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Ketosis In Boer Goats

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Dairy Goats: Dealing With Ketosis

Our kidding season here at the farm has come and gone and left us with 5 beautiful baby goats – 3 males, 2 females. Now the fun begins and we spend countless hours watching and playing with the new kids. They are so comical, especially when they realize how much bounce their little legs have. They seem to skip around the barnyard, kicking out and jumping up every now and then, very pleased with their accomplishments. For the most part, the births were uneventful. We missed two of the does kidding, they did it on their own. Maggie was the first to kid and she had a rougher go of it this year. She’s still recovering… Maggie ended up with ketosis which is fairly common in goats who deliver twins. It was more likely with Maggie since this was the first time she’d delivered twins. All her previous births had been single births. She’s having a hard time keeping up with the milk demand of her two little ones. Maggie is doing better though she has not completely recovered. We’re still supplementing the babies with a bottle so they’re not solely dependent on their mom. Ahh, the joys and learning opportunities of homesteading… and I’m not kidding!! Ketosis (also called Acetonemia) is the result of the high carbohydrate (energy) demand of multiple fetuses in late pregnancy. The kids require an increasing amount of carbohydrates the last trimester. Does bearing twins have a 180% higher energy requirement than those with just a single fetus. Does carrying triplets have a 240% greater energy requirement. When this demand exceeds the supply, fat is metabolized into glucose. The metabolic needs of the kids are met at the expense of the dam; this is what causes the ketotic condition. To complicate matters, multiple fetuses produce more waste products, which leads to th Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis

Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis

Treatment For Pregnancy Toxaemia / Ketosis. It is important that the producer recognizes the predisposing factors to pregnancy toxaemia and takes action to prevent the disease. Does with reduced appetite and mild depression with no neurological signs, may respond to the following conservative treatment regime: supplementation with propylene glycol (600 mg/ml) at a rate of 60 ml/ BID per OS for a minimum of 3 days; improved nutrition and feeding management; and treatment of any predisposing condition. More severely affected does require aggressive therapy which includes: A single injection of glucose iv (more frequent injections have been associated with insulin suppression and rebound hypoglycaemia Oral propylene glycol at the above dosage regime if not comatose Oral and/or intravenous fluid therapy using balanced electrolyte solutions Correction of ketoacidosis using bicarbonate or bicarbonate precursors. Since hypocalcaemia is often a secondary disease associated with pregnancy toxaemia, clinical signs of hypocalcaemia should be evaluated. Corticosteroid therapy using a single dose of dexamethasone. Removal of the fetuses. Abortion is the preferred method as it is more affordable and less stressful to the doe. If the kids are more than 2 to 3 days premature, they will be unlikely to survive but are already at great risk of death in a severely ill doe. Consult your vet about this procedure. Before a caesarian section is performed, the doe should be stabilized using appropriate fluid therapy. Systemic antibiotics. Nursing care. Does need to be encouraged to eat and will need extra attention. Correction of other diseases (e.g. if CAE arthritis, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory could be considered so the doe is willing to get up to eat) This is a disease that needs to be Continue reading >>

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Ketosis Or Pregnancy Toxemia

Home New New Kids on the Farm For Sale Articles SA-Boer Goat Shows, Sales & Seminars Does Bucks Dogs Shows Glossary Our Place Support Map Links Tell a Friend [Note: In this article the term "Pregnancy Toxemia" (or simply "Toxemia") and the word "Ketosis" are used interchangeably.] In the spring of 2005 we were anxiously awaiting the birth of NK M141 Kattie's babies. We had purchased Kattie, and she almost immediately gave us Samantha and Thunderbolt. In March 2004 we used Kattie as the donor doe for our flush. These 2005 babies would be her first after the flush and hernia repair. All was going well; Kattie (already a large doe) was getting bigger and bigger by the day. About 15 days before her due date, we noticed she was laying around all the time. We figured as heavy as she was with the pregnancy, walking just wasn't comfortable. Knowing Ketosis (excessive ketone levels in the blood - a medical condition caused by abnormally high levels of ketone bodies in the blood resulting from the metabolism of fats instead of carbohydrates for energy) was a possibility, we started dosing her with Magic. 10 days before her due date, Kattie (and her 4 kids) died. The two boys and two girls weighed a total of 28 pounds. After her death we realized that when Kattie started laying around and not walking, she also quit going to the water. We also realized we had not started treating her soon enough – or aggressively enough. The day Kattie died another doe who was due in 10 days delivered a healthy 9 pound little girl. We should have induced labor – but we had always read where kids born more than 5 days early were considered premies and the survival chance was slim. We purchased Melissa at a production sale in July 2005. In September 2005 we bred her to a friend's buck (who was pu Continue reading >>

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Ketosis In Goats: What Is It And How To Prevent It?

