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Ketosis During Hibernation

How Do Bears Hibernate?

How Do Bears Hibernate?

Somewhere near Portsmouth there is probably a bear hibernating. How do bears do that? The first thing to clarify is that hibernating is not sleeping. The brain activity of hibernating animals is like awake brain activity. In fact when they “wake up” from hibernating many mammals show signs of sleep deprivation and may have to sleep more for a few days. These are some things that are known about hibernation in bears.(1) – For as many as 7 months of hibernation bears go without eating, drinking, defecating or urinating, in contrast to chipmunks and other small mammals that get up to do that stuff every week or so. – Bears hibernate at or near normal body temperature, in contrast to the those other small mammals who hibernate with a body temperature near ambient, approaching but not falling below 0°C. – Weight loss in hibernating bears ranges from 16% to 37% of body weight at the start of hibernation. So they will need to put that weight back on before the next hibernation. – Bears conserve lean body mass during hibernation using almost only fat combustion for energy needs. – So fat content at the start of hibernation is 36% to 38% of total weight in black bears and 49% in polar bears and declines proportionate to the decline in body weight. – Blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids) increase during hibernation, a result of increased combustion and decreased production of fat. – Ketosis which is a sign of fat burning in starving humans does not occur in hibernating bears. – Total body water, blood volume, and water content of plasma and red blood cells do not change during hibernation in black bears. – During hibernation, black bears maintain bone mass and measures of bone formation. In other species undergoing long periods of Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About The Ketogenic Diet

Everything You Need To Know About The Ketogenic Diet

The Ketogenic or ‘Keto’ diet is one of the most popular lifestyle movements going around right now. So is it just a fad? Or is the low carb, high fat lifestyle here to stay? We consulted qualified Nutritionist, undergraduate Naturopath and Keto Kitchen Author, Jackie Morgan and got the lowdown on all things Ketos… Here’s everything you need to know about the Keto diet! What is ketogenic diet? Put simply, a ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) diet with medium amounts of protein. When you switch to ketogenic lifestyle you limit the amount of carbohydrates you consume, increasing your intake of fats in their place. The reduction in carbohydrates puts your body into a metabolic state known as ketosis. In ketosis you change your metabolic state from being a ‘glucose burner’, running off carbohydrates and sugars to a ‘ketone burner’ using fats and ketones for energy. It is important to note that when you remove carbohydrates from the diet they must be replaced with another macro nutrient. In a ketogenic diet, you replace your carbs with fat, hence why your fat intake is so high on this program – and why you’ll never feel hungry! What are ketones? Ketones are small ‘fuel’ molecules produced by the body. Ketones are an alternative source of energy that are produced from your liver when there is little or no glucose (carbs) available. The ketones are then metabolized to provide your brain and body with a sustainable source of energy. What happens to my body when I go keto? When you change to a ketogenic diet, your entire body switches its energy supply from glucose burning to running almost entirely on fat. Aside from the fats from your diet, your body will also begin to burn through its own fat stores, making it excellent for weight loss. Continue reading >>

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

If you’ve been turned on to the low-carb Paleo diet craze, you may have noticed increased energy, better digestion and happier mood, and a shrinking waist line. Good for you. But some folks who’ve taken the Primal leap—particularly those who were previously on a high-carb diet—have been faced with unexpected side effects waving them back to the world of bread, sugary fruits and sweet potato casserole. Interestingly, these side effects include a wide range of symptoms that are nearly identical to symptoms of severe thyroid hormone deficiency. More interestingly, lab tests often show normal or near normal thyroid function. More interesting still is that these symptoms seem to only be relieved by adding back carbs into the diet, sometimes upward of 300 grams—a level I consider to be very likely to harm. Why is this happening? Is it that low-carb simply doesn’t work for everyone, or is something else going on? In an effort to get to the bottom of this, low-carb blogger Jimmy Moore is asking his cadre of low-carb literate practitioners to weigh in on the issue with our opinions. This so happens to be an issue I’ve been pondering since reading about the controversy over safe starches, and a couple pieces of the puzzle recently fell into place that I think I add up to at least one explanation for the debilitating symptoms some people develop on going low-carb, and offer a method for anyone going low-carb to do so without problems. Here’s what I discovered about those with thyroid problems. Abrupt Change May Be too Much For the Thyroid People who run into trouble going low-carb seem to follow a pattern. They follow any number of diets from SAD to vegan before making a relatively abrupt switch to a low carb (often less than 50 gm) diet. At first they lose weight Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

