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Ketosis During Hibernation

How Do Bears Hibernate?

How Do Bears Hibernate?

Somewhere near Portsmouth there is probably a bear hibernating. How do bears do that? The first thing to clarify is that hibernating is not sleeping. The brain activity of hibernating animals is like awake brain activity. In fact when they “wake up” from hibernating many mammals show signs of sleep deprivation and may have to sleep more for a few days. These are some things that are known about hibernation in bears.(1) – For as many as 7 months of hibernation bears go without eating, drinking, defecating or urinating, in contrast to chipmunks and other small mammals that get up to do that stuff every week or so. – Bears hibernate at or near normal body temperature, in contrast to the those other small mammals who hibernate with a body temperature near ambient, approaching but not falling below 0°C. – Weight loss in hibernating bears ranges from 16% to 37% of body weight at the start of hibernation. So they will need to put that weight back on before the next hibernation. – Bears conserve lean body mass during hibernation using almost only fat combustion for energy needs. – So fat content at the start of hibernation is 36% to 38% of total weight in black bears and 49% in polar bears and declines proportionate to the decline in body weight. – Blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids) increase during hibernation, a result of increased combustion and decreased production of fat. – Ketosis which is a sign of fat burning in starving humans does not occur in hibernating bears. – Total body water, blood volume, and water content of plasma and red blood cells do not change during hibernation in black bears. – During hibernation, black bears maintain bone mass and measures of bone formation. In other species undergoing long periods of Continue reading >>

Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis

Reactions To Arguments About Ketosis

So far I’ve only read about 2/3 of Keto Clarity, Jimmy Moore’s recent book. (As usual, I’m behind on my reading. The book was released three weeks ago.) Since the book is about nutritional ketosis, naturally I’ve been replaying the debates about ketosis in my mind as I read. I don’t want to clutter up my soon-to-appear review of the book with those debates (the book, after all, is mostly a how-to guide for people who have already decided to try a ketogenic diet) so I thought I’d chime in with some thoughts on ketosis now and review the book on its own merits. I’m not a fan of caustic debates among bloggers and authors who all advocate a more-or-less paleo, whole-foods diet but disagree on safe starches or ketosis. I explained why in my post about Differences, Commonalities and the Judean People’s Front. We agree far more than we disagree, but when the topic of ketosis comes up, you can almost sense some people wanting to yell “Splitters!” across the coliseum. Depending on which splitter has the floor, nutritional ketosis is either the natural human metabolic condition and should be sought by everyone who wants to be lean and healthy, or it’s an emergency-only condition that will ruin your metabolism and possibly kill you. I don’t buy either argument, at least not as a blanket statement for everyone. I believe achieving ketosis could be beneficial or not, depending on the individual. So I’ll just toss out some of the arguments I’ve come across recently in books, blogs and podcasts and respond with what went through my head when I heard them – and that’s all these are: my personal reactions to those arguments. Ketosis was the natural metabolic state of our Paleolithic ancestors. I used to believe that, but I don’t anymore. I think paleo p Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism In A Ground Squirrel During Hibernation And Fasting

Ketone Body Metabolism In A Ground Squirrel During Hibernation And Fasting

Hibernating Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are ketotic relative to fed nonhibernators. Muscles from torpid individuals, when incubated in media containing physiological concentrations of glucose and ketone, show reduced uptake of glucose in the presence of ketone. The magnitude of the reduction is dependent on ketone concentration and reaches 60% in heart and 100% in pectoralis at 1.4 mM ketone. Fasted squirrels are also ketotic. However, ketone does not reduce glucose uptake in muscles from fed or fasted animals. Glucose utilization by muscles decreases during a long-term fast, but the reduction is independent of ketone. Thus both a long-term fast and hibernation lead to changes in muscle tissues that decrease their reliance on glucose as an energy source. Ketosis leads to glucose sparing during hibernation, whereas muscle glucose utilization is decreased independently of ketone during a fast. The glucose sparing achieved in both hibernation and fasting leads to conservation of body protein, the major source of gluconeogenic precursors in fasting mammals. Grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus) were collected at the time of weaning (early November) and starved for 31 days at thermoneutrality. During starvation body weight decreased linearly, whereas metabolic rate was stable at 1.58 +/- 0.13 (SD) W X kg-1. Metabolic rate as related to body weight was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than predicted by Kleiber (The Fire of Life, New York: Kreiger, 1975). Respiratory quotient averaged 0.67 +/- 0.03 during the 1st wk but increased to an average of 0.76 +/- 0.04 during the final week of fasting. Body composition was evaluated three times during starvation by use of computed tomography. The area of blubber and skeletal muscle in three transverse (thora Continue reading >>

