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Ketones Urine Infection

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Your Pet’s Urine

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Your Pet’s Urine

Getty Sometimes when something is so familiar to me, I incorrectly assume it is familiar to others. In particular, when I talk to my clients about their pet’s urinalysis results sometimes I fail to comprehend that they are not in the medical field and have no idea what I’m talking about. I suspect they are just respectfully waiting for my concluding remark to understand what just happened. Like, “ This is great news. Your pet does not have a urinary tract infection.” Or, “ We found sugar in your pet’s urine and your cat may have Diabetes Mellitus.” I strongly believe an educated client is my best client and pet owner. It is my goal today to educate you about your pet’s urine so that when your veterinarian discusses your pet’s urinalysis results with you, you understand it and can make the best decision on your pet’s medical care. Why would your veterinarian recommend a Urinalysis? A urinalysis is a simple test to assess your pet’s overall urinary tract (kidneys and bladder) health and insight on your pet’s glucose regulation and liver function. As a proactive healthcare advisor, the veterinarians at Animal Medical Center of Chicago recommend a yearly urinalysis on all pets eight years of age or older. If your pet has increased water intake, increased frequency in urination, pain on urination, or visible blood in the urine, then a urinalysis is indicated. Collection of the Urine: The best urine sample to be evaluated is a sterile or “clean” sample. In human medicine they frequently supply you with sterile wipes to clean your genitalia and advise you to collect a midstream urine sample. This is a fair quality sample but it is the simplest and least invasive collection method. In veterinary medicine, we have the advantage of our patient’s will Continue reading >>

Breaking Down Your Urinalysis

Breaking Down Your Urinalysis

Contents: Introduction Conclusion Introduction If you’re a lupus patient, I’m sure at some point you’ve heard those wonderful words “…now, go pee in this cup.” Unfortunately, holding your morning pee while trying to aim into the miniature size sterile Dixie® cup is the easy part. What is not so easy to understand is the medical jargon that follows when you get the results of your urinalysis. Doctors causally throw out words like ketones and you think, “What, my pee is musical?” Or leukocytes and you go, “Isn’t that some sort of dinosaur fossil? Or creatinine and you ponder, “Are you speaking Latin?” These are just some of the many medical terms that often leave lupus patients scratching their already itchy heads (thanks alopecia) and wondering what on earth is going on? So why don’t we delve a little deeper….into the toilet. Let’s translate what your pee really says about you. Sometimes, doctors don’t have the time to explain the complicated medical jargon – which isn’t very helpful. So how about the CliffsNotes® version? Let’s get down to it, and trust me, urine for a real treat. Sorry I just couldn’t hold that in! Back to top The Basics DEFINITION A urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of your pee. It involves a slew of different tests to measure various compounds and detect the stuff that pass through the urine. WHY PEE IN A CUP? Urinalyses are done as part of a medical exam to look for signs of disease. If you have signs of kidney disease or nephritis, your doctor will most likely have you perform tests on a regular basis. Sometimes urinalyses are used to detect acute conditions like urinary tract or kidney infections. In a nutshell, your kidneys take out the trash. They filter waste material, fl Continue reading >>

