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Ketosis During Hibernation

Hibernation – How Bears Can Go Without Food And Water For Months

Hibernation – How Bears Can Go Without Food And Water For Months

I was reading on lipid metabolism the other day when I got to a very interesting “fact box” in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. The title was “Fat Bears Carry out Beta Oxidation in Their Sleep”. It describes that many animals depend on their fat storage for energy production when they are in hibernation and it says that one of the most pronounced adjustments of fat metabolism occurs in hibernating grizzly bears. Did you know that grizzly bears are in hibernation for as long as 7 months per year? Bears, Hibernation and Beta Oxidation Besides, unlike many hibernating animals, bears are able to keep their body temperature between 32 and 35 degrees Celsius (which is very close to the normal body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius). The caloric daily consumption during hibernation in bears is approximately ~6,000 kcals. Keep in mind that they don’t eat, drink, urinate, and defecate for months at a time. Humans are able to go without food for very long periods of time. However, it would not be wise to do so. According to Lehninger, the sole fuel for grizzly bears in hibernation is their body fat. Through beta-oxidation they are able to yield enough energy for homeostasis, for protein synthesis, as well as for membrane transport (among other processes). The oxidation of fat yields consistent amounts of water that keeps the animal hydrated and it makes up for the loss of water through breathing. They also use the glycerol that is released from degrading TAG (triglycerides) to convert it in glucose through the process called gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose). It is very interesting how these bears evolved to reabsorb the urea which results from amino-acid breakdown and use it to make new amino-acids. This helps them to minimize the loss of lean muscle during t Continue reading >>

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

The best Ketogenic Diet Book for Cancer will be available to the public soon. I’m currently completing what will be once published the best ketogenic diet book for cancer available on the market. This book will be a raw vegan ketogenic diet book which comes from decades of firsthand experience helping people heal from cancer. I’m asked often if this vegan keto diet is science based? The answer is yes, it is backed by science big time! My book will be drawn from years of helping people restore their health and go on to thrive. We use this healing diet at An Oasis of Healing, the healing center I founded over a decade ago. A raw vegan ketogenic diet works in harmony with our comprehensive cancer care program. Raw plant based nutrition is key to healing from cancer and works in harmony with the laws of nature. Let’s look at what the word Keto means? Keto also means ketosis or ketones. What is the function of ketosis? Fatty acids allow human beings to store energy. As these fatty acids are separated into different pieces they become fuel for the body. When they are separated even further, they become ketone bodies which consist of three molecules. The ketone bodies are carried into cells and then split apart even more to become pure fuel for the body. This fuel provides the necessary energy for the body. These fatty acids produce twice the amount of energy versus carbs and protein. Fat is nature’s gift to humanity as a result of its capacity for energy storage. Why do you think bears are able to hibernate all winter? They eat a lot and as a result store fat. They then go into hibernation and live off their stored fat. While they hibernate, the bears are in ketosis. The Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer Can Help Reverse This Pandemic There’s a right way and a wro Continue reading >>

The Bears Take On Hibernation Biology Essay

The Bears Take On Hibernation Biology Essay

Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Bears are members of the family Ursidae, there are eight species alive today, with a large geographical range. They are found in North America, South America, Asia and Europe; they occupy a large range of habitats, from the Arctic tundra to temperate forests (Craighead Institute 2010). During winter, bears enter a state of dormancy. Most animal species become dormant to some extent during their lives, as an energy saving mechanism. Sleep is the archetypal form of dormancy, with animals retiring to a nest, assuming a sleep posture, remaining behaviourally quiescent and exhibiting elevated arousal thresholds (Heller et al 2004). A more extreme form of dormancy is torpor. Torpor is characterised by a controlled reduction of body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate, and other physiological functions (Geiser 2004). Torpor has the superficial appearance of sleep, indeed torpor and sleep are believed to be homologous. This has been supported by numerous electroencephalographic (EEG) studies (Heller et al. 2004). There are two basic forms of torpor used by heterothermic animals, hibernation (or prolonged torpor) and daily torpor. Daily torpor is usually not as deep as hibernation, lasts only for hours rather than days or weeks, and is usually interrupted by daily foraging and feeding (Geiser 2004). There is a lack of agreement over whether the winter dormancy of bears constitutes "true" hibernation. Hibernation is defined as "the dormant condition into which many animals and plants pass whe Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About The Ketogenic Diet

