story short, the buckling was sold and kept as a buck and has thrown some great kids. The following year we bred Rose to the same buck and brought about another pregnancy. She was as big as a house again this second year and all appeared normal. Normal that is until she got close to her delivery date and did not develop an udder. Strange we thought. During a cold spell near her due date she developed what we thought was ketosis, standing in the blowing snow - not coming in to eat - rather dazed in appearance. We noticed her backside was completely wet and thought that odd. We treated her for ketosis and watched her. No udder. No labor. It was then we realized that she had lost her baby belly and was back to normal size. What had happened? A little research brought us to realize that perhaps she had experienced a false pregnancy. One of those oddities of nature where their uterus will fill with fluid, they will not come back into heat, and take on all aspects of being pregnant only to deliver a burst of fluid. Very strange. This last Continue reading >>

South African Boer Goats - Boer Goat Links To Goats For Sale And Boer Goat Forum

South African Boer Goats - Boer Goat Links To Goats For Sale And Boer Goat Forum

METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES COLLECTION: GOAT HANDBOOK ORIGIN: United States Extension Goat Handbook This material was contributed from collections at the National Agricultural Library. However, users should direct all inquires about the contents to authors or originating agencies. DOCN 000000026 NO C-5 METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES D. R. Nelson; U. of Illinois, Urbana S. B. Guss; Pennsylvania State U., University Park Nutrition 1 Pregnancy Toxemia Also known as pregnancy disease, ketosis or twin lamb disease. Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disease of goats and sheep in late pregnancy. Factors important in the development of the disease are: (1) Presence of two or more fetuses; (2) Undernourishment during late pregnancy when the fetuses have the most rapid growth; (3) Addition of stress such as severe weather, sudden changes in feed, other disease or transportation upon the previous factors. The disease usually appears in the last 30 days of pregnancy and is more common after the first pregnancy. The does show signs of ketonemia, ketonuria, acidosis and central nervous system involvement. The mortality rate is high in affected animals. Most information available is the result of studies in sheep. 2 Cause -- As pregnancy progresses, an increasing demand is on the available blood glucose supply of the doe or ewe because of fetal development. The principal source of energy to the fetus is glucose and utilization by the fetus occurs at the detriment of the mother. Glucose requirements during late pregnancy are increased 70-800ver the nonpregnant state since 800f fetal growth occurs during the last 40 days of pregnancy. Blood sugar levels decrease as pregnancy progresses (hypoglycemia) from a normal 35-45 mg per 100 ml blood to 20-25 mg per 100 ml blood in late Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

During kidding season, I am often contacted with questions about pregnancy toxemia. This prompted me to create a blog to address this and many other questions I get regarding goat care and management. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is the condition where the pregnant doe appears lethargic, sluggish, and often goes “off feed”. Unfortunately, the doe can die from this condition if left untreated. What causes pregnancy toxemia? Pregnancy toxemia typically develops in does carrying multiple kids. The kids are drawing on the does resources and depleting her of her energy. As her uterus expands to accommodate the growing fetuses, her rumen has less room to function resulting in pregnancy toxemia. Her condition is further compromised if at the start of breeding season the doe was excessively fat. How can I treat pregnancy toxemia? When most goat producers contact me, the doe is at a critical stage. She is off feed and in some cases unable to stand. The only cure for a doe with pregnancy toxemia is delivery of her kids. If she is close to her due date, you could induce her labor with the use of oxytocin under your veterinarian’s direction. If death is potentially eminent, your veterinarian may need to perform an emergency caesarian. If the doe is not at such a critical stage or not due to kid for a few weeks, it becomes an issue of care and maintenance. When a doe goes off feed, you need to provide her the nutrition and hydration to keep her alive until closer to kidding. You can use an adult nutrition product like Ensure to drench the doe 16-24 ounces daily (2 to 3 cans). Administering propylene glycerol, goat power punch, or goat nutri-drench also aids in providing her with energy. I have also drenched does with warm water and molasses to hydrate the doe. Using Pedialyte f Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Wellness : Health Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats are potentially deadly diseases that occur during late gestation and early lactation. These diseases are often (though not exclusively) seen in dairy goats, especially in good milkers. The situation occurs either very near the end of pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia) or after birth, when the goat begins milking (ketosis). The problem is that late-term pregnancy and especially the onset of lactation require considerable energy, more than can be derived from the feed. The condition is compounded in a doe carrying multiple fetuses, because the kids compress the rumen and the doe simply cannot physically eat very much. Consequently, the goat must call on body reserves of fat for energy. The breakdown of large amounts of fat results in compounds called ketones floating around in the blood. In large concentrations, these ketones actually have a toxic effect; the animal may develop acidosis of the blood (goat blood, like human blood, should be slightly alkaline), and if this becomes severe enough, the goat may go into a coma. Early symptoms include apathy, poor appetite, a decrease in milk production (if the goat is milking), a rough hair coat, and disorientation. You will need a veterinarian to administer glucose and electrolytes immediately, as the condition can easily result in the death of the goat. To address ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in goats, you must get more energy into the late-term pregnant and early-lactation doe. Gradually increase the concentrate (grain) portion of the diet and reduce the hay portion (remember, you don’t want to change the rumen pH too fast). The grain is much higher in energy and will take up much less room in the rumen. A small amount of fat (such as corn oil) on the feed will also help Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Inside: Ketosis in goats: how to prevent this condition, the symptoms and the treatment. It is preventable and you can help your goat avoid it. This is one post in our Raising Goats series.  Although I worked in an Alzheimer home in Boise when I was going to school, I can’t say that I had or gained a passion for the medical side of life. Truly, it was a wonderful experience working with and helping the residents but it wouldn’t become a long-term profession. So, when I first heard the word “ketosis”, I said, “huh??” But it is an important term to know when you are dealing with goats who have recently kidded and their health. As a goat owner, it is your primary responsibility to provide your goats with adequate nutrition so that you never have to work on the treatment side of these problematic conditions. Let’s start off by answering the question: It is a metabolic condition after kidding Ketosis is a metabolic problem caused by an animal living on its own body reserves because it has stopped eating food. The higher nutritional needs of a doe continue as they did in the last weeks of her pregnancy because now she is producing large quantities of milk. So a doe in the early stages of lactation may experience a net loss of energy. Usually, four to six weeks after kidding, the doe’s hormonal stimuli for lactation overcomes the effects of inadequate food intake. Ketosis in goats can be a very detrimental condition for your herd. What else do you need to know about this condition? • Prevention is key: • Never should the doe be excessively fat. • Any changes in diet should be introduced slowly. The addition of protein grain concentrate not only is important for the health of the doe and kid during pregnancy but for the health of the goat as she begins l Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Contents Industry Background Management Nutrition Animal Health Breeding Fibre Production Fibre Marketing Meat Production and Marketing Pasture and Weed Control Economic Analysis Tanning Skins ketosis in goats The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically different and occur during different stages of pregnancy and lactation, the basis of the disorder is essentially the same: a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase in ketones. In ruminants, glucose is synthesised mainly from propionic acid (a volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen) and from amino acids. The amount of glucose that is absorbed directly depends on how much dietary carbohydrate escapes rumen fermentation and is digested in the small intestine. This form of glucose uptake varies with different feeds as well as their treatment. Ruminants can use products from rumen fermentation, such as volatile fatty acids, for most of their energy requirements. However, the nervous system, kidneys, mammary gland and foetus have a direct requirement for glucose. During periods of peak glucose requirement (late pregnancy and early lactation) problems may arise due to a glucose deficiency. The incidence of pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis varies with the two main types of goats. In dairy goats with a genetic potential for high milk production, ketosis may be a potential problem; in non-milch goats (Angora, Cashmere and meat) pregnancy toxaemia is more common. PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA Main causes The most important cause of pregnancy toxaemia is a decline in the plane of nutrition during the last six to eight weeks of pregnancy. This places the pregnant female in a difficult situation because the developing foetus imposes an unremitting drain on available m Continue reading >>