The Principle Of The Urinalysis Test

The Principle Of The Urinalysis Test

URS-K • URS-3 • URS-10SG • URS-UTIProfessional Urinalysis Reagent Test Strips Professional urine reagent test strips for the rapid determination of Ketones (URS-K), Glucose, Protein and pH (URI-3) plus Leukocytes, Nitrites, Ketones, Bilirubin, Blood, Urobilinogen, and Specific Gravity (URI-10) levels in urine. The URS-UTI is a single use test specific for detection of urinary tract infections. These are the diagnostic reagent strips used by physicians, clinics and hospitals to initially screen for suspected and/or existing health conditions. Simple to use, urine diagnostic reagent strips can provide early indications of developing health problems and identify potential abnormal functions requiring more extensive testing. Additionally, routine use is frequently recommended by physicians for monitoring certain existing and chronic health conditions. THE PRINCIPLE OF THE URINALYSIS TEST These urinalysis test strips, URS-K (Ketones) URS-3 (Glucose, Protein, pH) and URS-10 (Glucose, Protein pH, Leukocytes, Nitrites, Ketones, Bilirubin, Blood, Urobilinogen, and Specific Gravity) and URS-UTI (leukocytes and Nitrite) are simple, easy to use reagent strips for the detection of key diagnostic chemical markers in human urine. They are the same urinalysis test strips used routinely by doctors, laboratories and healthcare professionals in preliminary diagnosis of, and initial screening for potential health problems. URS-Strips are plastic strips to which chemically specific reagent pads are affixed. The reagent pads react with the sample urine to provide a standardized visible color reaction within 30 seconds to one minute depending on the specific panel screen. The color is then visually compared to the included color chart to determine the level of each chemical factor. Test Continue reading >>

Cloudy Urine: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Cloudy Urine: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Having cloudy urine is not unusual and, in many cases, it is no reason for alarm. However, it just might be a sign of an underlying health condition. Healthy urine is clear and light yellow in color. Unhealthy urine can be cloudy, hazy, or milky looking. This can occur for a number of different reasons, including sexually transmitted diseases, dehydration, infections, or diseases that affect other body systems along with the urinary tract. While cloudy urine in men does happen, women get it more often since their bodies lend itself to E. coli forming in the bladder. In the majority of situations, cloudy urine is a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Urinary tract infections are the second most common type of infection people get. Over eight million visits to healthcare providers each year are due to UTIs. Cloudy urine with odor is possible. This can be alarming and can happen in all age groups. Many people experience cloudy urine with no pain, while others feel a burning sensation when they urinate. All of the symptoms you might experience along with the cloudy, hazy appearance of urine should be described in detail to a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. In this article: Cloudy urine causes and symptoms Symptoms vary depending on the cloudy urine causes. Signs of a problem can originate in the urinary tract, the reproductive system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, as well as other organs. Since urinary tract infections are so common, here we list some possible symptoms: Abdominal pain Bladder spasm Abnormal urine color, such as dark, pink, or bloody. Foul-smelling urine Frequent urination or decrease in urination Urgent need to urinate Here are some symptoms that could indicate something other than a UTI is the problem. Excessive hunger Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Urine Ketones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Description Ketones are produced normally by the liver as part of fatty acid metabolism. In normal states these ketones will be completely metabolised so that very few, if any at all, will appear in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, resulting in an increase in ketone production making them detectable in the blood and urine. How to test for ketones The urine test for ketones is performed using test strips available on prescription. Strips dedicated to ketone testing in the UK include[1]: GlucoRx KetoRx Sticks 2GK® Ketostix® Mission® Ketone Testing should be performed according to manufacturers' instructions. The sample should be fresh and uncontaminated. Usually the result will be expressed as negative or positive (graded 1 to 4)[2]. Ketonuria is different from ketonaemia (ie presence of ketones in the blood) and often ketonuria does not indicate clinically significant ketonaemia. Depending on the testing strips used, urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with a low specificity, or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity. However, this should be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis[3]. Interpretation of results Normally only small amounts of ketones are excreted daily in the urine (3-15 mg). High or increased values may be found in: Poorly controlled diabetes. Starvation: Prolonged vomiting. Rapid weight loss. Frequent strenuous exercise. Poisoning (eg, with isop Continue reading >>

Urinalysis

Urinalysis

Print Overview A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes. A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease. Unusual urinalysis results often require more testing to uncover the source of the problem. Why it's done A urinalysis is a common test that's done for several reasons: To check your overall health. Your doctor may recommend a urinalysis as part of a routine medical exam, pregnancy checkup, pre-surgery preparation, or on hospital admission to screen for a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease and liver disease. To diagnose a medical condition. Your doctor may suggest a urinalysis if you're experiencing abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination, blood in your urine, or other urinary problems. A urinalysis may help diagnose the cause of these symptoms. To monitor a medical condition. If you've been diagnosed with a medical condition, such as kidney disease or a urinary tract disease, your doctor may recommend a urinalysis on a regular basis to monitor your condition and treatment. Other tests, such as pregnancy testing and drug screenings, also may rely on a urine sample, but these tests look for substances that aren't included in a typical urinalysis. For example, pregnancy testing measures a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Drug screenings detect specific drugs or their metabolic products, depending on the purpose of the testing. How you prepare Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