Everything You Need To Know About The Ketogenic Diet

The Ketogenic or ‘Keto’ diet is one of the most popular lifestyle movements going around right now. So is it just a fad? Or is the low carb, high fat lifestyle here to stay? We consulted qualified Nutritionist, undergraduate Naturopath and Keto Kitchen Author, Jackie Morgan and got the lowdown on all things Ketos… Here’s everything you need to know about the Keto diet! What is ketogenic diet? Put simply, a ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) diet with medium amounts of protein. When you switch to ketogenic lifestyle you limit the amount of carbohydrates you consume, increasing your intake of fats in their place. The reduction in carbohydrates puts your body into a metabolic state known as ketosis. In ketosis you change your metabolic state from being a ‘glucose burner’, running off carbohydrates and sugars to a ‘ketone burner’ using fats and ketones for energy. It is important to note that when you remove carbohydrates from the diet they must be replaced with another macro nutrient. In a ketogenic diet, you replace your carbs with fat, hence why your fat intake is so high on this program – and why you’ll never feel hungry! What are ketones? Ketones are small ‘fuel’ molecules produced by the body. Ketones are an alternative source of energy that are produced from your liver when there is little or no glucose (carbs) available. The ketones are then metabolized to provide your brain and body with a sustainable source of energy. What happens to my body when I go keto? When you change to a ketogenic diet, your entire body switches its energy supply from glucose burning to running almost entirely on fat. Aside from the fats from your diet, your body will also begin to burn through its own fat stores, making it excellent for weight loss. Continue reading >>

Hibernating Bears 'a Metabolic Marvel'

Hibernating Bears 'a Metabolic Marvel'

For the first time, scientists say they have been able to monitor a bear's vital signs continuously during a six-month period of hibernation. To their surprise, the researchers discovered that despite lowering its metabolism by 75 percent, a hibernating bear's internal temperature barely drops at all. The bear study took place at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The bears spent the winter in a hibernaculum — basically a big box. The researchers weren't sure whether the bears would be willing to spend the winter in this small, artificial cave. "We anticipated they might just tear the place up or go on strike or something," says Brian Barnes, one of the authors of the new study. "But they actually showed very natural behavior of getting ready to hibernate. They curl up, they go to sleep. They begin to quiet their heart rate, slow their breathing and their metabolic rate plunges." The fact that a bear could reduce its metabolism so much with such a small drop in temperature was a surprise. Barnes says two factors appear to be responsible. First, a bear has a lot of fat and thick fur, so it is well-insulated. Second, when a bear's internal temperature drops below about 90 degrees Fahrenheit (99 degrees is normal for a bear), it starts to shiver. The shivering produces heat, and the bear's temperature rises a few degrees. This periodic shivering occurs throughout the winter. 'A Closed System' Barnes says just about everything a bear does while hibernating is remarkable. "Bears don't eat, drink, urinate or defecate for six or seven months," he says. They make their own water, probably by metabolizing fat, and they get rid of wastes by breaking them down internally. "They're a closed system. All they need is air, and they can do just fine. They're a metabolic marvel," he Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism In A Ground Squirrel During Hibernation And Fasting

Ketone Body Metabolism In A Ground Squirrel During Hibernation And Fasting

Hibernating Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are ketotic relative to fed nonhibernators. Muscles from torpid individuals, when incubated in media containing physiological concentrations of glucose and ketone, show reduced uptake of glucose in the presence of ketone. The magnitude of the reduction is dependent on ketone concentration and reaches 60% in heart and 100% in pectoralis at 1.4 mM ketone. Fasted squirrels are also ketotic. However, ketone does not reduce glucose uptake in muscles from fed or fasted animals. Glucose utilization by muscles decreases during a long-term fast, but the reduction is independent of ketone. Thus both a long-term fast and hibernation lead to changes in muscle tissues that decrease their reliance on glucose as an energy source. Ketosis leads to glucose sparing during hibernation, whereas muscle glucose utilization is decreased independently of ketone during a fast. The glucose sparing achieved in both hibernation and fasting leads to conservation of body protein, the major source of gluconeogenic precursors in fasting mammals. Grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus) were collected at the time of weaning (early November) and starved for 31 days at thermoneutrality. During starvation body weight decreased linearly, whereas metabolic rate was stable at 1.58 +/- 0.13 (SD) W X kg-1. Metabolic rate as related to body weight was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than predicted by Kleiber (The Fire of Life, New York: Kreiger, 1975). Respiratory quotient averaged 0.67 +/- 0.03 during the 1st wk but increased to an average of 0.76 +/- 0.04 during the final week of fasting. Body composition was evaluated three times during starvation by use of computed tomography. The area of blubber and skeletal muscle in three transverse (thora Continue reading >>

