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Ketones In Urine Child

Dehydration In Children

Dehydration In Children

Dehydration means not enough fluid in a child's body. This can result from vomiting, diarrhoea, not drinking, or any combination of these three. Sweating or urinating too much can also cause dehydration, although this is far less common. Infants and small children are much more likely to become dehydrated than older children or adults. Causes of dehydration in children Dehydration is most often caused by a viral infection that causes fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and a decreased ability to drink or eat. Common viral infections causing vomiting and diarrhoea include rotavirus and winter vomiting disease (norovirus). Sometimes sores in a child's mouth caused by a virus make it painful to eat or drink, helping to cause or worsen dehydration. More serious bacterial infections can make a child less likely to eat and may cause vomiting and diarrhoea. Common bacterial infections include Salmonella, E coli, Campylobacter, and C.difficile. Parasitic infections such as Giardia lamblia cause the condition known as giardiasis. Increased sweating due to a very hot environment can cause dehydration. Excessive urination caused by unrecognised or poorly treated diabetes (not taking insulin) is another cause. Symptoms of dehydration in children You should be concerned if your child has an excessive loss of fluid from vomiting or diarrhoea, or if the child refuses to eat or drink. Signs of dehydration: Sunken eyes Decreased frequency of urination or dry nappies Sunken soft spot on the top of the head in babies (called the fontanelle) No tears when the child cries Dry or sticky mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth or tongue) Lethargy (less activity than normal) Irritability (more crying, fussiness) When to seek medical care: Seek urgent medical advice if your child has any of the follow Continue reading >>

Checking Urine Glucose And Ketones

Checking Urine Glucose And Ketones

Checking urine for ketones Urinary ketones are checked by dipping a chemically treated strip in a fresh sample of urine. The colour change is then compared to a chart. A purple colour means ketones are in the urine. Ketones are a sign that too much fat has broken down in the body. There may be a number of causes, such as too little insulin or the stress of an illness. Ketones are a cause for concern if they are present when the blood glucose is high (greater than 14 mmol/L or 250 mg/dL). Check urine ketones whenever: the blood sugar level is over 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL) for 3 readings in a row your child is feeling ill, has a fever, or has vomited your child has symptoms of high blood sugar, such as increased thirst and urination the diabetes team asks you to check for ketones, perhaps when the insulin dose is being adjusted Have strips at home for ketone checking at all times. Make sure that the strips have not expired by checking the expiration date on the bottle. The bottle should be kept closed. Once the bottle is open, the strips must be used within 6 months. Note that strips are available to check for glucose as well as ketones in the urine. Follow the instructions on the package carefully, and ask your health care team for help if the instructions are not clear. Checking urine for sugar Sugar in the urine is usually checked only as a back-up to checking blood sugar, or to screen other family members. A chemically treated strip is dipped briefly into a fresh urine sample. The strip will change colour. After a certain period of time the strip will be compared with a colour chart on the box. A urine check showing no sugar means that when the urine was made the blood sugar level was below the renal (kidney) threshold (about 8.0 to 12.0 mmol/L, or 145 to 220 mg/dL). A u Continue reading >>

Ketones Urine Test

Ketones Urine Test

Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that you can buy at a drug store. The kit contains dipsticks coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ketones. This article describes the ketone urine test that involves sending collected urine to a lab. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. Continue reading >>

Ketone Testing

Ketone Testing

What are ketones? Ketones are chemicals that appear in the blood and urine when body fat is used for energy. Ketones are a sign that the cells are not getting sugar for energy, so the body starts breaking down fat. Why is this test done? When your child has type 1 diabetes, ketone testing is very important because ketones can build up in the body when your child doesn’t have enough insulin to move sugar out of the blood and into the cells. The buildup can cause an emergency condition called ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is a serious, life-threatening problem that must be treated right away. When should I test for ketones? Your healthcare provider will tell you when you should check for ketones. For example, your provider may recommend that you check for ketones if: Your child has high blood sugar. Your child feels sick or nauseated (especially if he or she vomits even once). If a child is sick, ketones can be present even when blood sugar is not high. Make sure you have a ketone test kit available to use at all times in case your child gets sick or has had recent changes in medicines. How is the test done? You can do the tests at home with kits bought at the drugstore. You can test the urine or blood for ketones. The blood ketone measurement tells you what the ketone level is at the moment you do the test. The urine ketones test may show what the ketone levels were a few hours earlier. Record test results in a notebook. Urine Tests You can use urine test strips to check for ketones in urine. Ask your pharmacist about the types of urine ketone strips that are available. Carefully follow the package directions for testing. Urine ketone tests must be timed exactly using a watch or clock with a secondhand. After you dip the strip in the urine sample, compare the color of the Continue reading >>