Urine Infection In Pregnancy

Urine Infection In Pregnancy

Health Information A urine infection means having germs (bacteria) somewhere within the urinary tract, ie the bladder, kidneys or the tubes between (the ureters). In pregnancy, a urine infection is more likely to cause complications, and so usually needs treatment. Most women are, unfortunately, familiar with the typical symptoms of a urine infection. You feel as though you are busting for a pee all the time. But when you go to the loo, only a dribble comes out and it burns or stings when it does. There may be an ache in the lower part of your tummy (abdomen) too. However, urine infections don't always cause symptoms, particularly in pregnancy. Sometimes it is only picked up during one of the routine tests of your urine. If the infection spreads up your urinary tract towards your kidneys, the symptoms change. You may get back pain and/or a high temperature (fever). There may be blood in your urine. How did I get it? Normally, there are no germs (bacteria) in urine. However, if you have a urinary infection, the germs from elsewhere in your body have made their way up the urinary tract. These are usually germs from your guts - after all, the exit points for poo and wee in your body are particularly close together. After doing a poo, some of those germs can end up on the skin between the two, and make their way from there to the urine tube (urethra). Germs then travel up the urethra, which leads to the bladder, and may spread further up the next set of tubes (ureters) to your kidneys. Because women don't have a penis, the tube between their bladder and the outside world is much shorter than that of a man. This makes women more prone to urine infections. When you are pregnant, you are even more prone to urine infections. This is partly because of changes caused by your preg Continue reading >>

Urinalysis And Urine Culture

Urinalysis And Urine Culture

Urinalysis is testing of the urine. A urine sample is usually collected using the clean-catch method or another sterile method. For example, a method to obtain an uncontaminated urine sample involves passing a catheter through the urethra into the bladder. Urine cultures, in which bacteria from a urine sample are grown in a laboratory, are done to diagnose a urinary tract infection. Cultures are not part of routine urinalysis. The sample of urine must be obtained by the clean-catch method (see Obtaining a Clean-Catch Urine Sample) or by briefly inserting a sterile catheter through the urethra into the bladder. Urinalysis can be used to detect and measure the level of various substances in the urine, including protein, glucose (sugar), ketones, blood, and other substances. These tests use a thin strip of plastic (dipstick) impregnated with chemicals that react with substances in the urine and quickly change color. Sometimes the test results are confirmed with more sophisticated and accurate laboratory analysis of the urine. The urine may be examined under a microscope to check for the presence of red and white blood cells, crystals, and casts (impressions of the kidney tubules created when urinary cells, protein, or both precipitate out in the tubules and are passed in the urine). Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can usually be detected by dipstick when present in large amounts. Protein may appear constantly or only intermittently in the urine, depending on the cause. Proteinuria may occur normally after strenuous exercise, such as marathon running, but is usually a sign of a kidney disorder. Small amounts of protein in the urine may be an early sign of kidney damage due to diabetes. Such small amounts may not be detected by dipstick. In these cases, urine will need to Continue reading >>

