[thermogenesis From The Breakdown Of A Ketogenic Diet In An Experimental Model Using Swine].
Abstract A respiration calorimetry experiment with 10 matures sows was conducted to study the effect of a ketogenic diet on heat production and energy utilization. The ketogenic diet contained no carbohydrates and 85% of its energy as fat. The control diet was a mixed diet with most of its energy as carbohydrates. Both diets provided the same daily protein intake, which was slightly below the calculated protein requirement. The level of energy intake was adjusted to a moderate positive energy balance. Both diets were allocated to the same animal for three weeks each according to a crossover design. Seven-day collection periods and 48-hours measurements of the gaseous exchange (carbon-nitrogen balance method) were conducted on individual sows per diet. The ketogenic diet substantially increased the energy losses in faeces, which resulted in a energy digestibility of 75% compared to 93% with the mixed diet. The methane production was also significantly depressed. In contrast, the urine energy excretion was not influenced by the extremely high fat diet. The nitrogen balance showed lower faecal nitrogen losses and a higher urine nitrogen excretion in the animals with the high fat diet. Because of this compensative response no difference in nitrogen retention was observed between the two dietary treatments. The ketogenic diet caused no detrimental effects on thermogenesis or energy utilization. The results of both criteria could be fully explained by the well accepted ideas of the efficiency of utilization of the energy from fat under balanced nutrition conditions. Overall the results demonstrate that a high fat diet has no regulatory effect on the usually diet-induced thermogenesis. Continue reading >>
The Ketosis Promise Land
(Week 7-11) How the search for additional marginal gains led me to the path of tenuous benefits and brought me (almost) nothing but misery. While studying various aspects of LC way of living, It wasn’t difficult to stumble upon the term “keto-adaptation” or ketosis, that seemed to pop up very frequently, especially with relation in endurance training. This keto adaptation approach entails severely limiting your carbohydrate intake, usually to less than 50g per day, in order to teach your body metabolism to burn and use exclusively fat for fuel, i.e. to use ketone bodies instead of glucose. The body’s reliance on fat as a primary fuel in endurance exercise is the “holy grail” in sports nutrition, as even the leanest of athletes have enough body fat stores for a couple or Ironman races. The theory behind this approach was obtained from excellent book The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance from Phinney and Volek and various internet sources, most notably from Peter Attia’s eatingacademy.com. The theory behind keto-adaptation seemed plausible and very compelling, therefore decision was unambiguous: bring on even more fat! I got myself a blood ketone body measuring device (Precision Xtra NFR Blood Glucose Monitoring System ), and after some additional tinkering with my nutrition, I managed to get myself into “keto-adapted” state. For me to achieve this, I needed to cut my carbs to less than 50g per day and limiting protein intake to fewer than 140 g (less than 2g per kg of body weight). Time wise it took me 7 weeks from starting LC to get to keto-adapted state. The results were most dramatically seen in my body composition. I leaned out even more reaching a body weight of 67 kg, lowest in 5 years. But most striking difference from a couple of w Continue reading >>
The Side Effects Of A Low Carb Diet
Who should go on a low-carb diet? Low-carbohydrate diets — like the ketogenic diet — are effective for weight loss and improving health. They are also especially helpful for anyone who: Is overweight or obese Is sedentary Has epilepsy Has polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), fibroids or endometriosis Is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes Has a neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s Has certain forms of cancer Has cardiovascular disease A typical low-carb diet limits the daily intake of carbohydrates to between 60 and 130 grams, while a ketogenic diet tends to stay below 30 grams of carbohydrates. This is done by excluding or limiting most grains, legumes, fruits, bread, sweets, pasta and starchy vegetables from the diet and replacing them with added fats, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, non-starchy vegetables, nuts, and seeds. When we eat in this way, our bodies begin to