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The Ketogenic Diet As The Default Human Diet: An Energy Perspective

The Ketogenic Diet As The Default Human Diet: An Energy Perspective

The conditions under which the liver delivers optimal fuel on demand may be the conditions under which it evolved. When you are on a ketogenic diet, the mitochondria in your cells — the parts of the cells that produce energy — actually switch from primarily using sugar for fuel to primarily using fat for fuel. They use fat mostly in a form called ketone bodies (or, commonly, ketones), thus a ketogenic diet. (See Keto-adaptation: what it is and how to adjust for more on this process of switching fuels.) Sugar-based living (from a diet with more than about 5% calories from carbohydrate) When you are using the sugar-based system, all of the cells in your body constantly take sugar out of your bloodstream. It's hard for your body to keep up, and you need to frequently refuel by eating carbohydrate-containing food. Getting sugar out of the carbohydrates that you eat is a blunt tool. Unless you eat in a trickling stream, you will consume more sugar than is safe to hold in the bloodstream at once. That sugar has to be quickly removed, because high blood sugar damages your cells. So a flood of insulin comes in to initiate the process of sugar removal. There is some limited storage space in the liver, but when that is full, the rest basically gets stored as fat. Soon however, the job is done. Your blood sugar is back in a safe range. Your body cells are still demanding sugar, though, and your blood sugar starts to drop too low. Your liver can release some sugar back into the bloodstream, but not fast enough to keep up with demand, so you get tired and hungry, and the process starts all over. People on carbohydrate-based diets typically have to "snack" every couple of hours. Endurance athletes have to stop and eat sugar just to get through their events. On a sugar-based metab Continue reading >>

Hibernating Bears 'a Metabolic Marvel'

Hibernating Bears 'a Metabolic Marvel'

For the first time, scientists say they have been able to monitor a bear's vital signs continuously during a six-month period of hibernation. To their surprise, the researchers discovered that despite lowering its metabolism by 75 percent, a hibernating bear's internal temperature barely drops at all. The bear study took place at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The bears spent the winter in a hibernaculum — basically a big box. The researchers weren't sure whether the bears would be willing to spend the winter in this small, artificial cave. "We anticipated they might just tear the place up or go on strike or something," says Brian Barnes, one of the authors of the new study. "But they actually showed very natural behavior of getting ready to hibernate. They curl up, they go to sleep. They begin to quiet their heart rate, slow their breathing and their metabolic rate plunges." The fact that a bear could reduce its metabolism so much with such a small drop in temperature was a surprise. Barnes says two factors appear to be responsible. First, a bear has a lot of fat and thick fur, so it is well-insulated. Second, when a bear's internal temperature drops below about 90 degrees Fahrenheit (99 degrees is normal for a bear), it starts to shiver. The shivering produces heat, and the bear's temperature rises a few degrees. This periodic shivering occurs throughout the winter. 'A Closed System' Barnes says just about everything a bear does while hibernating is remarkable. "Bears don't eat, drink, urinate or defecate for six or seven months," he says. They make their own water, probably by metabolizing fat, and they get rid of wastes by breaking them down internally. "They're a closed system. All they need is air, and they can do just fine. They're a metabolic marvel," he Continue reading >>

