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Ketosis In Boer Goats

Nutritional Feeding Management Of Meat Goats

Nutritional Feeding Management Of Meat Goats

Feeding may be the highest expense of any meat goat operation. Goats raised for meat need high quality feed in most situations and require an optimum balance of many different nutrients to achieve maximum profit potential. Because of their unique physiology, meat goats do not fatten like cattle or sheep, and rates of weight gain are smaller, ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 lb/day. Therefore, profitable meat goat production can only be achieved by optimizing the use of high quality forage and browse and the strategic use of expensive concentrate feeds. This can be achieved by developing a year round forage program allowing for as much grazing as possible throughout the year. Many people still believe that goats eat and do well on low quality feed. Attempting to manage and feed goats with such a belief will not lead to successful meat goat production. The goat is not able to digest the cell walls of plants as well as the cow because feed stays in its rumen for a shorter time period. A distinction as to what is meant by "poor quality roughage" is necessary in order to make decisions concerning which animal can best utilize a particular forage. Trees and shrubs, which often represent poor quality roughage sources for cattle, because of their highly lignified stems and bitter taste, may be adequate to high in quality for goats. This is so because goats avoid eating the stems, don't mind the taste, have the ability to detoxify tannins, and benefit from the relatively high levels of protein and cell solubles found in the leaves of these plants. On the other hand, straw, which is of poor quality due to high cell wall and low protein, can be used by cattle but will not provide even maintenance needs for goats because goats don’t utilize the cell wall as efficiently as cattle. In addit Continue reading >>

How To Recognize, Treat And Prevent It

How To Recognize, Treat And Prevent It

Introduction: The small segment of the goat population in which Hypocalcemia is primarily found is rarely seen by a veterinarian in large livestock practice, whose clients are more likely to be business-oriented raisers of hair or meat goats, or those that keep dairy goats for commercial milk production. Generally it is the small-animal practice veterinarian, not particularly familiar with or experienced in caprine management, that is called upon to treat the pet goats, family milkers, and show stock kept in relatively small, home-oriented herds. Purpose: This article is presented to provide information for goat owners that will enable them to avoid hypocalcemia. It was also written to encourage veterinarians that read this information , when called upon to treat does with the symptoms outlined below to ask, before making a diagnosis, a very simple, fundamental question: "What are you currently feeding this animal, and how much of each substance is being fed?" Goat Owners: Please feel free to give a copy of this article to your veterinarian. How can I tell early on that my goat has hypocalcemia? Ask yourself: In the early months of pregnancy (or during lactation, if she is in milk) have I been feeding my doe a regular, ample grain ration along with her hay? And especially, have I been feeding this ample grain ration along with grass hay instead of alfalfa? Signs to watch for any time from the 12th week of the pregnancy on: Does the doe gradually or suddenly lose interest in her grain ration? And soon after that, does she also lose interest in her hay ration? If this is the case, and if no corrective action is taken quickly, you can expect the next signs to be: She weakens fast, acts lethargic, is depressed. Her rear legs appear wobbly. If this situation is allowed to pr Continue reading >>

