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Ketosis In Boer Goats

How Much To Feed Pregnant And Lactating Goats

How Much To Feed Pregnant And Lactating Goats

If you’re raising goats as part of a green lifestyle, you need an overall feeding program to keep your goats at maximal performance, but at times you need to make exceptions for certain goats or categories of goats. Pregnant goats, milking does, kids, and senior goats need special attention and modified diets. Pregnant does Pregnant does don’t have increased nutritional needs until the last two months of gestation, when the kids do 70 percent of their growing. They also need additional water throughout pregnancy. A feeding program for pregnant goats includes: Early pregnancy (first 3 months): Feed does to maintain their body condition or to improve their body condition if they are thin. You can meet their nutritional requirements with good hay or pasture, or some added grain for thin does. Unless they’re lactating, does don’t need grain in early pregnancy. Do not overfeed. Overfeeding can lead to complications such as hypocalcemia and ketosis. Throughout pregnancy: Monitor and compensate for pregnant does’ increased water consumption. Pregnant goats can drink up to four gallons a day. Monitor body condition and adjust feed and water accordingly. Late pregnancy (last two months): Does’ nutritional requirements increase greatly during this time because the unborn kids are growing rapidly. Start grain gradually (just a handful a day) until your does are eating up to a half-pound of grain a day (depending on the goat size and breed) or half to two-thirds of their normal milking ration by the time they kid, in addition to hay. Gradually replace their hay with alfalfa so they get the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus. Continue to monitor their body condition and adjust feed accordingly; does carrying multiple kids need even more calories and nutrients. Make Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Now that it has been a week since our Boer doe HPF Rose unexpectedly kidded, and she's now on top of the game, I'm able to post about it. A little background is in order. Rose's first freshening two years ago brought about a stillborn runt buckling, a live buckling, and yet another stillborn buckling. The first kid was presented butt first but delivered in that position with just a tiny bit of assistance. He was only about two pounds but fully developed. It was my first kidding by myself without CamoQueen to assist. GoatPrincess was there but we were flying blind. I blamed myself for the two stillborn kids as these were the prize kids that were to be delivered by CamoQueen's two-time county fair champion Boer doe. It just wasn't right. Long story short, the buckling was sold and kept as a buck and has thrown some great kids. The following year we bred Rose to the same buck and brought about another pregnancy. She was as big as a house again this second year and all appeared normal. Normal that is until she got close to her delivery date and did not develop an udder. Strange we thought. During a cold spell near her due date she developed what we thought was ketosis, standing in the blowing snow - not coming in to eat - rather dazed in appearance. We noticed her backside was completely wet and thought that odd. We treated her for ketosis and watched her. No udder. No labor. It was then we realized that she had lost her baby belly and was back to normal size. What had happened? A little research brought us to realize that perhaps she had experienced a false pregnancy. One of those oddities of nature where their uterus will fill with fluid, they will not come back into heat, and take on all aspects of being pregnant only to deliver a burst of fluid. Very strange. This last Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Pregnancy Toxaemia And

Contents Industry Background Management Nutrition Animal Health Breeding Fibre Production Fibre Marketing Meat Production and Marketing Pasture and Weed Control Economic Analysis Tanning Skins ketosis in goats The diseases pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis can cause severe problems in goats. While the diseases are clinically different and occur during different stages of pregnancy and lactation, the basis of the disorder is essentially the same: a decrease in blood sugar levels and an increase in ketones. In ruminants, glucose is synthesised mainly from propionic acid (a volatile fatty acid produced in the rumen) and from amino acids. The amount of glucose that is absorbed directly depends on how much dietary carbohydrate escapes rumen fermentation and is digested in the small intestine. This form of glucose uptake varies with different feeds as well as their treatment. Ruminants can use products from rumen fermentation, such as volatile fatty acids, for most of their energy requirements. However, the nervous system, kidneys, mammary gland and foetus have a direct requirement for glucose. During periods of peak glucose requirement (late pregnancy and early lactation) problems may arise due to a glucose deficiency. The incidence of pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis varies with the two main types of goats. In dairy goats with a genetic potential for high milk production, ketosis may be a potential problem; in non-milch goats (Angora, Cashmere and meat) pregnancy toxaemia is more common. PREGNANCY TOXAEMIA Main causes The most important cause of pregnancy toxaemia is a decline in the plane of nutrition during the last six to eight weeks of pregnancy. This places the pregnant female in a difficult situation because the developing foetus imposes an unremitting drain on available m Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis

