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Ketones Urine Infection

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Urine Ketones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Description Ketones are produced normally by the liver as part of fatty acid metabolism. In normal states these ketones will be completely metabolised so that very few, if any at all, will appear in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, resulting in an increase in ketone production making them detectable in the blood and urine. How to test for ketones The urine test for ketones is performed using test strips available on prescription. Strips dedicated to ketone testing in the UK include[1]: GlucoRx KetoRx Sticks 2GK® Ketostix® Mission® Ketone Testing should be performed according to manufacturers' instructions. The sample should be fresh and uncontaminated. Usually the result will be expressed as negative or positive (graded 1 to 4)[2]. Ketonuria is different from ketonaemia (ie presence of ketones in the blood) and often ketonuria does not indicate clinically significant ketonaemia. Depending on the testing strips used, urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with a low specificity, or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity. However, this should be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis[3]. Interpretation of results Normally only small amounts of ketones are excreted daily in the urine (3-15 mg). High or increased values may be found in: Poorly controlled diabetes. Starvation: Prolonged vomiting. Rapid weight loss. Frequent strenuous exercise. Poisoning (eg, with isop Continue reading >>

What You Need To Know About Utis

What You Need To Know About Utis

Burning when you urinate. A frequent urge to urinate. Pain in your back or abdomen. Do any of these symptoms sound familiar? These are all symptoms of a urinary tract infection, or UTI, for short. Studies show that people with Type 2 diabetes have a greater risk of getting a UTI than people without diabetes. Despite the fact that UTIs are all too common and downright annoying, they can also lead to more serious situations if they’re not caught and treated. What is a UTI, anyway? A UTI is an infection in your urinary tract. Your urinary tract includes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and, in men, prostate. Most UTIs occur in your bladder, the organ that stores your urine. What causes a UTI? A UTI is caused by bacteria, usually from the bowels. Normally, the urinary tract system has safeguards to protect against infection. For example, the ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, have one-way valves to prevent urine from backing up into the kidneys. The process of emptying your bladder (called urination) also helps to flush out bacteria and other microbes. And a healthy immune system helps protect against infection, as well. Why are UTIs more common in people with diabetes? UTIs are the second most common type of infection. Women are 10 times more likely to get a UTI than men because of their anatomy. In fact, more than 50% of women will have a UTI at some point in their lives. If you’re a woman with Type 2 diabetes, your risk may be even higher, according to two recent studies. In one study, 9% of the subjects with diabetes had UTIs compared with 6% of those without diabetes. And the second study showed that people with diabetes had a 60% higher risk of getting a UTI compared to those without diabetes. Why are people with Continue reading >>

Diabetes Urine Tests

Diabetes Urine Tests

Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes. Testing for ketones is most common in people with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? This test detects the presence of ketones, which are byproducts of metabolism that form in the presence of severe hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar). Ketones are formed from fat that is burned by the body when there is insufficient insulin to allow glucose to be used for fuel. When ketones build up to high levels, ketoacidosis (a serious and life-threatening condition) may occur. Ketone testing can be performed both at home and in the clinical laboratory. Ketones can be detected by dipping a test strip into a sample of urine. A color change on the test strip signals the presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones occur most commonly in people with type 1 diabetes, but uncommonly, people with type 2 diabetes may test positive for ketones. The microalbumin test detects microalbumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Protein is present in the urine when there is damage to the kidneys. Since the damage to blood vessels that occurs as a complication of diabetes can lead to kidney problems, the microalbumin test is done to check for damage to the kidneys over time. Can urine tests be used to Continue reading >>