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Now that it has been a week since our Boer doe HPF Rose unexpectedly kidded, and she's now on top of the game, I'm able to post about it. A little background is in order. Rose's first freshening two years ago brought about a stillborn runt buckling, a live buckling, and yet another stillborn buckling. The first kid was presented butt first but delivered in that position with just a tiny bit of assistance. He was only about two pounds but fully developed. It was my first kidding by myself without CamoQueen to assist. GoatPrincess was there but we were flying blind. I blamed myself for the two stillborn kids as these were the prize kids that were to be delivered by CamoQueen's two-time county fair champion Boer doe. It just wasn't right. Long story short, the buckling was sold and kept as a buck and has thrown some great kids. The following year we bred Rose to the same buck and brought about another pregnancy. She was as big as a house again this second year and all appeared normal. Normal that is until she got close to her delivery date and did not develop an udder. Strange we thought. During a cold spell near her due date she developed what we thought was ketosis, standing in the blowing snow - not coming in to eat - rather dazed in appearance. We noticed her backside was completely wet and thought that odd. We treated her for ketosis and watched her. No udder. No labor. It was then we realized that she had lost her baby belly and was back to normal size. What had happened? A little research brought us to realize that perhaps she had experienced a false pregnancy. One of those oddities of nature where their uterus will fill with fluid, they will not come back into heat, and take on all aspects of being pregnant only to deliver a burst of fluid. Very strange. This last Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a pregnancy-related illness in does which can occur either right before or shortly after kidding. Ketosis is the result of producers not providing proper nutrition for pregnant does. The bred female does not receive adequate protein to feed both her and her kids in utero, so either just before or immediately after she kids, her body begins to draw upon its protein reserves so that she can provide milk for her offspring. Deadly ketones are produced as a by-product of this process, as her own body tissues begin to starve. Treatment is simple. Oral administration of Propylene Glycol, Molasses, or Karo Syrup (which is Corn syrup) is necessary. The doe will dislike the oily propylene glycol, but it is by far the best product available for treating ketosis. Dosage is based upon weight of the animal. Prevention is easy. Feed the doe properly during gestation as well as after kidding. Bringing a doe back from a bout of ketosis is difficult, and death often results. Continue reading >>

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

The most common health problems experienced by pregnant and lactating does are described in this article. Prolapses exist if either the vagina or the rectum is outside the doe's body. Prolapses in pregnant does usually happen during the final 30 days of pregnancy -- if they are going to occur at all. Rectal prolapses tend to occur in does that have been fed too much grain and are therefore too fat. Proper nutritional management makes rectal prolapses less likely to occur. Vaginal prolapses are mostly hereditary and usually can be bred out by mating the doe with an unrelated buck whose previous female offspring have not prolapsed. Does that prolapse more than once should be culled from the breeding herd and sold for slaughter. Returning a prolapse to the inside of the goat's body must be done very carefully. To prevent infection, clean the prolapse with a solution of Nolvasan, Clorhexadine, or similar product by gently pouring the slightly warmed mixture over it. This is very delicate and easily torn tissue. Take great care. Put on disposable gloves and apply a water-soluble lubricant like K-Y Jelly to the gloved hand being used to re-position the prolapse. Using the flat palm of the gloved hand, gently and with even pressure press the prolapse back inside the goat. This is a two-person job; one person has to hold the goat in a standing position while lifting its rear legs off the ground so that it can't push against the hand of the second person, who is attempting to return the prolapsed organ back inside the goat. Sometimes it is necessary to place the goat on its side in order to get the proper angle that allows reinsertion of the prolapse. If the prolapse has been outside the body for several hours or overnight, causing it to dry out and therefore become more difficu Continue reading >>

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Home New New Kids on the Farm For Sale Articles SA-Boer Goat Shows, Sales & Seminars Does Bucks Dogs Shows Glossary Our Place Support Map Links Tell a Friend [Note: In this article the term "Pregnancy Toxemia" (or simply "Toxemia") and the word "Ketosis" are used interchangeably.] In the spring of 2005 we were anxiously awaiting the birth of NK M141 Kattie's babies. We had purchased Kattie, and she almost immediately gave us Samantha and Thunderbolt. In March 2004 we used Kattie as the donor doe for our flush. These 2005 babies would be her first after the flush and hernia repair. All was going well; Kattie (already a large doe) was getting bigger and bigger by the day. About 15 days before her due date, we noticed she was laying around all the time. We figured as heavy as she was with the pregnancy, walking just wasn't comfortable. Knowing Ketosis (excessive ketone levels in the blood - a medical condition caused by abnormally high levels of ketone bodies in the blood resulting from the metabolism of fats instead of carbohydrates for energy) was a possibility, we started dosing her with Magic. 10 days before her due date, Kattie (and her 4 kids) died. The two boys and two girls weighed a total of 28 pounds. After her death we realized that when Kattie started laying around and not walking, she also quit going to the water. We also realized we had not started treating her soon enough – or aggressively enough. The day Kattie died another doe who was due in 10 days delivered a healthy 9 pound little girl. We should have induced labor – but we had always read where kids born more than 5 days early were considered premies and the survival chance was slim. We purchased Melissa at a production sale in July 2005. In September 2005 we bred her to a friend's buck (who was pu Continue reading >>