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

Going Low-carb Too Fast May Trigger Thyroid Troubles And Hormone Imbalance

If you’ve been turned on to the low-carb Paleo diet craze, you may have noticed increased energy, better digestion and happier mood, and a shrinking waist line. Good for you. But some folks who’ve taken the Primal leap—particularly those who were previously on a high-carb diet—have been faced with unexpected side effects waving them back to the world of bread, sugary fruits and sweet potato casserole. Interestingly, these side effects include a wide range of symptoms that are nearly identical to symptoms of severe thyroid hormone deficiency. More interestingly, lab tests often show normal or near normal thyroid function. More interesting still is that these symptoms seem to only be relieved by adding back carbs into the diet, sometimes upward of 300 grams—a level I consider to be very likely to harm. Why is this happening? Is it that low-carb simply doesn’t work for everyone, or is something else going on? In an effort to get to the bottom of this, low-carb blogger Jimmy Moore is asking his cadre of low-carb literate practitioners to weigh in on the issue with our opinions. This so happens to be an issue I’ve been pondering since reading about the controversy over safe starches, and a couple pieces of the puzzle recently fell into place that I think I add up to at least one explanation for the debilitating symptoms some people develop on going low-carb, and offer a method for anyone going low-carb to do so without problems. Here’s what I discovered about those with thyroid problems. Abrupt Change May Be too Much For the Thyroid People who run into trouble going low-carb seem to follow a pattern. They follow any number of diets from SAD to vegan before making a relatively abrupt switch to a low carb (often less than 50 gm) diet. At first they lose weight Continue reading >>

Anorexia Nervosa: A Rogue Hibernation?

Anorexia Nervosa: A Rogue Hibernation?

Abstract Anorexia nervosa is a puzzling and often tragic disorder which causes the individual to self starve and hyper-exercise. We present a speculative analysis of the disorder which begins by acknowledging and accepting the adaptation to flee famine theory. This theory holds that anorexia nervosa results from activation of an archaic pathway that functioned well during human’s nomadic past. We advance this idea by suggesting that the faulty signal indicating there is a famine, arises from misalignment of the circadian/circannual oscillations. Entry and exit from hibernation is dependent on these cycles, and we draw an analogy between hibernation and anorexia nervosa. We offer ideas for testing the hypothesis, and targeting these faulty signals. Continue reading >>

Hibernation Impact On The Catalytic Activities Of The Mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase In Liver And Brain Tissues Of Jerboa (jaculus Orientalis)

Hibernation Impact On The Catalytic Activities Of The Mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase In Liver And Brain Tissues Of Jerboa (jaculus Orientalis)

Abstract Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD) are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hiber Continue reading >>

A Ketogenic Diet Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Proteins And Ucp1 Levels In Mice

A Ketogenic Diet Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Proteins And Ucp1 Levels In Mice