Pregnancy Toxemia And Ketosis

Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis are the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to the doe becoming toxic if she does not flush them from her system. Risk Factors for Pregnancy Toxemia Multiple fetuses Poor quality of ingested energy Dietary energy level Environment Genetic factors Obesity Lack of good body condition or high parasite load Confinement - lack of exercise Toxemia and ketosis are typically seen in does that are overweight and get little exercise. Under weight animals that are fed a poor quality feed are also candidates for toxemia. Look for does at the bottom and top of the pecking order. These does may be getting to much or not enough feed. Does should be in good body condition, and not overly fat when bred. They can be maintained on good roughage or forage during the first 100 days of pregnancy. During the last trimester the doe should gain approximately 1/2 lb. per day. The doe must intake enough carbohydrates to supply the demand of the growing fetuses and to keep her alive and functioning also. I also believe that you see an increase in toxemia during extended drought or rainy conditions. Severe weather conditions cause the quality of the feed change, limits and changes the available browse, and the animals do not receive th Continue reading >>

Histological Changes Of Liver Tissue And Serobiochemical Relation In Does With Pregnancy Ketosis

Histological Changes Of Liver Tissue And Serobiochemical Relation In Does With Pregnancy Ketosis

Abstract p class="abstrak2">Histological changes of liver in does with pregnancy ketosis were characterized. Twenty pregnant does at day 80 of pregnancy were used for this experiment. A total of 10 does were fed by grass (Napier) and goat concentrate with water ad libitum. Those 10 goats considered as healthy pregnant goat, and another 10 goats showing clinical and subclinical signs of ketosis considered as unhealthy pregnant does. Liver biopsies were performed when clinical signs appeared. Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose were dosed. Histological preparation revealed similar incidence and intensity of mild liver steatosis with lower cellular vacuolation in hepatocyte presence in healthy late pregnant does. Almost all of the pregnant does with ketosis state (n=8/10) had large amount of small lipid droplets in almost every hepatocyte over the whole liver acinus with higher number of cellular vacuolation, and related with higher BHBA and FFA levels while low in glucose level.

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Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Wellness : Health Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats are potentially deadly diseases that occur during late gestation and early lactation. These diseases are often (though not exclusively) seen in dairy goats, especially in good milkers. The situation occurs either very near the end of pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia) or after birth, when the goat begins milking (ketosis). The problem is that late-term pregnancy and especially the onset of lactation require considerable energy, more than can be derived from the feed. The condition is compounded in a doe carrying multiple fetuses, because the kids compress the rumen and the doe simply cannot physically eat very much. Consequently, the goat must call on body reserves of fat for energy. The breakdown of large amounts of fat results in compounds called ketones floating around in the blood. In large concentrations, these ketones actually have a toxic effect; the animal may develop acidosis of the blood (goat blood, like human blood, should be slightly alkaline), and if this becomes severe enough, the goat may go into a coma. Early symptoms include apathy, poor appetite, a decrease in milk production (if the goat is milking), a rough hair coat, and disorientation. You will need a veterinarian to administer glucose and electrolytes immediately, as the condition can easily result in the death of the goat. To address ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in goats, you must get more energy into the late-term pregnant and early-lactation doe. Gradually increase the concentrate (grain) portion of the diet and reduce the hay portion (remember, you don’t want to change the rumen pH too fast). The grain is much higher in energy and will take up much less room in the rumen. A small amount of fat (such as corn oil) on the feed will also help Continue reading >>

Goat Health

Goat Health

The eight teeth in the lower front jaw of your goat can help you to tell his age. They are not an exact or perfect guide, as various factors such as diet will influence the growth of teeth. Also, every goat is an individual just like you and your friends. Remember, not all your baby teeth fell out at the same time as those of other children in your classes. A goat’s teeth may grow and fall out at slightly different ages than the teeth of any other goat. There are no upper front teeth in the goat’s mouth, instead your goat has a tough toothless “dental pad”. Your goat does have teeth on the top and bottom of his jaw further back in his mouth. These back teeth help him to chew his cud. We do not use these to tell his age. This chart goes from age under 1 year to the 3 years old because from the age of four on, the process for determining the goat's age becomes less precise and an exact age is difficult to determine. As the goat grows older, the teeth begin to buck out and spread. By the time the goat is ten years old, the teeth are generally pretty worn, depending upon what the goat has been fed or how tough its forage has been or whatever injuries the goat may have sustained to its mouth during its lifetime. This is part of the reason that a lot of people recommend using only loose minerals and salt. Goats have a tendency to use their teeth to scrape off and break chunks off of the hard blocks which can ware their teeth down faster and even break them off. Where to give shots Internal Parasites more info can be found at also check out the following link Medications to keep on hand Goat Guideline for Anthelmintic Dosages (internal parasite dewormers) July 2006 *Important --- Please read notes below before using this chart* 1Valbazen Suspension (11.36 % or 113.6 mg Continue reading >>