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

The best Ketogenic Diet Book for Cancer will be available to the public soon. I’m currently completing what will be once published the best ketogenic diet book for cancer available on the market. This book will be a raw vegan ketogenic diet book which comes from decades of firsthand experience helping people heal from cancer. I’m asked often if this vegan keto diet is science based? The answer is yes, it is backed by science big time! My book will be drawn from years of helping people restore their health and go on to thrive. We use this healing diet at An Oasis of Healing, the healing center I founded over a decade ago. A raw vegan ketogenic diet works in harmony with our comprehensive cancer care program. Raw plant based nutrition is key to healing from cancer and works in harmony with the laws of nature. Let’s look at what the word Keto means? Keto also means ketosis or ketones. What is the function of ketosis? Fatty acids allow human beings to store energy. As these fatty acids are separated into different pieces they become fuel for the body. When they are separated even further, they become ketone bodies which consist of three molecules. The ketone bodies are carried into cells and then split apart even more to become pure fuel for the body. This fuel provides the necessary energy for the body. These fatty acids produce twice the amount of energy versus carbs and protein. Fat is nature’s gift to humanity as a result of its capacity for energy storage. Why do you think bears are able to hibernate all winter? They eat a lot and as a result store fat. They then go into hibernation and live off their stored fat. While they hibernate, the bears are in ketosis. The Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer Can Help Reverse This Pandemic There’s a right way and a wro Continue reading >>

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

Hi there ! Interesting ! This could turn out helpful, especially the limb/organ regeneration (like geckos/salamanders/lizards cell transdifferentiation to regrow their cut-off limbs/tails...regrow a human arm or leg after losing it. But 'don't lose your head' (pun!) over losing your other limbs (joke)). Regrowing your head would still not stop you from dying from losing it in the first place. It's the regrowing of organs that has me more interested, limbs ok, but organs...that's a whole different thing. If we could regrow/regenerate our organs, except perhaps brain, to the exact same state during youth; that would be a form of rejuvenation. Exceptional cancer resistance by (NMRs) naked mole rats (large hyaluronan molecules, plump skin for hypoxic environment, altered p53-p16-p21 levels and stronger stromal cell barriers that inhibit tumor propagation to other organs) is definitely something we can do with; although, this is mixed stuff. Certain studies showed an actual increase in hyaluronic acid (HA) during human cancers (neoplastic remodelling is what is happening). Inflammation is characterized by higher amount of short-chain/fractured hyaluronan while anti-inflammation in ECM has more long-chained hyaluronan. Still, this is inconclusive, an small and large chain HA have been found during pathological remodelling (like fibrosis). ECM remodelling is complex and cancer neoplasticity ECM remodelling is too; it messes up HA, not like in naked mole rats. I'm not so sure increasing long-chain HA would amount to all that much, in humans, plumper youthful skin, like a naked mole rat, such as in little children or babies would not stop cancer (kigs gets cancers...anyways and have higher HA and plumper skin/tougher organ stromal barriers). Our cell density/organ complexity/siz Continue reading >>

Does Quitting Carbs Cause Thyroid Issues?

Does Quitting Carbs Cause Thyroid Issues?

Alright, this is a controversial one. Anything Paleo-orientated generally is. But let’s wade in. I have a number of reasons for distancing myself from the Paleo movement. I agree with many of the dietary principles inherent, just not the faddishness, the fanaticism and the insistence on basing it on a meta-theory of how we ate 10,000 years ago. I’m also cautious about the whole low/no-carb fervour in general. It’s not for everyone. Like, for instance, anyone trying to get pregnant. But today I want to raise this one: cutting carbs might just trigger thyroid problems. Strap in. I recently came across American biochemistry and genetics expert, Dr. Cate, and have asked her to flesh things out… People who run into trouble going low-carb seem to follow a pattern. First, they (make) a relatively abrupt switch to low carb (often less than 50 gm). Initially they lose weight as hoped but then, instead of feeling more energetic from their weight loss, they develop fatigue, sometimes accompanied by symptoms of low thyroid function including cold extremities, hair loss, and digestive problems. Because their fatigue and other symptoms are classic for thyroid malfunction, many will get their levels tested, only to come away confused when the tests health practitioners typically order (TSH and T4) come out normal. Those who get more extensive testing may get a test called reverse T3, or rT3 for short. These are often abnormally high, leaving them to believe they have found the root of the problem. Some are given a prescription for T3 (or thyroxin) in hopes of regaining energy and the intervention seems to help, at least a little. Reverse T3 is a kind of chemical opposite of regular T3, a mirror image compound called an enantiomer. Reverse T3 has opposite effects of T3, and has Continue reading >>

Protein And Fat Metabolism In Hibernating Bears.

Protein And Fat Metabolism In Hibernating Bears.