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Kidney stones may not be on your mind when beginning a weight-loss diet, but if you plan to follow a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet plan, they should be. While many popular low-carb commercial diet plans encourage your body to shift into a fat-burning state called ketosis, the production of ketones that results can alter your urine chemistry and raise the risk of kidney stones. Understanding the risks to your kidneys can help you decide whether the weight loss promises of a high-protein, low-carb diet are worth it. Video of the Day Kidney stones develop when a hard mass of crystals develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones are often extremely painful, especially when they pass through the thin ureter to exit the body. There are a few different types of kidney stones, each made up of different materials. The cause of kidney stones remains unknown, but some people seem to be more prone to developing them than others, so there may be a hereditary component. Ketones are compounds formed by the breakdown of fat as the body shifts from burning carbohydrates to burning fat for fuel. During a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, ketones become the main source of energy in the body. After a few days or weeks on this type of diet, the brain begins to use ketones as fuel instead of glucose. However, when too many ketones build up in the bloodstream, the pH of the urine changes from neutral to slightly acidic, which can put stress on the kidneys and potentially raise the risk of developing kidney stones. A 2002 study published in the "American Journal of Kidney Diseases" found that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet raised the acidity of the blood over a six-week period, a condition known to contribute to kidney stones. The study found up to a 90-percent increase in acid Continue reading >>

Breaking Down Your Urinalysis

Breaking Down Your Urinalysis

Contents: Introduction Conclusion Introduction If you’re a lupus patient, I’m sure at some point you’ve heard those wonderful words “…now, go pee in this cup.” Unfortunately, holding your morning pee while trying to aim into the miniature size sterile Dixie® cup is the easy part. What is not so easy to understand is the medical jargon that follows when you get the results of your urinalysis. Doctors causally throw out words like ketones and you think, “What, my pee is musical?” Or leukocytes and you go, “Isn’t that some sort of dinosaur fossil? Or creatinine and you ponder, “Are you speaking Latin?” These are just some of the many medical terms that often leave lupus patients scratching their already itchy heads (thanks alopecia) and wondering what on earth is going on? So why don’t we delve a little deeper….into the toilet. Let’s translate what your pee really says about you. Sometimes, doctors don’t have the time to explain the complicated medical jargon – which isn’t very helpful. So how about the CliffsNotes® version? Let’s get down to it, and trust me, urine for a real treat. Sorry I just couldn’t hold that in! Back to top The Basics DEFINITION A urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of your pee. It involves a slew of different tests to measure various compounds and detect the stuff that pass through the urine. WHY PEE IN A CUP? Urinalyses are done as part of a medical exam to look for signs of disease. If you have signs of kidney disease or nephritis, your doctor will most likely have you perform tests on a regular basis. Sometimes urinalyses are used to detect acute conditions like urinary tract or kidney infections. In a nutshell, your kidneys take out the trash. They filter waste material, fl Continue reading >>

Urine Infection In Pregnancy

Urine Infection In Pregnancy

Health Information A urine infection means having germs (bacteria) somewhere within the urinary tract, ie the bladder, kidneys or the tubes between (the ureters). In pregnancy, a urine infection is more likely to cause complications, and so usually needs treatment. Most women are, unfortunately, familiar with the typical symptoms of a urine infection. You feel as though you are busting for a pee all the time. But when you go to the loo, only a dribble comes out and it burns or stings when it does. There may be an ache in the lower part of your tummy (abdomen) too. However, urine infections don't always cause symptoms, particularly in pregnancy. Sometimes it is only picked up during one of the routine tests of your urine. If the infection spreads up your urinary tract towards your kidneys, the symptoms change. You may get back pain and/or a high temperature (fever). There may be blood in your urine. How did I get it? Normally, there are no germs (bacteria) in urine. However, if you have a urinary infection, the germs from elsewhere in your body have made their way up the urinary tract. These are usually germs from your guts - after all, the exit points for poo and wee in your body are particularly close together. After doing a poo, some of those germs can end up on the skin between the two, and make their way from there to the urine tube (urethra). Germs then travel up the urethra, which leads to the bladder, and may spread further up the next set of tubes (ureters) to your kidneys. Because women don't have a penis, the tube between their bladder and the outside world is much shorter than that of a man. This makes women more prone to urine infections. When you are pregnant, you are even more prone to urine infections. This is partly because of changes caused by your preg Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

Urine Samples Can Sometimes Reveal Leukocytes. These Are A Type Of Cell Not Normally Found In The Urine In Great Numbers.