change dramatically — especially for those who habitually eat plenty of carbohydrates with each meal. Not all of these changes, however, are going to be positive. When carbohydrates are restricted, it is stressful for the body because it must find another way to fuel itself. This can cause side effects, like nausea and headaches, that is commonly called the “keto flu”. The lack of carbohydrates will also lead to fluid and mineral loss and hormonal changes that can cause health issues if not addressed. The Most Common Side Effects The most common side effects that are experienced when restricting carbohydrates are: Headache Bad breath Weakness Fatigue Constipation or diarrhea It is important, however, to consider how common these symptoms actually are. In studies that put obese patients on a ketogenic diet for 6 months or longer (up to two years), no side effects or co Continue reading >>
Why I Ditched Low Carb
Of course I won’t throw my potato at you, Sweet Pea, because I plan on eating it!! With LOTS of butter! Ann Marie, I just love you because, with your suggestions, I have made my biggest strides in recovery. But returning to carbs has been an absolute blessing from above! I have struggled with my temps for years. At one point I was put on Cytomel to bring them back up. Which it did, but as soon any situation made me falter, my doctor upped my dose to bring them back up. I ended up being hyperthryoid, so he took me off cold turkey. I later found out that stopping thyroid meds that way can be deadly. Which didn’t surprise me because at that time I felt like I was dying. Needless to say my temps absolutely plummeted. In retrospect, I have suffered with adrenal issues for most of my life, but that situation started a complete down-fall that I am still trying to recover from today. When I burned out to the point of total bedrest, my new doctor took me off everything. He told me to limit my carbs because it would be too energizing to my adrenals. No sugar, no fruit, no caffeine, no alcohol and especially, no wheat. He said it clogged the thyroid. I felt like it would have been easier to graze on the grass in my backyard. But I listened to what he said and was pretty much living a paleo lifestyle, although I didn’t know it then. While I finally got off of bedrest, I am still house-bound three years later. I was so frustrated! I felt schlumpy, fat and like a potato. I couldn’t understand if I was eating so well, why wasn’t I getting better during those three years? Well, Ann Marie to the rescue!! When I read about upping my carbs to bring up my temps and feel better overall, it made total sense to me. I had no fear in giving it a whirl because I’ve got nothing to los Continue reading >>
Is A Low-carb Diet Ruining Your Health?
I am adding some research gathered from other posts on this site regarding Candida, as I suspect it will help people whose Candida infections are getting worse, or are not improving, while on a low carb diet. As Jeff Leach has pointed out, when people switch to very low carb diets their fermentation drops considerably — which means that there is less acid being produced as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). Candida is a dimorphic fungus, which means that it can be either benign or pathogenic (extending hyphae). Candida is only hyphal when it gut pH is extremely acidic (somewhat rare, but can happen with gut diseases like ulcerative colitis) or too alkaline (which happens from not eating enough resistant starches and fibers). If you read through the half dozen studies in that link, you’ll see that Candida has a number of growth genes that are sensitive to pH. These hyphal growth genes switch on when gut pH is too high or too low. In other words, Candida is benign when gut pH is normal. It’s the SCFAs from our fiber and RS fermentation that keep our guts slightly acidic. And it’s no coincidence that acids like acetate or caprylic acid are well known to inactivate candida. Virtually any acid would inactivate candida and it’s the SCFAs from our own gut bugs that do a particularly good job. So, people on very low carb diets have guts that aren’t fermenting and are therefore too alkaline, which as we can see from above promotes candida overgrowth. For these people, increasing their safe starch consumption and taking RS will increase SCFA (acid) production, which helps normalize gut pH and switch off the candida growth genes — returning candida to its benign and harmless state. Simultaneously, RS and fibers tends to bloom good bacteria (which also contributes to in Continue reading >>
Can A Low-carb, No-sugar Diet Cause Night Sweats & Sleepiness?
