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Ketosis During Hibernation

My Thoughts On Low Carb And Paleo Episode 3: A New Hope

My Thoughts On Low Carb And Paleo Episode 3: A New Hope

Really clear, concise and informative post! If people still insist on not “getting” it, know that you have been as pedagogical as is humanly possible and that people, at the end of the day, will have to be responsible for their own reactions. Some reflections based on my own “tinkering”: My first foray into paleo was in 2005. I jumped on board to lose a few vanity lbs (I’ve never been in horrible shape) and for overall health. Unlike many paleo adherents, I’m neither a reformed vegan nor someone who’s had a lot of health issues. My introduction to paleo came as a result of being the co-translator for the Swedish version of Loren Cordain’s The Paleo Diet. The whole thing just made sense to me, and coming from a science background I found the whole premise intriguing. However, when I first discovered paleo, it had yet (at least as far as I was aware) to start overlapping with the whole LC philosophy. As a result, I focused entirely on nutrient density and eliminating the bad stuff. So, I ended up eating starchy tubers more or less freely (no potatoes though) and quite a bit of fruit on top of that. I lost 25 lbs over a four-month period with little effort (I was tiny by the end of it). When I actually bothered to add up the calories I was eating it was never over 1600-1800 kcal (I’m 5’7” and naturally muscular). I almost started worrying that I wasn’t eating enough. The things was, though, that I was hardly ever hungry. The increased satiety, weight loss and stable blood sugar came despite not specifically aiming to reduce carbohydrates. However, I think it’s important to note is that even a so-called high carb paleo diet will usually be lower in carbs than the standard Western diet. Just eliminating refined sugars and grains might be enough to c Continue reading >>

Protein And Fat Metabolism In Hibernating Bears.

Protein And Fat Metabolism In Hibernating Bears.

Abstract Hibernation in the bear (Ursus americanus) is unique in that it is continuous for 3 to 7 months and occurs at near normal body temperature, yet the bear does not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. During hibernation there is no loss of lean body mass because amino acids enter protein synthetic pathways at increased rates producing reciprocal decreases in entry into the urea cycle. The urea that is formed is hydrolyzed and the nitrogen released is combined with glycerol to form amino acids, which reenter protein synthetic pathways. Body fat supplies the substrate for metabolism (400 kilocalories/day). Ketosis does not occur. Metabolic water is sufficient to maintain normal hydration. About 100 ml of urine is filtered daily by the kidneys but the baldder wall transports water and solute back into blood at a rate about equal to their entry into the bladder. The bear cannot duplicate its winter adaptation in summer when housed in the cold and dark. During hibernation the bear shows hypothalamic hypothyroidism and increased testosterone production. These changes appear necessary for developing the selective states of anabolism and catabolism found in the hibernating bear. Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet: Does It Live Up To The Hype? The Pros, The Cons, And The Facts About This Not-so-new Diet Craze.

The Ketogenic Diet: Does It Live Up To The Hype? The Pros, The Cons, And The Facts About This Not-so-new Diet Craze.

If you believe the buzz, ketosis — whether via the almost-zero-carb ketogenic diet or via ketone supplements— can curb appetite, enhance performance, and cure nearly any health problem that ails you. Sound too good to be true? It probably is. Want to listen instead of read? Download the audio recording here… ++++ Wouldn’t it be awesome if butter and bacon were “health foods”? Maybe with a side of guacamole and some shredded cheese on top? “I’m doing this for my health,” you could purr virtuously, as you topped your delectably marbled, medium-rare steak with a fried egg. Well, many advocates of the ketogenic diet argue exactly that: By eating a lot of fat and close to zero carbohydrates you too can enjoy enhanced health, quality of life, performance, brain function, and abs you can grate that cheese on. So, in this article, we’ll explore: What are ketones, and what is ketosis? What, exactly, is a ketogenic diet? What evidence and scientific research supports the ketogenic diet? Do ketone supplements work? Is the ketogenic diet or ketone supplementation right for me? How to read this article If you’re just curious about ketogenic diets: Feel free to skim and learn whatever you like. If you want to change your body and/or health: You don’t need to know every detail. Just get the general idea. Check out our advice at the end. If you’re an athlete interested in performance: Pay special attention to the section on athletic performance. Check out our advice for athletes at the end. If you’re a fitness pro, or interested in geeking out with nutritional science: We’ve given you some “extra credit” material in sidebars throughout. Check out our advice for fitness pros at the end. It all started with the brain. If you’ve called Client Care at Pr Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

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How Do Bears Hibernate?

How Do Bears Hibernate?