Protein In Urine: 4 Causes & Other Pregnancy-related Urinary Issues

Protein In Urine: 4 Causes & Other Pregnancy-related Urinary Issues

After a routine pregnancy check-up, your doctor tells you there’s protein in your urine. Your first instinct may be to panic, but there are many possible reasons why protein is showing up in your urine – and not all of them are dangerous. 4 Causes for Protein in Urine During Pregnancy It’s not uncommon to find small amounts of protein in your urine during pregnancy. But in some cases, protein is a sign of complications that require swift treatment. 1. Your Kidneys are Working Overtime Protein may just be an indication that your kidneys are working overtime now that you’re pregnant. If only small amounts of protein are found in your urine, this is the likely cause. And it’s no wonder your kidneys are tired – you’re running to the bathroom every five minutes. Frequent urination during pregnancy puts excess strain on your kidneys and may contribute to the protein found in your urine. 2. You May Have an Infection Protein may also be a sign of a minor infection. If your doctor or midwife suspects that an infection is the cause, a sample of your urine will be sent to the hospital to check for a UTI (urinary tract infection). If you do have a UTI, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to clear the infection. Most rounds of antibiotics last three to seven days. Don’t worry – urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. But your doctor will monitor your condition closely to make sure the infection clears. During pregnancy, hormones change the urinary tract, which makes you more vulnerable to infection. Your growing uterus also puts more pressure on your bladder, which makes it difficult to empty it completely. Stagnant urine in the bladder is the most likely cause of the infection. If left untreated, a simple UTI can lead to a kidney infection. A Continue reading >>

Urine Samples Can Sometimes Reveal Leukocytes. These Are A Type Of Cell Not Normally Found In The Urine In Great Numbers.

Urine Samples Can Sometimes Reveal Leukocytes. These Are A Type Of Cell Not Normally Found In The Urine In Great Numbers.

Having leukocytes in the urine may signal an infection. A test for this may be done routinely for some people, such as pregnant women. What are leukocytes? Leukocyte is the technical name for a white blood cell, often seen shortened to WBC. They are central to immune responses that protect people from infection. These white blood cells come in a number of forms, including phagocytes and lymphocytes. Phagocytes are produced in the bone marrow. Their job is to engulf foreign particles like bacteria. This means surrounding a particle, internalizing it, and destroying it. Lymphocytes are the white blood cells that recognize foreign particles based on previous encounters. They are the cells that make up the "adaptive" immunity. This is the complex ability of the immune system to remember an infection and launch more specific responses to it. Lymphocytes also produce antibodies, which bind to foreign particles so that they may be recognized for destruction. There are other types of leukocyte. Cytotoxic white blood cells, for example, have the ability to kill other cells. What do high leukocytes in urine mean? Having a high number of leukocytes in the urine indicates inflammation in the bladder or kidney. Having some leukocytes in the urine does not always mean infection, though. The level must be high. The urine sample also needs to be given carefully, because contamination can come from the genitals, for example. Leukocytes and nitrites When doctors use a dipstick test for urine infection, these detect certain chemicals in the urine. Chemical test strips can pick up substances known as leukocyte esterase and nitrite in the urine. Both of which are potential indicators of infection. The presence of nitrite in the urine is highly specific of a bacterial infection. This does no Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Urinalysis

Urinalysis

A complete urinalysis evaluates several different aspects of your urine through physical, chemical, and microscopic examination. In lupus treatment, a urinalysis is often used to monitor protein leakage and identify and assess urinary tract infections (UTIs). Most people with kidney lupus (lupus nephritis) will have an abnormal urinalysis. Protein, urine casts (especially red blood cell casts), red blood cells, or white blood cells in the urine can indicate serious kidney involvement; leukocyte esterase may indicate a bladder infection. Urine samples can be given at any time while at the doctor’s office. A urine culture is performed to assess for a bladder infection and to determine appropriate antibiotics. Before giving a urine sample, ask a medical professional to counsel you on how to prevent contamination. Several analytical elements of the complete urinalysis are explained below. Physical Examination / Macroanalysis In this portion of the analysis, the color, clarity, and concentration of the urine are evaluated. Abnormal colors can result from disease, certain foods, or contamination, so the physical examination is generally viewed as a crude assessment. Light or dark coloration also suggests how much water is being excreted. The clarity of urine is measured as either clear, slightly clear, cloudy, or turbid. Urine clarity, like urine color, suggests that substances may be present in the urine; for example, turbid urine suggests the presence of protein or excess cellular material. However, accurate conclusions regarding the origin of the urine clarity cannot be drawn until further chemical and microscopic tests are performed. The physical examination also includes specific gravity, which measures the concentration of the urine sample. Specific gravity compares t Continue reading >>

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