Inside: Ketosis in goats: how to prevent this condition, the symptoms and the treatment. It is preventable and you can help your goat avoid it. This is one post in our Raising Goats series.  Although I worked in an Alzheimer home in Boise when I was going to school, I can’t say that I had or gained a passion for the medical side of life. Truly, it was a wonderful experience working with and helping the residents but it wouldn’t become a long-term profession. So, when I first heard the word “ketosis”, I said, “huh??” But it is an important term to know when you are dealing with goats who have recently kidded and their health. As a goat owner, it is your primary responsibility to provide your goats with adequate nutrition so that you never have to work on the treatment side of these problematic conditions. Let’s start off by answering the question: It is a metabolic condition after kidding Ketosis is a metabolic problem caused by an animal living on its own body reserves because it has stopped eating food. The higher nutritional needs of a doe continue as they did in the last weeks of her pregnancy because now she is producing large quantities of milk. So a doe in the early stages of lactation may experience a net loss of energy. Usually, four to six weeks after kidding, the doe’s hormonal stimuli for lactation overcomes the effects of inadequate food intake. Ketosis in goats can be a very detrimental condition for your herd. What else do you need to know about this condition? • Prevention is key: • Never should the doe be excessively fat. • Any changes in diet should be introduced slowly. The addition of protein grain concentrate not only is important for the health of the doe and kid during pregnancy but for the health of the goat as she begins l Continue reading >>

Kerens, Tx, 903-396-2674

Kerens, Tx, 903-396-2674

When Mike and I first entered the Boer Goat world, we followed the feeding recommendations of several large breeders that we met at shows. Their goats were winning, so we thought that was the only way to feed your goats. Our first kidding season was about to happen and we began having our first problems with Ketosis and Pregnancy Toxemia. One of our �very best does� was the worst offender. She was slow to breed, nearly 3 years old, but she looked like the show does, which is the way they are supposed to look, right? When she finally bred, she went down about 3 weeks prior to her due date, so we took her to the vet, and the first words out of his mouth were, �That animal is too fat!� Fat, we thought, she is perfect. Looks just like those goats that are winning at the shows. We treated her for Ketosis, and she delivered a single doe kid, but only with assistance. We ignored the vet�s advice about slimming our goats down, mainly because of the idea that all goats should look like the goats we see in the show ring. After nearly three years of similar problems, we took a second look at our herd and decided that if we were going to raise healthy animals, we needed to modify our feeding program. We researched on the web and asked questions of our vets and other breeders that were not in the Showing Business. We concluded that our goats were not healthy and needed to go on a �goat diet�. We fenced and opened some woods and cut them down to 3 meals a week of a lower protein and lower fat pellet with hay, free choice in the winter. After several months we saw a big difference. Instead of those girls that jiggled when they walked, we saw girls that were trim and actually had some visible muscle. Fat hides a myriad of flaws that are visible to the eye. We were finally Continue reading >>

Goat Ketosis

Goat Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic condition also called pregnancy toxemia at the end of gestation and lactational ketosis during early lactation. The central metabolic event is fat mobilization from body stores to maintain normal blood glucose levels during times of high energy demands. The disease in late gestation does is classified by multiple fetuses, obese or extremely thin does due to an inability to respond to the increased metabolic demand for energy in the dam. The doe is unable to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, and toxic ketones accumulate in the blood due to the fat metabolism process. Lactational ketosis is rare in goats. Signs: Signs of ketosis include depression, lack of appetite and decrease in milk production if lactating. The goat’s breath will have a sweet smell, which some humans can detect. Urine tests with ketone strips will be positive for ketone bodies. Fecal output is reduced to a few small, dry pellets. Other signs can include teeth grinding, dull eyes, recumbency, blindness, star gazing, tremors, coma and death. Treatment: Treatment consists of increasing the energy density of the diet. This can be accomplished by feeding good-quality roughage and increased concentrate in early stages. Administer propylene glycol or Ketoplus two to three times per day. Propylene glycol may be toxic at high and repeated doses. Limit to 60cc/dose in a dam that is eating, and discontinue if she goes off feed. Supplement with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate given twice daily. Alternative treatment may consist of Calf Pac/Probios mixed with 100cc Revive (one bottle 50% dextrose, 20cc B-complex, 5cc B-12, 2cc 500 mg/ml thiamine), and 100cc of water. Corn, molasses, sweet feed and/or corn syrup can also be administered to increase caloric intake. If there is no response Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