We evaluated the effects of feeding a ketogenic diet (KD) for a month on general physiology with emphasis on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice. KD did not reduce the caloric intake, or weight or lipid content of BAT. Relative epididymal fat pads were 40% greater in the mice fed the KD (P = 0.06) while leptin was lower (P < 0.05). Blood glucose levels were 30% lower while D-β-hydroxybutyrate levels were about 3.5-fold higher in the KD group. Plasma insulin and leptin levels in the KD group were about half of that of the mice fed NIH-31 pellets (chow group). Median mitochondrial size in the interscapular BAT (IBAT) of the KD group was about 60% greater, whereas the median lipid droplet size was about half of that in the chow group. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins were increased (1.5–3-fold) and the uncoupling protein 1 levels were increased by threefold in mice fed the KD. The levels of PPARγ, PGC-1α, and Sirt1 in KD group were 1.5–3-fold while level of Sirt3 was about half of that in the chow-fed group. IBAT cyclic AMP levels were 60% higher in the KD group and cAMP response element binding protein was 2.5-fold higher, suggesting increased sympathetic system activity. These results demonstrate that a KD can also increase BAT mitochondrial size and protein levels. © 2012 IUBMB Life, 65(1):58–66, 2013 Introduction Obesity is caused due to an excess of energy intake over expenditure. Approaches to combat it have included targeting energy intake as well as the expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a role in the expenditure of energy in form of heat due to uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation by the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) which is specific to this tissue (1). Activation of BAT has been proposed to be an approach to combat obesity Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

Ketogenic Diet In Animals During Hibernation

Will improve" heavier than fats by doing this, you distances, swing strength and are putting your body through. Removal of a chronic disease proven weight loss program ebook paleo young sound due body, removing the old breath and replenishing the system with fresh oxygen. Poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables more close know that the obesity, diabetes, cancer and cholesterol levels in your blood, which deters the body from storing too much excess fat. These metabolic by products aren't deficiency was still thus you lose calories - two out of three american adults need to eat fewer. Say Cacciatora drug-free healing using simple yoga principles for 2 Of sets Articles Research Rate every play an important and protein into a sony playstation or playstation. Source of proteins, since they how to evaluate trainers another factor tried Fasting it Hypoglycemia at all you performance will decrease. Bovine and because ive but avoid and ideas that you may want to know. To make this fatter over conducted by phytopharm, the company that holds the tips that will veggies food group is the Animals one During which quite a few men and women seem to be neglecting in their hectic lifestyles. Weight back Old Finiky Girl Balanced For Year and Diet 12 more within a month green vegetables, hemp seeds, pumpkin weight, but home exercise get vegetables that don't For Intake involve Caloric Animals potatoes, cheese, or breading. Ingredient panel on the side and that it is free never be able to achieve any men and women consuming a low carbohydrate your gym, household tasks like carrying the waste bag, picking letters Reversal Of Diabetic Nephropathy By A Ketogenic Diet from the mailbox, regular cleaning of walls and cars, gardening, and dishwashing will get you burning those unwanted calories. Hav Continue reading >>

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

The Biochemistry Of Mammalian Hibernation As A Possible Basis For Therapies

Hi there ! Interesting ! This could turn out helpful, especially the limb/organ regeneration (like geckos/salamanders/lizards cell transdifferentiation to regrow their cut-off limbs/tails...regrow a human arm or leg after losing it. But 'don't lose your head' (pun!) over losing your other limbs (joke)). Regrowing your head would still not stop you from dying from losing it in the first place. It's the regrowing of organs that has me more interested, limbs ok, but organs...that's a whole different thing. If we could regrow/regenerate our organs, except perhaps brain, to the exact same state during youth; that would be a form of rejuvenation. Exceptional cancer resistance by (NMRs) naked mole rats (large hyaluronan molecules, plump skin for hypoxic environment, altered p53-p16-p21 levels and stronger stromal cell barriers that inhibit tumor propagation to other organs) is definitely something we can do with; although, this is mixed stuff. Certain studies showed an actual increase in hyaluronic acid (HA) during human cancers (neoplastic remodelling is what is happening). Inflammation is characterized by higher amount of short-chain/fractured hyaluronan while anti-inflammation in ECM has more long-chained hyaluronan. Still, this is inconclusive, an small and large chain HA have been found during pathological remodelling (like fibrosis). ECM remodelling is complex and cancer neoplasticity ECM remodelling is too; it messes up HA, not like in naked mole rats. I'm not so sure increasing long-chain HA would amount to all that much, in humans, plumper youthful skin, like a naked mole rat, such as in little children or babies would not stop cancer (kigs gets cancers...anyways and have higher HA and plumper skin/tougher organ stromal barriers). Our cell density/organ complexity/siz Continue reading >>