Pregnant Boer Goats

Pregnant Boer Goats

boergoatprofitsguide.com - Proven Profits with Boer Goats pregnant boer goats “Warning: Don’t Even Think of Raising Boer Goats Until You Read This Guide to Proven Profits with Boer Goats!” Boer goat - Wikipedia Origins and characteristics. The Boer goat was probably bred from the indigenous South African goats of the Namaqua, San, and Fooku tribes, with some crossing of ... FEEDING MANAGEMENT OF A MEAT GOAT HERD - BOER GOATS pregnant boer goats animal (pregnant, lactating, growing) and (2) forage quality. Urea and other non-protein nitrogen can be utilized by the microorganism of the rumen to produce ... Artificial Insemination for Goats - Boer Goats Home; Boer ... Artificial Insemination for Goats. There are many excellent reasons to learn to AI. For one thing, an AI tank doesn’t tear down your fences and smell up your living ... South African Boer Goats - Feeding the Goat Herd Many factors affect the nutritional requirements of goats: maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, fiber production ... How to Tell if a Goat Is Pregnant: 12 Steps (with Pictures) How to Tell if a Goat Is Pregnant. If you're breeding goats, it is often not possible to know whether or not a doe is pregnant simply by looking at the goat. Boer Goats Boer Goats. Recently, Boer Goats have been imported into the United States. The breed comes from South Africa, but exports usually occur through New Zealand. Goat Notes D10: Pregnancy Toxaemia and Ketosis in Goats Pregnancy toxaemia and. ketosis in goats. The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically ... Pregnant Boer goats and bucklings - YouTube Mary and Martha, 15 months, due to kid any day. Bucklings at age 2 1/2 months. Boer Goat Guide Final draft 4 A Quick Background on Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

During kidding season, I am often contacted with questions about pregnancy toxemia. This prompted me to create a blog to address this and many other questions I get regarding goat care and management. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is the condition where the pregnant doe appears lethargic, sluggish, and often goes “off feed”. Unfortunately, the doe can die from this condition if left untreated. What causes pregnancy toxemia? Pregnancy toxemia typically develops in does carrying multiple kids. The kids are drawing on the does resources and depleting her of her energy. As her uterus expands to accommodate the growing fetuses, her rumen has less room to function resulting in pregnancy toxemia. Her condition is further compromised if at the start of breeding season the doe was excessively fat. How can I treat pregnancy toxemia? When most goat producers contact me, the doe is at a critical stage. She is off feed and in some cases unable to stand. The only cure for a doe with pregnancy toxemia is delivery of her kids. If she is close to her due date, you could induce her labor with the use of oxytocin under your veterinarian’s direction. If death is potentially eminent, your veterinarian may need to perform an emergency caesarian. If the doe is not at such a critical stage or not due to kid for a few weeks, it becomes an issue of care and maintenance. When a doe goes off feed, you need to provide her the nutrition and hydration to keep her alive until closer to kidding. You can use an adult nutrition product like Ensure to drench the doe 16-24 ounces daily (2 to 3 cans). Administering propylene glycerol, goat power punch, or goat nutri-drench also aids in providing her with energy. I have also drenched does with warm water and molasses to hydrate the doe. Using Pedialyte f Continue reading >>