Somewhere near Portsmouth there is probably a bear hibernating. How do bears do that? The first thing to clarify is that hibernating is not sleeping. The brain activity of hibernating animals is like awake brain activity. In fact when they “wake up” from hibernating many mammals show signs of sleep deprivation and may have to sleep more for a few days. These are some things that are known about hibernation in bears.(1) – For as many as 7 months of hibernation bears go without eating, drinking, defecating or urinating, in contrast to chipmunks and other small mammals that get up to do that stuff every week or so. – Bears hibernate at or near normal body temperature, in contrast to the those other small mammals who hibernate with a body temperature near ambient, approaching but not falling below 0°C. – Weight loss in hibernating bears ranges from 16% to 37% of body weight at the start of hibernation. So they will need to put that weight back on before the next hibernation. – Bears conserve lean body mass during hibernation using almost only fat combustion for energy needs. – So fat content at the start of hibernation is 36% to 38% of total weight in black bears and 49% in polar bears and declines proportionate to the decline in body weight. – Blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids) increase during hibernation, a result of increased combustion and decreased production of fat. – Ketosis which is a sign of fat burning in starving humans does not occur in hibernating bears. – Total body water, blood volume, and water content of plasma and red blood cells do not change during hibernation in black bears. – During hibernation, black bears maintain bone mass and measures of bone formation. In other species undergoing long periods of Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet As The Default Human Diet: An Energy Perspective

The Ketogenic Diet As The Default Human Diet: An Energy Perspective

The conditions under which the liver delivers optimal fuel on demand may be the conditions under which it evolved. When you are on a ketogenic diet, the mitochondria in your cells — the parts of the cells that produce energy — actually switch from primarily using sugar for fuel to primarily using fat for fuel. They use fat mostly in a form called ketone bodies (or, commonly, ketones), thus a ketogenic diet. (See Keto-adaptation: what it is and how to adjust for more on this process of switching fuels.) Sugar-based living (from a diet with more than about 5% calories from carbohydrate) When you are using the sugar-based system, all of the cells in your body constantly take sugar out of your bloodstream. It's hard for your body to keep up, and you need to frequently refuel by eating carbohydrate-containing food. Getting sugar out of the carbohydrates that you eat is a blunt tool. Unless you eat in a trickling stream, you will consume more sugar than is safe to hold in the bloodstream at once. That sugar has to be quickly removed, because high blood sugar damages your cells. So a flood of insulin comes in to initiate the process of sugar removal. There is some limited storage space in the liver, but when that is full, the rest basically gets stored as fat. Soon however, the job is done. Your blood sugar is back in a safe range. Your body cells are still demanding sugar, though, and your blood sugar starts to drop too low. Your liver can release some sugar back into the bloodstream, but not fast enough to keep up with demand, so you get tired and hungry, and the process starts all over. People on carbohydrate-based diets typically have to "snack" every couple of hours. Endurance athletes have to stop and eat sugar just to get through their events. On a sugar-based metab Continue reading >>

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

If you’ve been turned on to the low-carb Paleo diet craze, you may have noticed increased energy, better digestion and happier mood, and a shrinking waist line. Good for you. But some folks who’ve taken the Primal leap—particularly those who were previously on a high-carb diet—have been faced with unexpected side effects waving them back to the world of bread, sugary fruits and sweet potato casserole. Interestingly, these side effects include a wide range of symptoms that are nearly identical to symptoms of severe thyroid hormone deficiency. More interestingly, lab tests often show normal or near normal thyroid function. More interesting still is that these symptoms seem to only be relieved by adding back carbs into the diet, sometimes upward of 300 grams—a level I consider to be very likely to harm. Why is this happening? Is it that low-carb simply doesn’t work for everyone, or is something else going on? In an effort to get to the bottom of this, low-carb blogger Jimmy Moore is asking his cadre of low-carb literate practitioners to weigh in on the issue with our opinions. This so happens to be an issue I’ve been pondering since reading about the controversy over safe starches, and a couple pieces of the puzzle recently fell into place that I think I add up to at least one explanation for the debilitating symptoms some people develop on going low-carb, and offer a method for anyone going low-carb to do so without problems. Here’s what I discovered about those with thyroid problems. Abrupt Change May Be too Much For the Thyroid People who run into trouble going low-carb seem to follow a pattern. They follow any number of diets from SAD to vegan before making a relatively abrupt switch to a low carb (often less than 50 gm) diet. At first they lose weight Continue reading >>