Pregnancy Toxemia In Boer Goats

During kidding season, I am often contacted with questions about pregnancy toxemia. This prompted me to create a blog to address this and many other questions I get regarding goat care and management. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is the condition where the pregnant doe appears lethargic, sluggish, and often goes “off feed”. Unfortunately, the doe can die from this condition if left untreated. What causes pregnancy toxemia? Pregnancy toxemia typically develops in does carrying multiple kids. The kids are drawing on the does resources and depleting her of her energy. As her uterus expands to accommodate the growing fetuses, her rumen has less room to function resulting in pregnancy toxemia. Her condition is further compromised if at the start of breeding season the doe was excessively fat. How can I treat pregnancy toxemia? When most goat producers contact me, the doe is at a critical stage. She is off feed and in some cases unable to stand. The only cure for a doe with pregnancy toxemia is delivery of her kids. If she is close to her due date, you could induce her labor with the use of oxytocin under your veterinarian’s direction. If death is potentially eminent, your veterinarian may need to perform an emergency caesarian. If the doe is not at such a critical stage or not due to kid for a few weeks, it becomes an issue of care and maintenance. When a doe goes off feed, you need to provide her the nutrition and hydration to keep her alive until closer to kidding. You can use an adult nutrition product like Ensure to drench the doe 16-24 ounces daily (2 to 3 cans). Administering propylene glycerol, goat power punch, or goat nutri-drench also aids in providing her with energy. I have also drenched does with warm water and molasses to hydrate the doe. Using Pedialyte f Continue reading >>

South African Boer Goats - Boer Goat Links To Goats For Sale And Boer Goat Forum

South African Boer Goats - Boer Goat Links To Goats For Sale And Boer Goat Forum

METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES COLLECTION: GOAT HANDBOOK ORIGIN: United States Extension Goat Handbook This material was contributed from collections at the National Agricultural Library. However, users should direct all inquires about the contents to authors or originating agencies. DOCN 000000026 NO C-5 METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES D. R. Nelson; U. of Illinois, Urbana S. B. Guss; Pennsylvania State U., University Park Nutrition 1 Pregnancy Toxemia Also known as pregnancy disease, ketosis or twin lamb disease. Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disease of goats and sheep in late pregnancy. Factors important in the development of the disease are: (1) Presence of two or more fetuses; (2) Undernourishment during late pregnancy when the fetuses have the most rapid growth; (3) Addition of stress such as severe weather, sudden changes in feed, other disease or transportation upon the previous factors. The disease usually appears in the last 30 days of pregnancy and is more common after the first pregnancy. The does show signs of ketonemia, ketonuria, acidosis and central nervous system involvement. The mortality rate is high in affected animals. Most information available is the result of studies in sheep. 2 Cause -- As pregnancy progresses, an increasing demand is on the available blood glucose supply of the doe or ewe because of fetal development. The principal source of energy to the fetus is glucose and utilization by the fetus occurs at the detriment of the mother. Glucose requirements during late pregnancy are increased 70-800ver the nonpregnant state since 800f fetal growth occurs during the last 40 days of pregnancy. Blood sugar levels decrease as pregnancy progresses (hypoglycemia) from a normal 35-45 mg per 100 ml blood to 20-25 mg per 100 ml blood in late Continue reading >>