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Home New New Kids on the Farm For Sale Articles SA-Boer Goat Shows, Sales & Seminars Does Bucks Dogs Shows Glossary Our Place Support Map Links Tell a Friend [Note: In this article the term "Pregnancy Toxemia" (or simply "Toxemia") and the word "Ketosis" are used interchangeably.] In the spring of 2005 we were anxiously awaiting the birth of NK M141 Kattie's babies. We had purchased Kattie, and she almost immediately gave us Samantha and Thunderbolt. In March 2004 we used Kattie as the donor doe for our flush. These 2005 babies would be her first after the flush and hernia repair. All was going well; Kattie (already a large doe) was getting bigger and bigger by the day. About 15 days before her due date, we noticed she was laying around all the time. We figured as heavy as she was with the pregnancy, walking just wasn't comfortable. Knowing Ketosis (excessive ketone levels in the blood - a medical condition caused by abnormally high levels of ketone bodies in the blood resulting from the metabolism of fats instead of carbohydrates for energy) was a possibility, we started dosing her with Magic. 10 days before her due date, Kattie (and her 4 kids) died. The two boys and two girls weighed a total of 28 pounds. After her death we realized that when Kattie started laying around and not walking, she also quit going to the water. We also realized we had not started treating her soon enough – or aggressively enough. The day Kattie died another doe who was due in 10 days delivered a healthy 9 pound little girl. We should have induced labor – but we had always read where kids born more than 5 days early were considered premies and the survival chance was slim. We purchased Melissa at a production sale in July 2005. In September 2005 we bred her to a friend's buck (who was pu Continue reading >>

How I Work To Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In My Herd

How I Work To Prevent Pregnancy Toxemia In My Herd

How I work to prevent Pregnancy Toxemia in my herd How I work to prevent Pregnancy Toxemia in my herd at Sunny Springs Farm. I wanted to share with my goat friends some observations on Pregnancy Toxemia--ketosis and how I manage it on my farm. Over the years I have gone through all phases of pregnancy toxemia with my does, from drenching, to inducing labor, to dextrose IV drips, and C-sections. In some cases we were able to save both the doe and the kids and in other circumstances we lost both. I know each one of you have had to deal with the tragic loss of a doe and or her kids due to this metabolic imbalance. Pregnancy toxemia is a condition characterized by raised levels of ketones in the body and is associated with abnormal fat metabolism. The doe cannot metabolize enough carbohydrates (glucose) and turns to metabolizing fat to meet her energy requirements. Years ago I learned if the goat was foot sore and walking as though her feet hurt I had best start drenching or do whatever it took to correct the issue. I also used Ketone strips to check the doe's level of ketosis. Now, however, I can smell the ketone bodies in the does urine. For whatever reason, the choice of protocol to manage pregnancy toxemia was always based on being "reactive" to the does current metabolic state. I asked myself, why should I wait for the doe to have signs she is in trouble, if I can correct it once she has it, then why can't I prevent it? I started out using the goat electrolytes as part of the drenching protocol, and then progressed to offering it to them as a dry powder when I smelled the ketones. Now feeding electrolytes that are 50% or more dextrose are a major part of my feeding program for pregnant does. Over the last five years I have been working on a feeding protocol to prevent Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a pregnancy-related illness in does which can occur either right before or shortly after kidding. Ketosis is the result of producers not providing proper nutrition for pregnant does. The bred female does not receive adequate protein to feed both her and her kids in utero, so either just before or immediately after she kids, her body begins to draw upon its protein reserves so that she can provide milk for her offspring. Deadly ketones are produced as a by-product of this process, as her own body tissues begin to starve. Treatment is simple. Oral administration of Propylene Glycol, Molasses, or Karo Syrup (which is Corn syrup) is necessary. The doe will dislike the oily propylene glycol, but it is by far the best product available for treating ketosis. Dosage is based upon weight of the animal. Prevention is easy. Feed the doe properly during gestation as well as after kidding. Bringing a doe back from a bout of ketosis is difficult, and death often results. Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