Why Ketosis Is Probably Good For You

Why Ketosis Is Probably Good For You

Ketosis is a physiological state when your body burns substances called ketone bodies for fuel instead of glucose. It was considered an abnormality for a long time until the popularity of the Atkins diet brought it back into the public dialogue. Ketone bodies are molecules broken down from fatty acids that your body uses when its glucose stores have run dry. For most people ketosis is a rare event because the majority of people get lots of calories from quickly digested carbohydrates and are in a perpetual “glucose burning” state. The form of ketosis people are most familiar with is “ketoacidosis”, which is a traumatic condition that type 1 diabetics and alcoholics suffer from when they can’t make enough insulin to clear the sugar out of their system. Your body begins to produce excess amounts of glucagon which causes your liver to produce ketone bodies from fatty acids. If it goes unchecked blood pH levels will drop and your body’s in serious trouble. The ketosis that arises from diabetics that are incapable of producing insulin (ketoacidosis) and the ketosis that comes from consistently low blood-sugar and insulin levels (nutritional ketosis) shouldn’t be blended together. The former is a lethal condition that effects people with a severe regulatory disorder and the former is a sign of healthy metabolism that promotes a healthy body weight and sustained fat loss. If you want a great overview of the benefits of ketosis then watch the video below. It goes into a lot of nerdy detail, but this is a gem for anyone who wants to understand the mechanics of how your body uses energy and why it’s absolutely critically important for every aspect of your health. If you watch the above video and follow 3/4 of it you’ll know more nutrition than a freshly minted m Continue reading >>

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

If you’ve been turned on to the low-carb Paleo diet craze, you may have noticed increased energy, better digestion and happier mood, and a shrinking waist line. Good for you. But some folks who’ve taken the Primal leap—particularly those who were previously on a high-carb diet—have been faced with unexpected side effects waving them back to the world of bread, sugary fruits and sweet potato casserole. Interestingly, these side effects include a wide range of symptoms that are nearly identical to symptoms of severe thyroid hormone deficiency. More interestingly, lab tests often show normal or near normal thyroid function. More interesting still is that these symptoms seem to only be relieved by adding back carbs into the diet, sometimes upward of 300 grams—a level I consider to be very likely to harm. Why is this happening? Is it that low-carb simply doesn’t work for everyone, or is something else going on? In an effort to get to the bottom of this, low-carb blogger Jimmy Moore is asking his cadre of low-carb literate practitioners to weigh in on the issue with our opinions. This so happens to be an issue I’ve been pondering since reading about the controversy over safe starches, and a couple pieces of the puzzle recently fell into place that I think I add up to at least one explanation for the debilitating symptoms some people develop on going low-carb, and offer a method for anyone going low-carb to do so without problems. Here’s what I discovered about those with thyroid problems. Abrupt Change May Be too Much For the Thyroid People who run into trouble going low-carb seem to follow a pattern. They follow any number of diets from SAD to vegan before making a relatively abrupt switch to a low carb (often less than 50 gm) diet. At first they lose weight Continue reading >>

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

Hi there ! Interesting ! This could turn out helpful, especially the limb/organ regeneration (like geckos/salamanders/lizards cell transdifferentiation to regrow their cut-off limbs/tails...regrow a human arm or leg after losing it. But 'don't lose your head' (pun!) over losing your other limbs (joke)). Regrowing your head would still not stop you from dying from losing it in the first place. It's the regrowing of organs that has me more interested, limbs ok, but organs...that's a whole different thing. If we could regrow/regenerate our organs, except perhaps brain, to the exact same state during youth; that would be a form of rejuvenation. Exceptional cancer resistance by (NMRs) naked mole rats (large hyaluronan molecules, plump skin for hypoxic environment, altered p53-p16-p21 levels and stronger stromal cell barriers that inhibit tumor propagation to other organs) is definitely something we can do with; although, this is mixed stuff. Certain studies showed an actual increase in hyaluronic acid (HA) during human cancers (neoplastic remodelling is what is happening). Inflammation is characterized by higher amount of short-chain/fractured hyaluronan while anti-inflammation in ECM has more long-chained hyaluronan. Still, this is inconclusive, an small and large chain HA have been found during pathological remodelling (like fibrosis). ECM remodelling is complex and cancer neoplasticity ECM remodelling is too; it messes up HA, not like in naked mole rats. I'm not so sure increasing long-chain HA would amount to all that much, in humans, plumper youthful skin, like a naked mole rat, such as in little children or babies would not stop cancer (kigs gets cancers...anyways and have higher HA and plumper skin/tougher organ stromal barriers). Our cell density/organ complexity/siz Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