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

Health Problems Of Pregnant & Lactating Does

The most common health problems experienced by pregnant and lactating does are described in this article. Prolapses exist if either the vagina or the rectum is outside the doe's body. Prolapses in pregnant does usually happen during the final 30 days of pregnancy -- if they are going to occur at all. Rectal prolapses tend to occur in does that have been fed too much grain and are therefore too fat. Proper nutritional management makes rectal prolapses less likely to occur. Vaginal prolapses are mostly hereditary and usually can be bred out by mating the doe with an unrelated buck whose previous female offspring have not prolapsed. Does that prolapse more than once should be culled from the breeding herd and sold for slaughter. Returning a prolapse to the inside of the goat's body must be done very carefully. To prevent infection, clean the prolapse with a solution of Nolvasan, Clorhexadine, or similar product by gently pouring the slightly warmed mixture over it. This is very delicate and easily torn tissue. Take great care. Put on disposable gloves and apply a water-soluble lubricant like K-Y Jelly to the gloved hand being used to re-position the prolapse. Using the flat palm of the gloved hand, gently and with even pressure press the prolapse back inside the goat. This is a two-person job; one person has to hold the goat in a standing position while lifting its rear legs off the ground so that it can't push against the hand of the second person, who is attempting to return the prolapsed organ back inside the goat. Sometimes it is necessary to place the goat on its side in order to get the proper angle that allows reinsertion of the prolapse. If the prolapse has been outside the body for several hours or overnight, causing it to dry out and therefore become more difficu Continue reading >>

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Hpf Rose - Story Of Our Unsuccessful Boer Goat Kidding

Now that it has been a week since our Boer doe HPF Rose unexpectedly kidded, and she's now on top of the game, I'm able to post about it. A little background is in order. Rose's first freshening two years ago brought about a stillborn runt buckling, a live buckling, and yet another stillborn buckling. The first kid was presented butt first but delivered in that position with just a tiny bit of assistance. He was only about two pounds but fully developed. It was my first kidding by myself without CamoQueen to assist. GoatPrincess was there but we were flying blind. I blamed myself for the two stillborn kids as these were the prize kids that were to be delivered by CamoQueen's two-time county fair champion Boer doe. It just wasn't right. Long story short, the buckling was sold and kept as a buck and has thrown some great kids. The following year we bred Rose to the same buck and brought about another pregnancy. She was as big as a house again this second year and all appeared normal. Normal that is until she got close to her delivery date and did not develop an udder. Strange we thought. During a cold spell near her due date she developed what we thought was ketosis, standing in the blowing snow - not coming in to eat - rather dazed in appearance. We noticed her backside was completely wet and thought that odd. We treated her for ketosis and watched her. No udder. No labor. It was then we realized that she had lost her baby belly and was back to normal size. What had happened? A little research brought us to realize that perhaps she had experienced a false pregnancy. One of those oddities of nature where their uterus will fill with fluid, they will not come back into heat, and take on all aspects of being pregnant only to deliver a burst of fluid. Very strange. This last Continue reading >>

Histological Changes Of Liver Tissue And Serobiochemical Relation In Does With Pregnancy Ketosis

Histological Changes Of Liver Tissue And Serobiochemical Relation In Does With Pregnancy Ketosis

Abstract p class="abstrak2">Histological changes of liver in does with pregnancy ketosis were characterized. Twenty pregnant does at day 80 of pregnancy were used for this experiment. A total of 10 does were fed by grass (Napier) and goat concentrate with water ad libitum. Those 10 goats considered as healthy pregnant goat, and another 10 goats showing clinical and subclinical signs of ketosis considered as unhealthy pregnant does. Liver biopsies were performed when clinical signs appeared. Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose were dosed. Histological preparation revealed similar incidence and intensity of mild liver steatosis with lower cellular vacuolation in hepatocyte presence in healthy late pregnant does. Almost all of the pregnant does with ketosis state (n=8/10) had large amount of small lipid droplets in almost every hepatocyte over the whole liver acinus with higher number of cellular vacuolation, and related with higher BHBA and FFA levels while low in glucose level.

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Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a pregnancy-related illness in does which can occur either right before or shortly after kidding. Ketosis is the result of producers not providing proper nutrition for pregnant does. The bred female does not receive adequate protein to feed both her and her kids in utero, so either just before or immediately after she kids, her body begins to draw upon its protein reserves so that she can provide milk for her offspring. Deadly ketones are produced as a by-product of this process, as her own body tissues begin to starve. Treatment is simple. Oral administration of Propylene Glycol, Molasses, or Karo Syrup (which is Corn syrup) is necessary. The doe will dislike the oily propylene glycol, but it is by far the best product available for treating ketosis. Dosage is based upon weight of the animal. Prevention is easy. Feed the doe properly during gestation as well as after kidding. Bringing a doe back from a bout of ketosis is difficult, and death often results. Continue reading >>