During kidding season, I am often contacted with questions about pregnancy toxemia. This prompted me to create a blog to address this and many other questions I get regarding goat care and management. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is the condition where the pregnant doe appears lethargic, sluggish, and often goes “off feed”. Unfortunately, the doe can die from this condition if left untreated. What causes pregnancy toxemia? Pregnancy toxemia typically develops in does carrying multiple kids. The kids are drawing on the does resources and depleting her of her energy. As her uterus expands to accommodate the growing fetuses, her rumen has less room to function resulting in pregnancy toxemia. Her condition is further compromised if at the start of breeding season the doe was excessively fat. How can I treat pregnancy toxemia? When most goat producers contact me, the doe is at a critical stage. She is off feed and in some cases unable to stand. The only cure for a doe with pregnancy toxemia is delivery of her kids. If she is close to her due date, you could induce her labor with the use of oxytocin under your veterinarian’s direction. If death is potentially eminent, your veterinarian may need to perform an emergency caesarian. If the doe is not at such a critical stage or not due to kid for a few weeks, it becomes an issue of care and maintenance. When a doe goes off feed, you need to provide her the nutrition and hydration to keep her alive until closer to kidding. You can use an adult nutrition product like Ensure to drench the doe 16-24 ounces daily (2 to 3 cans). Administering propylene glycerol, goat power punch, or goat nutri-drench also aids in providing her with energy. I have also drenched does with warm water and molasses to hydrate the doe. Using Pedialyte f Continue reading >>

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis

Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis

Treatment For Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis. It is important that the producer recognizes the predisposing factors to pregnancy toxaemia and takes action to prevent the disease. Does with reduced appetite and mild depression with no neurological signs, may respond to the following conservative treatment regime: supplementation with propylene glycol (600 mg/ml) at a rate of 60 ml/ BID per OS for a minimum of 3 days; improved nutrition and feeding management; and treatment of any predisposing condition. More severely affected does require aggressive therapy which includes: A single injection of glucose iv (more frequent injections have been associated with insulin suppression and rebound hypoglycaemia Oral propylene glycol at the above dosage regime if not comatose Oral and/or intravenous fluid therapy using balanced electrolyte solutions Correction of ketoacidosis using bicarbonate or bicarbonate precursors. Since hypocalcaemia is often a secondary disease associated with pregnancy toxaemia, clinical signs of hypocalcaemia should be evaluated. Corticosteroid therapy using a single dose of dexamethasone. Removal of the fetuses. Abortion is the preferred method as it is more affordable and less stressful to the doe. If the kids are more than 2 to 3 days premature, they will be unlikely to survive but are already at great risk of death in a severely ill doe. Consult your vet about this procedure. Before a caesarian section is performed, the doe should be stabilized using appropriate fluid therapy. Systemic antibiotics. Nursing care. Does need to be encouraged to eat and will need extra attention. Correction of other diseases (e.g. if CAE arthritis, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory could be considered so the doe is willing to get up to eat) This is a disease that needs to be Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Ketosis

Pregnancy Ketosis

New producers of small ruminants often learn about pregnancy ketosis first time the hard way—with a dead dam, fetuses or both. This article explains the causes of pregnancy ketosis (a.k.a. toxemia) and more importantly—how to prevent it. Sheep and goat fetuses add 70% of their final birth weight in the last six to eight weeks of gestation. A singleton increases a dam’s nutritional requirements by 1.5 to 2 times maintenance in the last trimester. Multiple fetuses greatly increase energy demands on their mother: twins require 1.75 to 2.5 times maintenance requirements and triplets demand up to 3 times maintenance. Twins and triplets are common in some breeds of sheep and goats; quadruplets and even more are not uncommon in Boer goats, Finnsheep and Romanov sheep. Concurrent with a pregnant dam’s increasing nutritional needs, her physical capacity for feed intake is reduced by the rapid abdominal expansion of her pregnant uterus. Without managerial changes, the dam will be unable to ingest the calories needed to support herself and her fetuses, sending her into negative energy balance. Detecting a drop in blood glucose levels, her body’s regulatory systems will liberate energy from reserves stored as body fat. The release of stored energy will address her low blood glucose issues (remember the Krebs cycle?), but not without side effects: by-products of fat mobilization called ketone bodies can accumulate to toxic levels and suppress appetite. Without intervention and sometimes despite it, affected does or ewes may spiral downward in a fatal negative energy balance, taking their unborn fetuses with them. Besides multiple fetuses, health and management factors can predispose a pregnant ewe or doe to ketosis during pregnancy. For example, if there isn’t enough fee Continue reading >>

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