Reducing your carbohydrates allows you to enter the dietary state of ketosis, where you primarily burn fat for energy instead of sugar. This requires you to severely limit your carbohydrate intake and avoid all sugars. Diets of this sort present certain difficulties, including a lack of energy if you typically run on a high-carbohydrate diet. Consult a health care professional before beginning any diet or exercise program. Video of the Day Low-carbohydrate dieting limits your body's ability to use glycogen for energy. The more you restrict your carbohydrates, and the more you are physically active, the quicker you will experience a loss of energy. Over time, your body becomes more accustomed to running primarily on ketones, free-floating fatty acids, instead of sugar, but it takes a while to adapt to this. If you are following the Atkins diet or a similar variation, this is usually dealt with during a two-week period known as the induction phase. Sleepiness can be the direct result of a lack of energy. Even though you are dieting, if you cut your calories too far, you may be suffering from a lack of total energy to work with. Regardless of the type of diet, excessive caloric restriction can result in both sleeplessness and sleepiness. Until you become accustomed to running on ketones, you may experience sleepiness or euphoria, a dazed feeling, as your body becomes accustomed to having less sugar and more fat to run on. You may sweat more on a low-carbohydrate diet for more than one reason. As your glycogen, or sugar levels deplete, you lose your ability to store water. Each gram of stored glycogen retains 4 g of water. As you must consume as much or more water while dieting than you did before you started your diet, you are going to expel water quickly, and some of this Continue reading >>
Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose. It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon. Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes. In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed. For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode. Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>
Good Science, Bad Interpretation
This week the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published a study entitled Effects of Dietary Composition on Energy Expenditure During Weight-Loss Maintenance. While I’m guessing most readers have not read this study, I’m pretty sure most of you have heard about the results as it was all over the news this week. People who know me well know that as sure as Tuesday follows Monday there are few things I can resist less than homemade whipped cream and something I like to call “teaching moments.” Giddy-up…did this week’s press coverage ever offer a fantastic opportunity for the latter. While this paper was published this week, I was fortunate enough to read an embargoed copy two weeks ago with the caveat that I could not speak about it until it was released publicly. Furthermore, I’m friends with one of the reviewers who told me two months ago that “a very interesting paper was going to hit a high-impact factor journal very soon.” Completing my disclosure, I have become acquainted with the senior investigator on this study, Dr. David Ludwig at Harvard, and will be meeting him in the near future to discuss a follow-up study. This study sought to test an important question: When an overweight or obese person loses weight, how does their choice of macronutrients impact their tendency to regain lost weight? This is important, of course, because as most of us know that while losing weight is difficult, keeping it off is even more difficult. In fact, as the authors point out, only about 15% of people who lose 10% of their bodyweight can maintain the weight loss for up to one year. The obvious question is why? You’ll recall from this post, that we must always obey the First Law of Thermodynamics. In other words, we accumulate stored energy (e.g Continue reading >>
Episode 10 – Injury Prevention And Recovery
Every athlete, whether an elite performer or a regular hobbyist, has to deal with injuries from time to time. That’s just life. One of the great things about being keto is the lower inflammation. Lower inflammation means quicker recovery. Also, keto is protein sparing (muscle preserving). Some things that regular athletes need to consider: Recovery – sleep, stress management, scheduled down time and deloads, staving off chronic injuries Moving like an athlete 24/7 – maintaining good posture at all times Exercise and load selection – staying away from risky movements, knowing when to push the envelope and when to hold back Rehab and prehab – Proper warm-up specific to the activity you are doing, corrective exercises (shoulders/knees/back), massage therapy, ART, chiro, etc Fix your diet and get rid of the background noise before anything else. This is the first priority. Phinney and Volek: Low carbohydrate diets are anti-inflammatory, producing less oxidative stress during exercise and more rapid recovery between exercise