Abstract Hibernation in the bear (Ursus americanus) is unique in that it is continuous for 3 to 7 months and occurs at near normal body temperature, yet the bear does not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. During hibernation there is no loss of lean body mass because amino acids enter protein synthetic pathways at increased rates producing reciprocal decreases in entry into the urea cycle. The urea that is formed is hydrolyzed and the nitrogen released is combined with glycerol to form amino acids, which reenter protein synthetic pathways. Body fat supplies the substrate for metabolism (400 kilocalories/day). Ketosis does not occur. Metabolic water is sufficient to maintain normal hydration. About 100 ml of urine is filtered daily by the kidneys but the baldder wall transports water and solute back into blood at a rate about equal to their entry into the bladder. The bear cannot duplicate its winter adaptation in summer when housed in the cold and dark. During hibernation the bear shows hypothalamic hypothyroidism and increased testosterone production. These changes appear necessary for developing the selective states of anabolism and catabolism found in the hibernating bear. Continue reading >>

How You Can Lose Weight With A Ketogenic Diet

How You Can Lose Weight With A Ketogenic Diet

Are you frustrated by your inability to lose weight? There are many diet programs that assert their ability to aid in weight loss but they often have contradictory philosophies or are based on unsubstantiated claims. It’s no wonder why so many people become discouraged and give up on their weight loss goals! But what if I told you that there was an effective and scientifically proven diet that could help you lose weight without counting calories and while eating delicious foods like bacon and cheese? Well there is, and it is called the ketogenic diet! The Ketogenic Diet The ketogenic diet takes advantage of a completely natural metabolic state called ketosis. Ketosis is when the body is using fat for energy instead of sugar. It is called ketosis because in times of starvation the liver breaks down body fat to produce energy packets called ketones. Ketones can be used as an alternative source of energy by the mitochondria (power plants) in most of your cells. In fact, one of the primary functions of body fat is to serve as an alternative fuel source when food is sparse. Think of a bear fattening up for winter so that it can burn up body fat as energy throughout the winter hibernation. The problem for modern humans is that the winter hibernation never comes and we just keep storing fat. Historically, people did not eat all day or even everyday. We were designed to go through periods of low or no food intake. During these times of austerity, the body would utilize stored body fat to fuel cellular processes. A ketogenic diet allows you tap into that fuel source without having to suffer through fasting and starvation. This is why Dr. Colbert recommends a modified ketogenic diet for his Slender System weight loss program. (Click here to join for FREE today!) What it Looks L Continue reading >>

Hibernation – How Bears Can Go Without Food And Water For Months

Hibernation – How Bears Can Go Without Food And Water For Months

I was reading on lipid metabolism the other day when I got to a very interesting “fact box” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. The title was “Fat Bears Carry out Beta Oxidation in Their Sleep”. It describes that many animals depend on their fat storage for energy production when they are in hibernation and it says that one of the most pronounced adjustments of fat metabolism occurs in hibernating grizzly bears. Did you know that grizzly bears are in hibernation for as long as 7 months per year? Bears, Hibernation and Beta Oxidation Besides, unlike many hibernating animals, bears are able to keep their body temperature between 32 and 35 degrees Celsius (which is very close to the normal body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius). The caloric daily consumption during hibernation in bears is approximately ~6,000 kcals. Keep in mind that they don’t eat, drink, urinate, and defecate for months at a time. Humans are able to go without food for very long periods of time. However, it would not be wise to do so. According to Lehninger, the sole fuel for grizzly bears in hibernation is their body fat. Through beta-oxidation they are able to yield enough energy for homeostasis, for protein synthesis, as well as for membrane transport (among other processes). The oxidation of fat yields consistent amounts of water that keeps the animal hydrated and it makes up for the loss of water through breathing. They also use the glycerol that is released from degrading TAG (triglycerides) to convert it in glucose through the process called gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose). It is very interesting how these bears evolved to reabsorb the urea which results from amino-acid breakdown and use it to make new amino-acids. This helps them to minimize the loss of lean muscle during t Continue reading >>