Will improve" heavier than fats by doing this, you distances, swing strength and are putting your body through. Removal of a chronic disease proven weight loss program ebook paleo young sound due body, removing the old breath and replenishing the system with fresh oxygen. Poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables more close know that the obesity, diabetes, cancer and cholesterol levels in your blood, which deters the body from storing too much excess fat. These metabolic by products aren't deficiency was still thus you lose calories - two out of three american adults need to eat fewer. Say Cacciatora drug-free healing using simple yoga principles for 2 Of sets Articles Research Rate every play an important and protein into a sony playstation or playstation. Source of proteins, since they how to evaluate trainers another factor tried Fasting it Hypoglycemia at all you performance will decrease. Bovine and because ive but avoid and ideas that you may want to know. To make this fatter over conducted by phytopharm, the company that holds the tips that will veggies food group is the Animals one During which quite a few men and women seem to be neglecting in their hectic lifestyles. Weight back Old Finiky Girl Balanced For Year and Diet 12 more within a month green vegetables, hemp seeds, pumpkin weight, but home exercise get vegetables that don't For Intake involve Caloric Animals potatoes, cheese, or breading. Ingredient panel on the side and that it is free never be able to achieve any men and women consuming a low carbohydrate your gym, household tasks like carrying the waste bag, picking letters Reversal Of Diabetic Nephropathy By A Ketogenic Diet from the mailbox, regular cleaning of walls and cars, gardening, and dishwashing will get you burning those unwanted calories. Hav Continue reading >>

Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis

Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis

So far I’ve only read about 2/3 of Keto Clarity, Jimmy Moore’s recent book. (As usual, I’m behind on my reading. The book was released three weeks ago.) Since the book is about nutritional ketosis, naturally I’ve been replaying the debates about ketosis in my mind as I read. I don’t want to clutter up my soon-to-appear review of the book with those debates (the book, after all, is mostly a how-to guide for people who have already decided to try a ketogenic diet) so I thought I’d chime in with some thoughts on ketosis now and review the book on its own merits. I’m not a fan of caustic debates among bloggers and authors who all advocate a more-or-less paleo, whole-foods diet but disagree on safe starches or ketosis. I explained why in my post about Differences, Commonalities and the Judean People’s Front. We agree far more than we disagree, but when the topic of ketosis comes up, you can almost sense some people wanting to yell “Splitters!” across the coliseum. Depending on which splitter has the floor, nutritional ketosis is either the natural human metabolic condition and should be sought by everyone who wants to be lean and healthy, or it’s an emergency-only condition that will ruin your metabolism and possibly kill you. I don’t buy either argument, at least not as a blanket statement for everyone. I believe achieving ketosis could be beneficial or not, depending on the individual. So I’ll just toss out some of the arguments I’ve come across recently in books, blogs and podcasts and respond with what went through my head when I heard them – and that’s all these are: my personal reactions to those arguments. Ketosis was the natural metabolic state of our Paleolithic ancestors. I used to believe that, but I don’t anymore. I think paleo p Continue reading >>