The Bears Take On Hibernation Biology Essay

The Bears Take On Hibernation Biology Essay

Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Bears are members of the family Ursidae, there are eight species alive today, with a large geographical range. They are found in North America, South America, Asia and Europe; they occupy a large range of habitats, from the Arctic tundra to temperate forests (Craighead Institute 2010). During winter, bears enter a state of dormancy. Most animal species become dormant to some extent during their lives, as an energy saving mechanism. Sleep is the archetypal form of dormancy, with animals retiring to a nest, assuming a sleep posture, remaining behaviourally quiescent and exhibiting elevated arousal thresholds (Heller et al 2004). A more extreme form of dormancy is torpor. Torpor is characterised by a controlled reduction of body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate, and other physiological functions (Geiser 2004). Torpor has the superficial appearance of sleep, indeed torpor and sleep are believed to be homologous. This has been supported by numerous electroencephalographic (EEG) studies (Heller et al. 2004). There are two basic forms of torpor used by heterothermic animals, hibernation (or prolonged torpor) and daily torpor. Daily torpor is usually not as deep as hibernation, lasts only for hours rather than days or weeks, and is usually interrupted by daily foraging and feeding (Geiser 2004). There is a lack of agreement over whether the winter dormancy of bears constitutes "true" hibernation. Hibernation is defined as "the dormant condition into which many animals and plants pass whe Continue reading >>

Hibernation Impact On The Catalytic Activities Of The Mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase In Liver And Brain Tissues Of Jerboa (jaculus Orientalis)

Hibernation Impact On The Catalytic Activities Of The Mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase In Liver And Brain Tissues Of Jerboa (jaculus Orientalis)

Abstract Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD) are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hiber Continue reading >>

Hibernation – How Bears Can Go Without Food And Water For Months

Hibernation – How Bears Can Go Without Food And Water For Months

I was reading on lipid metabolism the other day when I got to a very interesting “fact box” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. The title was “Fat Bears Carry out Beta Oxidation in Their Sleep”. It describes that many animals depend on their fat storage for energy production when they are in hibernation and it says that one of the most pronounced adjustments of fat metabolism occurs in hibernating grizzly bears. Did you know that grizzly bears are in hibernation for as long as 7 months per year? Bears, Hibernation and Beta Oxidation Besides, unlike many hibernating animals, bears are able to keep their body temperature between 32 and 35 degrees Celsius (which is very close to the normal body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius). The caloric daily consumption during hibernation in bears is approximately ~6,000 kcals. Keep in mind that they don’t eat, drink, urinate, and defecate for months at a time. Humans are able to go without food for very long periods of time. However, it would not be wise to do so. According to Lehninger, the sole fuel for grizzly bears in hibernation is their body fat. Through beta-oxidation they are able to yield enough energy for homeostasis, for protein synthesis, as well as for membrane transport (among other processes). The oxidation of fat yields consistent amounts of water that keeps the animal hydrated and it makes up for the loss of water through breathing. They also use the glycerol that is released from degrading TAG (triglycerides) to convert it in glucose through the process called gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose). It is very interesting how these bears evolved to reabsorb the urea which results from amino-acid breakdown and use it to make new amino-acids. This helps them to minimize the loss of lean muscle during t Continue reading >>

Recovery From A Low-carb Diet

Recovery From A Low-carb Diet

As with many aspects of life, extremes can be a challenge. Balance of nutrients is an important key for vibrant health. There is no question that those who have grown up on a diet high in refined carbohydrates experience tremendous benefits from eliminating them and adopting a diet high in animal fat and moderate amounts of protein, with a wide variety of vegetables and some fruits. At the other extreme is a diet very low in carbohydrates, often promoted for weight loss and immune disorders. However, problems result for many when complex carbohydrates are avoided long term. The result is often seen in conditions related to low thyroid and adrenal function. Do any of these symptoms sound familiar? • Are your hands and feet typically cold? • Is excess weight creeping up on you? • Has your average body temperature dropped? • Is your ability to handle stressful situations not what it used to be? • Do you have symptoms of osteoarthritis? • Are you experiencing hearing loss? • Appearance of xanthomas (lipid deposits under the skin)? • Eyelids dropping? • Sluggish reflexes? • Acne? • Low libido? • Challenged by infertility? A SHIFT IN METABOLISM The best explanation for the appearance of these symptoms is that as we age—we begin aging around age twenty-one—we shift from being fast oxidizers to slow oxidizers. In a nutshell this means that our ability to burn fuel slows down a bit and requires a little prodding. The result is a shift toward hypothyroidism, although often it is only sub-clinical, meaning thyroid hormone levels appear to be “normal.” Nonetheless, the symptoms are ever present. The body’s metabolism is like a fireplace fueled by three critical components: fat, protein and carbohydrates. Fat, which provides longer burning, sustaini Continue reading >>

Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis

Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis

So far I’ve only read about 2/3 of Keto Clarity, Jimmy Moore’s recent book. (As usual, I’m behind on my reading. The book was released three weeks ago.) Since the book is about nutritional ketosis, naturally I’ve been replaying the debates about ketosis in my mind as I read. I don’t want to clutter up my soon-to-appear review of the book with those debates (the book, after all, is mostly a how-to guide for people who have already decided to try a ketogenic diet) so I thought I’d chime in with some thoughts on ketosis now and review the book on its own merits. I’m not a fan of caustic debates among bloggers and authors who all advocate a more-or-less paleo, whole-foods diet but disagree on safe starches or ketosis. I explained why in my post about Differences, Commonalities and the Judean People’s Front. We agree far more than we disagree, but when the topic of ketosis comes up, you can almost sense some people wanting to yell “Splitters!” across the coliseum. Depending on which splitter has the floor, nutritional ketosis is either the natural human metabolic condition and should be sought by everyone who wants to be lean and healthy, or it’s an emergency-only condition that will ruin your metabolism and possibly kill you. I don’t buy either argument, at least not as a blanket statement for everyone. I believe achieving ketosis could be beneficial or not, depending on the individual. So I’ll just toss out some of the arguments I’ve come across recently in books, blogs and podcasts and respond with what went through my head when I heard them – and that’s all these are: my personal reactions to those arguments. Ketosis was the natural metabolic state of our Paleolithic ancestors. I used to believe that, but I don’t anymore. I think paleo p Continue reading >>

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

Hi there ! Interesting ! This could turn out helpful, especially the limb/organ regeneration (like geckos/salamanders/lizards cell transdifferentiation to regrow their cut-off limbs/tails...regrow a human arm or leg after losing it. But 'don't lose your head' (pun!) over losing your other limbs (joke)). Regrowing your head would still not stop you from dying from losing it in the first place. It's the regrowing of organs that has me more interested, limbs ok, but organs...that's a whole different thing. If we could regrow/regenerate our organs, except perhaps brain, to the exact same state during youth; that would be a form of rejuvenation. Exceptional cancer resistance by (NMRs) naked mole rats (large hyaluronan molecules, plump skin for hypoxic environment, altered p53-p16-p21 levels and stronger stromal cell barriers that inhibit tumor propagation to other organs) is definitely something we can do with; although, this is mixed stuff. Certain studies showed an actual increase in hyaluronic acid (HA) during human cancers (neoplastic remodelling is what is happening). Inflammation is characterized by higher amount of short-chain/fractured hyaluronan while anti-inflammation in ECM has more long-chained hyaluronan. Still, this is inconclusive, an small and large chain HA have been found during pathological remodelling (like fibrosis). ECM remodelling is complex and cancer neoplasticity ECM remodelling is too; it messes up HA, not like in naked mole rats. I'm not so sure increasing long-chain HA would amount to all that much, in humans, plumper youthful skin, like a naked mole rat, such as in little children or babies would not stop cancer (kigs gets cancers...anyways and have higher HA and plumper skin/tougher organ stromal barriers). Our cell density/organ complexity/siz Continue reading >>

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

The best Ketogenic Diet Book for Cancer will be available to the public soon. I’m currently completing what will be once published the best ketogenic diet book for cancer available on the market. This book will be a raw vegan ketogenic diet book which comes from decades of firsthand experience helping people heal from cancer. I’m asked often if this vegan keto diet is science based? The answer is yes, it is backed by science big time! My book will be drawn from years of helping people restore their health and go on to thrive. We use this healing diet at An Oasis of Healing, the healing center I founded over a decade ago. A raw vegan ketogenic diet works in harmony with our comprehensive cancer care program. Raw plant based nutrition is key to healing from cancer and works in harmony with the laws of nature. Let’s look at what the word Keto means? Keto also means ketosis or ketones. What is the function of ketosis? Fatty acids allow human beings to store energy. As these fatty acids are separated into different pieces they become fuel for the body. When they are separated even further, they become ketone bodies which consist of three molecules. The ketone bodies are carried into cells and then split apart even more to become pure fuel for the body. This fuel provides the necessary energy for the body. These fatty acids produce twice the amount of energy versus carbs and protein. Fat is nature’s gift to humanity as a result of its capacity for energy storage. Why do you think bears are able to hibernate all winter? They eat a lot and as a result store fat. They then go into hibernation and live off their stored fat. While they hibernate, the bears are in ketosis. The Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer Can Help Reverse This Pandemic There’s a right way and a wro Continue reading >>

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