Urine Samples Can Sometimes Reveal Leukocytes. These Are A Type Of Cell Not Normally Found In The Urine In Great Numbers.

Having leukocytes in the urine may signal an infection. A test for this may be done routinely for some people, such as pregnant women. What are leukocytes? Leukocyte is the technical name for a white blood cell, often seen shortened to WBC. They are central to immune responses that protect people from infection. These white blood cells come in a number of forms, including phagocytes and lymphocytes. Phagocytes are produced in the bone marrow. Their job is to engulf foreign particles like bacteria. This means surrounding a particle, internalizing it, and destroying it. Lymphocytes are the white blood cells that recognize foreign particles based on previous encounters. They are the cells that make up the "adaptive" immunity. This is the complex ability of the immune system to remember an infection and launch more specific responses to it. Lymphocytes also produce antibodies, which bind to foreign particles so that they may be recognized for destruction. There are other types of leukocyte. Cytotoxic white blood cells, for example, have the ability to kill other cells. What do high leukocytes in urine mean? Having a high number of leukocytes in the urine indicates inflammation in the bladder or kidney. Having some leukocytes in the urine does not always mean infection, though. The level must be high. The urine sample also needs to be given carefully, because contamination can come from the genitals, for example. Leukocytes and nitrites When doctors use a dipstick test for urine infection, these detect certain chemicals in the urine. Chemical test strips can pick up substances known as leukocyte esterase and nitrite in the urine. Both of which are potential indicators of infection. The presence of nitrite in the urine is highly specific of a bacterial infection. This does no Continue reading >>

Ketosis And Uti-like Symptoms

Ketosis And Uti-like Symptoms

Every time I go into ketosis for more than I a week or two, my bladder gets irritated and I experience UTI-like symptoms. The last time I experienced this in ketosis, I ended up doing a round of antibiotics (big mistake), seeing a urologist, and getting my kidneys checked via ultrasound. The antibiotics didn't cure the discomfort, the urologist couldn't even find bacteria in my urine, and my kidneys checked out fine. The only thing that finally helped was when I discontinued my all meat and fat diet and took a month off from tea. I suspect that my bladder is just getting irritated by the ketones. Has anyone else experienced this? Any idea how to treat this? Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies (urine)

Ketone Bodies (urine)

Does this test have other names? Ketone test, urine ketones What is this test? This test is used to check the level of ketones in your urine. Normally, your body burns sugar for energy. But if you have diabetes, you may not have enough insulin for the sugar in your bloodstream to be used for fuel. When this happens, your body burns fat instead and produces substances called ketones. The ketones end up in your blood and urine. It's normal to have a small amount of ketones in your body. But high ketone levels could result in serious illness or death. Checking for ketones keeps this from happening. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you have a high level of blood sugar. People with high levels of blood sugar often have high ketone levels. If you have high blood sugar levels and type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it's important to check your ketone levels. People without diabetes can also have ketones in the urine if their body is using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This can happen with chronic vomiting, extreme exercise, low-carbohydrate diets, or eating disorders. Checking your ketones is especially important if you have diabetes and: Your blood sugar goes above 300 mg/dL You abuse alcohol You have diarrhea You stop eating carbohydrates like rice and bread You're pregnant You've been fasting You've been vomiting You have an infection Your healthcare provider may order this test, or have you test yourself, if you: Urinate frequently Are often quite thirsty or tired Have muscle aches Have shortness of breath or trouble breathing Have nausea or vomiting Are confused Have a fruity smell to your breath What other tests might I have along with this test? Your healthcare provider may also check for ketones in your blood if you have high levels of ketones in your urine Continue reading >>