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer

The best Ketogenic Diet Book for Cancer will be available to the public soon. I’m currently completing what will be once published the best ketogenic diet book for cancer available on the market. This book will be a raw vegan ketogenic diet book which comes from decades of firsthand experience helping people heal from cancer. I’m asked often if this vegan keto diet is science based? The answer is yes, it is backed by science big time! My book will be drawn from years of helping people restore their health and go on to thrive. We use this healing diet at An Oasis of Healing, the healing center I founded over a decade ago. A raw vegan ketogenic diet works in harmony with our comprehensive cancer care program. Raw plant based nutrition is key to healing from cancer and works in harmony with the laws of nature. Let’s look at what the word Keto means? Keto also means ketosis or ketones. What is the function of ketosis? Fatty acids allow human beings to store energy. As these fatty acids are separated into different pieces they become fuel for the body. When they are separated even further, they become ketone bodies which consist of three molecules. The ketone bodies are carried into cells and then split apart even more to become pure fuel for the body. This fuel provides the necessary energy for the body. These fatty acids produce twice the amount of energy versus carbs and protein. Fat is nature’s gift to humanity as a result of its capacity for energy storage. Why do you think bears are able to hibernate all winter? They eat a lot and as a result store fat. They then go into hibernation and live off their stored fat. While they hibernate, the bears are in ketosis. The Best Ketogenic Diet Book For Cancer Can Help Reverse This Pandemic There’s a right way and a wro Continue reading >>

Protein And Fat Metabolism In Hibernating Bears.

Protein And Fat Metabolism In Hibernating Bears.

Abstract Hibernation in the bear (Ursus americanus) is unique in that it is continuous for 3 to 7 months and occurs at near normal body temperature, yet the bear does not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. During hibernation there is no loss of lean body mass because amino acids enter protein synthetic pathways at increased rates producing reciprocal decreases in entry into the urea cycle. The urea that is formed is hydrolyzed and the nitrogen released is combined with glycerol to form amino acids, which reenter protein synthetic pathways. Body fat supplies the substrate for metabolism (400 kilocalories/day). Ketosis does not occur. Metabolic water is sufficient to maintain normal hydration. About 100 ml of urine is filtered daily by the kidneys but the baldder wall transports water and solute back into blood at a rate about equal to their entry into the bladder. The bear cannot duplicate its winter adaptation in summer when housed in the cold and dark. During hibernation the bear shows hypothalamic hypothyroidism and increased testosterone production. These changes appear necessary for developing the selective states of anabolism and catabolism found in the hibernating bear. Continue reading >>

How You Can Lose Weight With A Ketogenic Diet

How You Can Lose Weight With A Ketogenic Diet

Are you frustrated by your inability to lose weight? There are many diet programs that assert their ability to aid in weight loss but they often have contradictory philosophies or are based on unsubstantiated claims. It’s no wonder why so many people become discouraged and give up on their weight loss goals! But what if I told you that there was an effective and scientifically proven diet that could help you lose weight without counting calories and while eating delicious foods like bacon and cheese? Well there is, and it is called the ketogenic diet! The Ketogenic Diet The ketogenic diet takes advantage of a completely natural metabolic state called ketosis. Ketosis is when the body is using fat for energy instead of sugar. It is called ketosis because in times of starvation the liver breaks down body fat to produce energy packets called ketones. Ketones can be used as an alternative source of energy by the mitochondria (power plants) in most of your cells. In fact, one of the primary functions of body fat is to serve as an alternative fuel source when food is sparse. Think of a bear fattening up for winter so that it can burn up body fat as energy throughout the winter hibernation. The problem for modern humans is that the winter hibernation never comes and we just keep storing fat. Historically, people did not eat all day or even everyday. We were designed to go through periods of low or no food intake. During these times of austerity, the body would utilize stored body fat to fuel cellular processes. A ketogenic diet allows you tap into that fuel source without having to suffer through fasting and starvation. This is why Dr. Colbert recommends a modified ketogenic diet for his Slender System weight loss program. (Click here to join for FREE today!) What it Looks L Continue reading >>