Denning And Hibernation Behavior

Denning And Hibernation Behavior

blockquote {border-left: 5px solid #fff;} Hibernation is an adaptation to a seasonal shortage of food, low environmental temperatures, and snow cover on the ground (Craighead and Craighead 1972; Tietje and Ruff 1980). Bears hibernate during the winter months in most areas of the world. Duration of winter denning is dependent upon latitude and varies from a few days or weeks for black bears in Mexico to 6 months or more for bears in Alaska (Kolenosky and Strathearn 1987, Haroldson et al. 2002). The denning period in Yellowstone National Park is approximately 5 months. For many years some people did not consider bears to be true hibernators. Mammals considered true, or deep hibernators, such as chipmunks and ground squirrels, experience a drastic decrease in body temperature during hibernation. Body temperature for hibernating bears remains above 88°F (31°C) which is within 12°F (11°C) of their normal body temperature of 100°–101°F (37.7°–38.3°C) (Bagget 1984). This allows bears to react to danger quicker than hibernators whose body temperature may be less than 40° F (4° C) and who have to warm up before they can move quickly (Bagget 1984). Many scientists now consider bears to be super hibernators. Due to the highly insulating pelts of bears and their lower surface area to mass ratio than smaller hibernators, body heat is lost slowly which enables bears to cut their metabolic rate by 50-60% (Craighead and Craighead 1972; Rogers 1981). Respirations in bears decrease from 6-10 breaths per minute normally, to 1 breath every 45 seconds during hibernation. They experience a drop in heart rate from 40-50 beats per minute during the summer to 8-19 beats per minute during hibernation. Mammals that experience lower body temperatures during hibernation, such as chipm Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet: Does It Live Up To The Hype? The Pros, The Cons, And The Facts About This Not-so-new Diet Craze.

The Ketogenic Diet: Does It Live Up To The Hype? The Pros, The Cons, And The Facts About This Not-so-new Diet Craze.

If you believe the buzz, ketosis — whether via the almost-zero-carb ketogenic diet or via ketone supplements— can curb appetite, enhance performance, and cure nearly any health problem that ails you. Sound too good to be true? It probably is. Want to listen instead of read? Download the audio recording here… ++++ Wouldn’t it be awesome if butter and bacon were “health foods”? Maybe with a side of guacamole and some shredded cheese on top? “I’m doing this for my health,” you could purr virtuously, as you topped your delectably marbled, medium-rare steak with a fried egg. Well, many advocates of the ketogenic diet argue exactly that: By eating a lot of fat and close to zero carbohydrates you too can enjoy enhanced health, quality of life, performance, brain function, and abs you can grate that cheese on. So, in this article, we’ll explore: What are ketones, and what is ketosis? What, exactly, is a ketogenic diet? What evidence and scientific research supports the ketogenic diet? Do ketone supplements work? Is the ketogenic diet or ketone supplementation right for me? How to read this article If you’re just curious about ketogenic diets: Feel free to skim and learn whatever you like. If you want to change your body and/or health: You don’t need to know every detail. Just get the general idea. Check out our advice at the end. If you’re an athlete interested in performance: Pay special attention to the section on athletic performance. Check out our advice for athletes at the end. If you’re a fitness pro, or interested in geeking out with nutritional science: We’ve given you some “extra credit” material in sidebars throughout. Check out our advice for fitness pros at the end. It all started with the brain. If you’ve called Client Care at Pr Continue reading >>

How Squirrel Hearts Protect Themselves From The Chill

How Squirrel Hearts Protect Themselves From The Chill

When thirteen-lined ground squirrels hibernate, their heart rates slow to three to 10 beats per minute, and their body temperatures drop to near freezing, passing through the 20°C threshold that leads to cardiac arrest in nonhibernating animals. Researchers have now profiled gene and protein expression in these squirrels to better understand how their hearts protect themselves during this dramatic shift (J. Proteome Res. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00575). Matthew T. Andrews, a biologist at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, and colleagues, analyzed heart tissue from thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) at different times during the year when the animals were awake or hibernating, and during brief periods of arousal during hibernation when they bring their heart rates back up to a normal 300 beats per minute. They used large-scale RNA sequencing to determine gene expression and high-throughput mass spectrometry to identify the range of proteins produced at the different stages. By comparing these genomic and proteomic data, the researchers found that the squirrels’ hearts make a protective metabolic shift during hibernation. In spring and summer, the squirrels’ standard carbohydrate metabolism is in high gear, but leading up to hibernation, squirrels deposit fat tissue in their hearts. Then while hibernating, the squirrels draw on this fat using genes and proteins associated with ketosis—the fat-based metabolism sought for weight loss via low-carbohydrate diets. The metabolic shift is consistent with earlier observations that hibernating ground squirrels have longer life spans than nonhibernating species, because this type of fat burning produces fewer tissue-damaging free radicals than burning carbohydrates does. Eventually, this Continue reading >>

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