sessions. Epilepsia 2015: Ketogenic Diet Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Properties -they induced fevers in both groups by injecting lipopolysaccharide -KD group: lower cytokine levels (inflammatory marker), decreased peripheral edema, lower body temperature, decreased cerebral inflammation and injury due to neuroprotective properties of the keto diet. Keto diet is protein sparing: increased levels of betahydroxybuterate decreases nitrogen excretion and increases circulating levels of branched chain amino acids, which helps us synthesize proteins that repair organs like muscles and red blood cells. This is why we can eat much less protein and still maintain and increase muscle on the keto diet If you push hard enough, there may be some BCAA oxidatio Continue reading >>
- Debbie Wilson: The Journey Back from Traumatic Brain Injury and Dementia, with a Side of Disappearing Diabetes
- Acute Kidney Injury in Diabetes Mellitus
- Olive oil in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and intervention trials
4 Things Your Body Temperature Can Tell You About Your Health
Body temperature is easy to measure and it can tell you a surprising amount about your health. It does take some patience – sometimes a week or two of measuring regularly before you get any data you can use – but it takes 30 seconds and it’s free, so take a look at 4 ways you can use it to learn about your health. Your temperature can tell you… 1. How Fast Your Metabolism is Running This is the one most people know: body temperature is a decently reliable guide to metabolic rate. When people lose weight, their body temperature drops as their metabolism slows down. This is why some people feel cold all the time when they’re dieting, especially if they’re doing something extreme. For example, take the Biosphere 2 study. In this study, 8 healthy adults spent 2 years sealed off from the outside world. They had to eat a low-calorie diet that caused 18% weight loss in men and 10% weight loss in women. And these people weren’t overweight to begin with. As the researchers running the study reported, subjects going in had an average body temperature around 98.6. But by the time they got out, their body temperatures had dropped to 96-97 F, sometimes lower. When they started eating again and regained weight, their body temperature went back up to normal. This mirrored their thyroid function – lower body temperatures corresponded to lower thyroid hormone levels. Basically, their body temperature dropped as their metabolic rate dropped, and then rebounded when their metabolism rebounded. The same thing happened in the famous Minnesota Starvation Experiment, otherwise known as a really fantastic argument for how calorie restriction makes people crazy. Intriguingly enough, there might actually be an upside to this whole process. Yes, it stinks that metabolic rate inevi Continue reading >>
Body Temperature - Is Yours Low?
Body temps are dropping, seems to be a correlation between this and metabolic syndrome/hypothyroidism Two questions: What's YOUR Temp? What's your opinion on Body Temperature Correlations/Causes? Continue reading >>
8 Ways To Blast Through Low-carb Flu And Dive Into Ketosis
Have you just started a low-carb diet? Do you find yourself feeling exhausted and overcome by tiredness? Perhaps you are thinking that going low-carb wasn’t a good idea after all… You might already know that these symptoms are not uncommon, especially if you are doing low-carb for the first time. Also known as “low carb flu” or “Atkins flu”, this phase is completely normal – although by no means pleasant. This condition occurs when you cut your carb intake sharply, to about 20-30g a day, in order to induce ketosis. What is low-carb flu? Your body is used to running on carbs. It’s been operating this way for decades. Cutting carbs in favour of fat is a huge change for your metabolism. Your body needs some time to adjust to this change. This period of adjustment can sometimes cause flu-like symptoms. Fatigue is the most common one, but you could also get muscle cramps, headaches, dizziness and mental fog. Some of these symptoms are markers of sugar withdrawal. Sugar addiction is real and common, so trying to break away can be difficult. Low-carb flu is not actual flu Please note that “low carb flu” does not include fever or respiratory cold-like symptoms such as coughing or sneezing. If you are experiencing any of these, it means that you might have actually caught an infection! So it would be a good idea to postpone starting your diet until you are all clear. How can you fight tiredness and other symptoms of low-carb flu? First of all, remember that it won’t last forever. Low-carb flu usually lasts around 3-5 days (although could be 1-2 weeks for some unlucky people with high metabolic resistance). Here are some simple tips on making this transition easier. 1) Eat more fat Fat is the key to this whole issue. You must eat lots of it – a lot more th Continue reading >>
Do You Get Really Warm When Vlc Or Zc And Are In Ketosis?