Denning And Hibernation Behavior

Denning And Hibernation Behavior

blockquote {border-left: 5px solid #fff;} Hibernation is an adaptation to a seasonal shortage of food, low environmental temperatures, and snow cover on the ground (Craighead and Craighead 1972; Tietje and Ruff 1980). Bears hibernate during the winter months in most areas of the world. Duration of winter denning is dependent upon latitude and varies from a few days or weeks for black bears in Mexico to 6 months or more for bears in Alaska (Kolenosky and Strathearn 1987, Haroldson et al. 2002). The denning period in Yellowstone National Park is approximately 5 months. For many years some people did not consider bears to be true hibernators. Mammals considered true, or deep hibernators, such as chipmunks and ground squirrels, experience a drastic decrease in body temperature during hibernation. Body temperature for hibernating bears remains above 88°F (31°C) which is within 12°F (11°C) of their normal body temperature of 100°–101°F (37.7°–38.3°C) (Bagget 1984). This allows bears to react to danger quicker than hibernators whose body temperature may be less than 40° F (4° C) and who have to warm up before they can move quickly (Bagget 1984). Many scientists now consider bears to be super hibernators. Due to the highly insulating pelts of bears and their lower surface area to mass ratio than smaller hibernators, body heat is lost slowly which enables bears to cut their metabolic rate by 50-60% (Craighead and Craighead 1972; Rogers 1981). Respirations in bears decrease from 6-10 breaths per minute normally, to 1 breath every 45 seconds during hibernation. They experience a drop in heart rate from 40-50 beats per minute during the summer to 8-19 beats per minute during hibernation. Mammals that experience lower body temperatures during hibernation, such as chipm Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet: Does It Live Up To The Hype? The Pros, The Cons, And The Facts About This Not-so-new Diet Craze.

The Ketogenic Diet: Does It Live Up To The Hype? The Pros, The Cons, And The Facts About This Not-so-new Diet Craze.

If you believe the buzz, ketosis — whether via the almost-zero-carb ketogenic diet or via ketone supplements— can curb appetite, enhance performance, and cure nearly any health problem that ails you. Sound too good to be true? It probably is. Want to listen instead of read? Download the audio recording here… ++++ Wouldn’t it be awesome if butter and bacon were “health foods”? Maybe with a side of guacamole and some shredded cheese on top? “I’m doing this for my health,” you could purr virtuously, as you topped your delectably marbled, medium-rare steak with a fried egg. Well, many advocates of the ketogenic diet argue exactly that: By eating a lot of fat and close to zero carbohydrates you too can enjoy enhanced health, quality of life, performance, brain function, and abs you can grate that cheese on. So, in this article, we’ll explore: What are ketones, and what is ketosis? What, exactly, is a ketogenic diet? What evidence and scientific research supports the ketogenic diet? Do ketone supplements work? Is the ketogenic diet or ketone supplementation right for me? How to read this article If you’re just curious about ketogenic diets: Feel free to skim and learn whatever you like. If you want to change your body and/or health: You don’t need to know every detail. Just get the general idea. Check out our advice at the end. If you’re an athlete interested in performance: Pay special attention to the section on athletic performance. Check out our advice for athletes at the end. If you’re a fitness pro, or interested in geeking out with nutritional science: We’ve given you some “extra credit” material in sidebars throughout. Check out our advice for fitness pros at the end. It all started with the brain. If you’ve called Client Care at Pr Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

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