Goat Health

Goat Health

The eight teeth in the lower front jaw of your goat can help you to tell his age. They are not an exact or perfect guide, as various factors such as diet will influence the growth of teeth. Also, every goat is an individual just like you and your friends. Remember, not all your baby teeth fell out at the same time as those of other children in your classes. A goat’s teeth may grow and fall out at slightly different ages than the teeth of any other goat. There are no upper front teeth in the goat’s mouth, instead your goat has a tough toothless “dental pad”. Your goat does have teeth on the top and bottom of his jaw further back in his mouth. These back teeth help him to chew his cud. We do not use these to tell his age. This chart goes from age under 1 year to the 3 years old because from the age of four on, the process for determining the goat's age becomes less precise and an exact age is difficult to determine. As the goat grows older, the teeth begin to buck out and spread. By the time the goat is ten years old, the teeth are generally pretty worn, depending upon what the goat has been fed or how tough its forage has been or whatever injuries the goat may have sustained to its mouth during its lifetime. This is part of the reason that a lot of people recommend using only loose minerals and salt. Goats have a tendency to use their teeth to scrape off and break chunks off of the hard blocks which can ware their teeth down faster and even break them off. Where to give shots Internal Parasites more info can be found at also check out the following link Medications to keep on hand Goat Guideline for Anthelmintic Dosages (internal parasite dewormers) July 2006 *Important --- Please read notes below before using this chart* 1Valbazen Suspension (11.36 % or 113.6 mg Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Ketosis

Pregnancy Ketosis

New producers of small ruminants often learn about pregnancy ketosis first time the hard way—with a dead dam, fetuses or both. This article explains the causes of pregnancy ketosis (a.k.a. toxemia) and more importantly—how to prevent it. Sheep and goat fetuses add 70% of their final birth weight in the last six to eight weeks of gestation. A singleton increases a dam’s nutritional requirements by 1.5 to 2 times maintenance in the last trimester. Multiple fetuses greatly increase energy demands on their mother: twins require 1.75 to 2.5 times maintenance requirements and triplets demand up to 3 times maintenance. Twins and triplets are common in some breeds of sheep and goats; quadruplets and even more are not uncommon in Boer goats, Finnsheep and Romanov sheep. Concurrent with a pregnant dam’s increasing nutritional needs, her physical capacity for feed intake is reduced by the rapid abdominal expansion of her pregnant uterus. Without managerial changes, the dam will be unable to ingest the calories needed to support herself and her fetuses, sending her into negative energy balance. Detecting a drop in blood glucose levels, her body’s regulatory systems will liberate energy from reserves stored as body fat. The release of stored energy will address her low blood glucose issues (remember the Krebs cycle?), but not without side effects: by-products of fat mobilization called ketone bodies can accumulate to toxic levels and suppress appetite. Without intervention and sometimes despite it, affected does or ewes may spiral downward in a fatal negative energy balance, taking their unborn fetuses with them. Besides multiple fetuses, health and management factors can predispose a pregnant ewe or doe to ketosis during pregnancy. For example, if there isn’t enough fee Continue reading >>

More in ketosis