How Squirrel Hearts Protect Themselves From The Chill

How Squirrel Hearts Protect Themselves From The Chill

When thirteen-lined ground squirrels hibernate, their heart rates slow to three to 10 beats per minute, and their body temperatures drop to near freezing, passing through the 20°C threshold that leads to cardiac arrest in nonhibernating animals. Researchers have now profiled gene and protein expression in these squirrels to better understand how their hearts protect themselves during this dramatic shift (J. Proteome Res. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00575). Matthew T. Andrews, a biologist at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, and colleagues, analyzed heart tissue from thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) at different times during the year when the animals were awake or hibernating, and during brief periods of arousal during hibernation when they bring their heart rates back up to a normal 300 beats per minute. They used large-scale RNA sequencing to determine gene expression and high-throughput mass spectrometry to identify the range of proteins produced at the different stages. By comparing these genomic and proteomic data, the researchers found that the squirrels’ hearts make a protective metabolic shift during hibernation. In spring and summer, the squirrels’ standard carbohydrate metabolism is in high gear, but leading up to hibernation, squirrels deposit fat tissue in their hearts. Then while hibernating, the squirrels draw on this fat using genes and proteins associated with ketosis—the fat-based metabolism sought for weight loss via low-carbohydrate diets. The metabolic shift is consistent with earlier observations that hibernating ground squirrels have longer life spans than nonhibernating species, because this type of fat burning produces fewer tissue-damaging free radicals than burning carbohydrates does. Eventually, this Continue reading >>

The Bears Take On Hibernation Biology Essay

The Bears Take On Hibernation Biology Essay

Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Bears are members of the family Ursidae, there are eight species alive today, with a large geographical range. They are found in North America, South America, Asia and Europe; they occupy a large range of habitats, from the Arctic tundra to temperate forests (Craighead Institute 2010). During winter, bears enter a state of dormancy. Most animal species become dormant to some extent during their lives, as an energy saving mechanism. Sleep is the archetypal form of dormancy, with animals retiring to a nest, assuming a sleep posture, remaining behaviourally quiescent and exhibiting elevated arousal thresholds (Heller et al 2004). A more extreme form of dormancy is torpor. Torpor is characterised by a controlled reduction of body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate, and other physiological functions (Geiser 2004). Torpor has the superficial appearance of sleep, indeed torpor and sleep are believed to be homologous. This has been supported by numerous electroencephalographic (EEG) studies (Heller et al. 2004). There are two basic forms of torpor used by heterothermic animals, hibernation (or prolonged torpor) and daily torpor. Daily torpor is usually not as deep as hibernation, lasts only for hours rather than days or weeks, and is usually interrupted by daily foraging and feeding (Geiser 2004). There is a lack of agreement over whether the winter dormancy of bears constitutes "true" hibernation. Hibernation is defined as "the dormant condition into which many animals and plants pass whe Continue reading >>

When Not To Be On A Ketogenic Diet

When Not To Be On A Ketogenic Diet

When Not To Be on a Ketogenic Diet A ketogenic diet is a very low carbohydrate, moderate protein and high fat based nutrition plan. A ketogenic diet trains the individual’s metabolism to run off of fatty acids or ketone bodies. This is called fat adapted or keto adapted, when the body has adapted to run off of fatty acids/ketones at rest. This nutrition plan has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation. It also improves cellular healing and mitochondrial biogenesis which supports stronger and healthier cells. All of this leads to reduced risk of chronic disease as well as improved muscle development and fat metabolism (1, 2). Where Ketosis Can Be Extremely Beneficial There are certain cases, where I typically recommend a ketogenic diet as the research appears to support that ketosis significantly improves the functionality of these individuals. Overweight or Obese Neurodegenerative Conditions such as dementia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Most Cancers but especially those of the brain, nervous system and blood (leukemia) Chronic Pain Seizure Disorders Non-Elite athletes or individuals looking for higher mental & physical performance The final one is the area that I and many others who have pursued a state of ketosis fall into. At this point in my life, I have no chronic diseases, I feel great 99% of the time, but I am always looking to improve my productivity and performance. I have found being in mild-ketosis to be one of the best ways to improve my energy, mental acuity, creativity, physical strength and overall life performance. There is no one diet that works perfectly for everyone. Ketosis has the potential to benefit everyone, but under unique circumstances it would not be warranted. Here are a list of special cases where long-term st Continue reading >>

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