Goat Health

Goat Health

The eight teeth in the lower front jaw of your goat can help you to tell his age. They are not an exact or perfect guide, as various factors such as diet will influence the growth of teeth. Also, every goat is an individual just like you and your friends. Remember, not all your baby teeth fell out at the same time as those of other children in your classes. A goat’s teeth may grow and fall out at slightly different ages than the teeth of any other goat. There are no upper front teeth in the goat’s mouth, instead your goat has a tough toothless “dental pad”. Your goat does have teeth on the top and bottom of his jaw further back in his mouth. These back teeth help him to chew his cud. We do not use these to tell his age. This chart goes from age under 1 year to the 3 years old because from the age of four on, the process for determining the goat's age becomes less precise and an exact age is difficult to determine. As the goat grows older, the teeth begin to buck out and spread. By the time the goat is ten years old, the teeth are generally pretty worn, depending upon what the goat has been fed or how tough its forage has been or whatever injuries the goat may have sustained to its mouth during its lifetime. This is part of the reason that a lot of people recommend using only loose minerals and salt. Goats have a tendency to use their teeth to scrape off and break chunks off of the hard blocks which can ware their teeth down faster and even break them off. Where to give shots Internal Parasites more info can be found at also check out the following link Medications to keep on hand Goat Guideline for Anthelmintic Dosages (internal parasite dewormers) July 2006 *Important --- Please read notes below before using this chart* 1Valbazen Suspension (11.36 % or 113.6 mg Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Toxemia

Pregnancy Toxemia

Before kidding it is called Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding it is called Ketosis. Pregnancy Toxemia/Ketosis is caused by a build up of excess ketones in the blood (urine & milk), due to the incomplete metabolic breakdown of body fat. It occurs in a doe (before or after kidding) because of an inability to consume enough feed to meet her needs. Ketosis can be caused by either too much, or too little grain, or the wrong type of grain and also poor quality hay/forage. Before kidding, internal body fat plus large fetuses prevent the goat from taking in enough calories to support both the doe and fetuses. Because there is an urgent need for calories, the doe's body starts breaking down her body's fat reserves. But this method of metabolism is incomplete, and thus leaves ketones behind. Pregnancy Toxemia usually occurs within the last six weeks of the doe's pregnancy and is usually attributable either to underfeeding (starvation toxemia) or overfeeding grain. We also believe that increased outside stress during the final weeks of pregnancy, in conjunction with large, multiple kids can contribute to the occurrence of Pregnancy Toxemia. After kidding Ketosis results from the doe producing higher milk yields than her body can keep up with. Usually she is not being fed enough to keep up with her milk production. Signs: The doe eats less or stops eating completely. Depression Seperation from the herd The doe may be slow to get up or may lie off in a corner. Her eyes are dull. Somestimes blindness Muscle tremors & seizures Staggering Head pressing She may have swollen ankles She may grind her teeth. The doe may breathe more rapidly. The doe's breath and urine may have a fruity sweet odor. This is due to the excess ketones, which have a sweet smell. Prevention: Prevent excess body f Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Ketosis And Pregnancy Toxemia In Goats

Wellness : Health Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis in goats are potentially deadly diseases that occur during late gestation and early lactation. These diseases are often (though not exclusively) seen in dairy goats, especially in good milkers. The situation occurs either very near the end of pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia) or after birth, when the goat begins milking (ketosis). The problem is that late-term pregnancy and especially the onset of lactation require considerable energy, more than can be derived from the feed. The condition is compounded in a doe carrying multiple fetuses, because the kids compress the rumen and the doe simply cannot physically eat very much. Consequently, the goat must call on body reserves of fat for energy. The breakdown of large amounts of fat results in compounds called ketones floating around in the blood. In large concentrations, these ketones actually have a toxic effect; the animal may develop acidosis of the blood (goat blood, like human blood, should be slightly alkaline), and if this becomes severe enough, the goat may go into a coma. Early symptoms include apathy, poor appetite, a decrease in milk production (if the goat is milking), a rough hair coat, and disorientation. You will need a veterinarian to administer glucose and electrolytes immediately, as the condition can easily result in the death of the goat. To address ketosis or pregnancy toxemia in goats, you must get more energy into the late-term pregnant and early-lactation doe. Gradually increase the concentrate (grain) portion of the diet and reduce the hay portion (remember, you don’t want to change the rumen pH too fast). The grain is much higher in energy and will take up much less room in the rumen. A small amount of fat (such as corn oil) on the feed will also help Continue reading >>

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