I've been doing VLC for weight loss for some time now, using ketostix to check that I'm staying in ketosis. I've noticed that every evening, several hours after my last meal (and food intake for the day), I get very warm, even rosy-cheeked and almost like a moderate fever. 1 Worst Carb After Age 50 If you're over 50 and you eat this carb, you will never lose belly fat. HealthPlus50 Could it be related to the ketosis? Does anybody else have this happen when eating minimal carbs? Is it a function of my body burning pure fat? (Oh, please say yes on that one!) Continue reading >>
What Everybody Ought To Know About Ketosis
Recently I wanted to explore the world of Ketosis. I thought I knew a little bit about ketosis, but after doing some research I soon realised how wrong I was. 3 months later, after reading numerous books, listening to countless podcasts and experimenting with various diets I know have a sound understanding of ketosis. This resource is built as a reference guide for those looking to explore the fascinating world of ketosis. It is a resource that I wish I had 3 months ago. As you will soon see, a lot of the content below is not mine, instead I have linked to referenced to experts who have a greater understanding of this topic than I ever will. I hope this helps and if there is something that I have missed please leave a comment below so that I can update this. Also, as this is a rather long document, I have split it into various sections. You can click the headline below to be sent straight to the section that interests you. For those that are really time poor I have created a useful ketosis cheat sheet guide. This guide covers all the essential information you should know about ketosis. It can be downloaded HERE. Alternatively, if you're looking for a natural and sustainable way to improve health and lose weight head to this page - What is Ketosis? What Are The Benefits from being in Ketosis? Isn’t Ketosis Dangerous? Ketoacidosis vs Ketosis What Is The Difference Between a Low Carb Diet and a Ketogenic Diet? Types of Ketosis: The Difference Between Nutritional, Therapeutic & MCT Ketogenic Diets Is The Ketogenic Diet Safe? Long Term Effects Thyroid and Ketosis - What You May Want To Know What is a Typical Diet/Macro Breakdown for a Ketogenic Diet? Do I Need to Eat Carbs? What do I Eat On a Ketogenic Diet? What Do I Avoid Eating on a Ketogenic Diet? Protein Consumption a Continue reading >>
Does Ketosis Cause An Internal Rise In Body Temperature?
Ooh, ooh, ooh, I feel my temperature rising Help me, I’m flaming I must be a hundred and nine Burning, burning, burning And nothing can cool me I just might turn into smoke But I feel fine –Elvis Presley singing “Burning Love” Somebody’s turned up the heat up in here and it’s gotta be that low-carb diet I’m on, right? That’s what everybody does with livin’ la vida low-carb when something new happens to them after starting this way of eating–they blame it on low-carb! I mocked this notion in this blog post about an earache a couple of years ago, but what if there is merit to some rather strange side effects of following a controlled-carbohydrate nutritional approach? Hmmmmmm. There are several things we KNOW will happen to most people when they begin the low-carb lifestyle: their HDL “good” cholesterol goes up, there is a marked improvement in mental health, for women it helps with reproductive health, blood sugar levels are stabilized, they end up having less acne, triglycerides plummet (a VERY good thing!), and so much more I could spend hours sharing with you about. But there are some things that can vary from person to person as one of my readers shared with me in a recent e-mail. This 43-year old man starting cutting his carbohydrate intake beginning in January 2008 and has lost over 25 pounds so far. WOO HOO! He has really enjoyed this new low-carb lifestyle change, but was curious about an unexpected side effect that has been plaguing him with no apparent cause. Here’s what he wrote: Hey Jimmy, After lots of searches, I’m having trouble finding out if anyone experiences a sensation of a rise in body temperature while in ketosis. There are some days I feel like I am literally burning up (but I don’t have a fever or anything). Coinciden Continue reading >>