How I Work To Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In My Herd

How I Work To Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In My Herd

How I work to prevent Pregnancy Toxemia in my herd How I work to prevent Pregnancy Toxemia in my herd at Sunny Springs Farm. I wanted to share with my goat friends some observations on Pregnancy Toxemia--ketosis and how I manage it on my farm. Over the years I have gone through all phases of pregnancy toxemia with my does, from drenching, to inducing labor, to dextrose IV drips, and C-sections. In some cases we were able to save both the doe and the kids and in other circumstances we lost both. I know each one of you have had to deal with the tragic loss of a doe and or her kids due to this metabolic imbalance. Pregnancy toxemia is a condition characterized by raised levels of ketones in the body and is associated with abnormal fat metabolism. The doe cannot metabolize enough carbohydrates (glucose) and turns to metabolizing fat to meet her energy requirements. Years ago I learned if the goat was foot sore and walking as though her feet hurt I had best start drenching or do whatever it took to correct the issue. I also used Ketone strips to check the doe's level of ketosis. Now, however, I can smell the ketone bodies in the does urine. For whatever reason, the choice of protocol to manage pregnancy toxemia was always based on being "reactive" to the does current metabolic state. I asked myself, why should I wait for the doe to have signs she is in trouble, if I can correct it once she has it, then why can't I prevent it? I started out using the goat electrolytes as part of the drenching protocol, and then progressed to offering it to them as a dry powder when I smelled the ketones. Now feeding electrolytes that are 50% or more dextrose are a major part of my feeding program for pregnant does. Over the last five years I have been working on a feeding protocol to prevent Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Wellness : Health Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats are potentially deadly diseases that occur during late gestation and early lactation. These diseases are often (though not exclusively) seen in dairy goats, especially in good milkers. The situation occurs either very near the end of pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia) or after birth, when the goat begins milking (ketosis). The problem is that late-term pregnancy and especially the onset of lactation require considerable energy, more than can be derived from the feed. The condition is compounded in a doe carrying multiple fetuses, because the kids compress the rumen and the doe simply cannot physically eat very much. Consequently, the goat must call on body reserves of fat for energy. The breakdown of large amounts of fat results in compounds called ketones floating around in the blood. In large concentrations, these ketones actually have a toxic effect; the animal may develop acidosis of the blood (goat blood, like human blood, should be slightly alkaline), and if this becomes severe enough, the goat may go into a coma. Early symptoms include apathy, poor appetite, a decrease in milk production (if the goat is milking), a rough hair coat, and disorientation. You will need a veterinarian to administer glucose and electrolytes immediately, as the condition can easily result in the death of the goat. To address ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in goats, you must get more energy into the late-term pregnant and early-lactation doe. Gradually increase the concentrate (grain) portion of the diet and reduce the hay portion (remember, you don’t want to change the rumen pH too fast). The grain is much higher in energy and will take up much less room in the rumen. A small amount of fat (such as corn oil) on the feed will also help Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

Histological Changes Of Liver Tissue And Serobiochemical Relation In Does With Pregnancy Ketosis

Histological Changes Of Liver Tissue And Serobiochemical Relation In Does With Pregnancy Ketosis

Abstract p class="abstrak2">Histological changes of liver in does with pregnancy ketosis were characterized. Twenty pregnant does at day 80 of pregnancy were used for this experiment. A total of 10 does were fed by grass (Napier) and goat concentrate with water ad libitum. Those 10 goats considered as healthy pregnant goat, and another 10 goats showing clinical and subclinical signs of ketosis considered as unhealthy pregnant does. Liver biopsies were performed when clinical signs appeared. Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose were dosed. Histological preparation revealed similar incidence and intensity of mild liver steatosis with lower cellular vacuolation in hepatocyte presence in healthy late pregnant does. Almost all of the pregnant does with ketosis state (n=8/10) had large amount of small lipid droplets in almost every hepatocyte over the whole liver acinus with higher number of cellular vacuolation, and related with higher BHBA and FFA levels while low in glucose level.

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Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis

Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis are the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to the doe becoming toxic if she does not flush them from her system. Risk Factors for Pregnancy Toxemia Multiple fetuses Poor quality of ingested energy Dietary energy level Environment Genetic factors Obesity Lack of good body condition or high parasite load Confinement - lack of exercise Toxemia and ketosis are typically seen in does that are overweight and get little exercise. Under weight animals that are fed a poor quality feed are also candidates for toxemia. Look for does at the bottom and top of the pecking order. These does may be getting to much or not enough feed. Does should be in good body condition, and not overly fat when bred. They can be maintained on good roughage or forage during the first 100 days of pregnancy. During the last trimester the doe should gain approximately 1/2 lb. per day. The doe must intake enough carbohydrates to supply the demand of the growing fetuses and to keep her alive and functioning also. I also believe that you see an increase in toxemia during extended drought or rainy conditions. Severe weather conditions cause the quality of the feed change, limits and changes the available browse, and the animals do not receive th Continue reading >>

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