Cloudy Urine: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Cloudy Urine: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Having cloudy urine is not unusual and, in many cases, it is no reason for alarm. However, it just might be a sign of an underlying health condition. Healthy urine is clear and light yellow in color. Unhealthy urine can be cloudy, hazy, or milky looking. This can occur for a number of different reasons, including sexually transmitted diseases, dehydration, infections, or diseases that affect other body systems along with the urinary tract. While cloudy urine in men does happen, women get it more often since their bodies lend itself to E. coli forming in the bladder. In the majority of situations, cloudy urine is a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Urinary tract infections are the second most common type of infection people get. Over eight million visits to healthcare providers each year are due to UTIs. Cloudy urine with odor is possible. This can be alarming and can happen in all age groups. Many people experience cloudy urine with no pain, while others feel a burning sensation when they urinate. All of the symptoms you might experience along with the cloudy, hazy appearance of urine should be described in detail to a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. In this article: Cloudy urine causes and symptoms Symptoms vary depending on the cloudy urine causes. Signs of a problem can originate in the urinary tract, the reproductive system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, as well as other organs. Since urinary tract infections are so common, here we list some possible symptoms: Abdominal pain Bladder spasm Abnormal urine color, such as dark, pink, or bloody. Foul-smelling urine Frequent urination or decrease in urination Urgent need to urinate Here are some symptoms that could indicate something other than a UTI is the problem. Excessive hunger Continue reading >>

Urinalysis

Urinalysis

A complete urinalysis evaluates several different aspects of your urine through physical, chemical, and microscopic examination. In lupus treatment, a urinalysis is often used to monitor protein leakage and identify and assess urinary tract infections (UTIs). Most people with kidney lupus (lupus nephritis) will have an abnormal urinalysis. Protein, urine casts (especially red blood cell casts), red blood cells, or white blood cells in the urine can indicate serious kidney involvement; leukocyte esterase may indicate a bladder infection. Urine samples can be given at any time while at the doctor’s office. A urine culture is performed to assess for a bladder infection and to determine appropriate antibiotics. Before giving a urine sample, ask a medical professional to counsel you on how to prevent contamination. Several analytical elements of the complete urinalysis are explained below. Physical Examination / Macroanalysis In this portion of the analysis, the color, clarity, and concentration of the urine are evaluated. Abnormal colors can result from disease, certain foods, or contamination, so the physical examination is generally viewed as a crude assessment. Light or dark coloration also suggests how much water is being excreted. The clarity of urine is measured as either clear, slightly clear, cloudy, or turbid. Urine clarity, like urine color, suggests that substances may be present in the urine; for example, turbid urine suggests the presence of protein or excess cellular material. However, accurate conclusions regarding the origin of the urine clarity cannot be drawn until further chemical and microscopic tests are performed. The physical examination also includes specific gravity, which measures the concentration of the urine sample. Specific gravity compares t Continue reading >>

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Your Pet’s Urine

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Your Pet’s Urine

Getty Sometimes when something is so familiar to me, I incorrectly assume it is familiar to others. In particular, when I talk to my clients about their pet’s urinalysis results sometimes I fail to comprehend that they are not in the medical field and have no idea what I’m talking about. I suspect they are just respectfully waiting for my concluding remark to understand what just happened. Like, “ This is great news. Your pet does not have a urinary tract infection.” Or, “ We found sugar in your pet’s urine and your cat may have Diabetes Mellitus.” I strongly believe an educated client is my best client and pet owner. It is my goal today to educate you about your pet’s urine so that when your veterinarian discusses your pet’s urinalysis results with you, you understand it and can make the best decision on your pet’s medical care. Why would your veterinarian recommend a Urinalysis? A urinalysis is a simple test to assess your pet’s overall urinary tract (kidneys and bladder) health and insight on your pet’s glucose regulation and liver function. As a proactive healthcare advisor, the veterinarians at Animal Medical Center of Chicago recommend a yearly urinalysis on all pets eight years of age or older. If your pet has increased water intake, increased frequency in urination, pain on urination, or visible blood in the urine, then a urinalysis is indicated. Collection of the Urine: The best urine sample to be evaluated is a sterile or “clean” sample. In human medicine they frequently supply you with sterile wipes to clean your genitalia and advise you to collect a midstream urine sample. This is a fair quality sample but it is the simplest and least invasive collection method. In veterinary medicine, we have the advantage of our patient’s will Continue reading >>

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