Diabetes Urine Tests

Diabetes Urine Tests

Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes. Testing for ketones is most common in people with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? This test detects the presence of ketones, which are byproducts of metabolism that form in the presence of severe hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar). Ketones are formed from fat that is burned by the body when there is insufficient insulin to allow glucose to be used for fuel. When ketones build up to high levels, ketoacidosis (a serious and life-threatening condition) may occur. Ketone testing can be performed both at home and in the clinical laboratory. Ketones can be detected by dipping a test strip into a sample of urine. A color change on the test strip signals the presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones occur most commonly in people with type 1 diabetes, but uncommonly, people with type 2 diabetes may test positive for ketones. The microalbumin test detects microalbumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Protein is present in the urine when there is damage to the kidneys. Since the damage to blood vessels that occurs as a complication of diabetes can lead to kidney problems, the microalbumin test is done to check for damage to the kidneys over time. Can urine tests be used to Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Urine Ketones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Description Ketones are produced normally by the liver as part of fatty acid metabolism. In normal states these ketones will be completely metabolised so that very few, if any at all, will appear in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, resulting in an increase in ketone production making them detectable in the blood and urine. How to test for ketones The urine test for ketones is performed using test strips available on prescription. Strips dedicated to ketone testing in the UK include[1]: GlucoRx KetoRx Sticks 2GK® Ketostix® Mission® Ketone Testing should be performed according to manufacturers' instructions. The sample should be fresh and uncontaminated. Usually the result will be expressed as negative or positive (graded 1 to 4)[2]. Ketonuria is different from ketonaemia (ie presence of ketones in the blood) and often ketonuria does not indicate clinically significant ketonaemia. Depending on the testing strips used, urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with a low specificity, or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity. However, this should be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis[3]. Interpretation of results Normally only small amounts of ketones are excreted daily in the urine (3-15 mg). High or increased values may be found in: Poorly controlled diabetes. Starvation: Prolonged vomiting. Rapid weight loss. Frequent strenuous exercise. Poisoning (eg, with isop Continue reading >>

Dehydration In Children - Treatment

Dehydration In Children - Treatment

A A A Dehydration in Children (cont.) Be concerned if your child has an excessive loss of fluid by vomiting or diarrhea, or if the child refuses to eat or drink. Signs of dehydration include: Sunken eyes Decreased frequency of urination or dry diapers Sunken soft spot on the front of the head in babies (called the fontanel) No tears when the child cries Dry or sticky mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth or tongue) Lethargy (less than normal activity) Irritability (more crying, fussiness with inconsolability) Infants and small children can become dehydrated quickly. Contact your doctor if your child has any of the following: Crying without tears No urine output for over a period of four to six hours Sunken eyes Blood in the stool Vomiting for more than 24 hours, or vomiting that is consistently green in color Fever higher than 103 F (39.4 C) Less activity than usual Urination much more than usual If your child is lethargic (difficult to awaken) If you cannot reach your doctor If your child's mouth looks dry The doctor will perform a thorough history and physical exam in an effort to determine the severity and cause of the dehydration. Specific laboratory tests may be ordered. A complete blood count may identify an infection. Blood cultures may identify the specific kind of infection. Blood chemistries may identify electrolyte abnormalities caused by vomiting and diarrhea Urinalysis may identify bladder infection, may give evidence of the severity of dehydration, and may identify sugar and ketones in urine (evidence of uncontrolled diabetes). In some cases, the doctor may order other tests, such as a chest X-ray, a test to check for rotavirus, stool cultures, or lumbar puncture (a spinal tap). Continue Reading A A A Dehydration in Children (cont.) Dehydration in chil Continue reading >>

Ask The Diabetes Team

Ask The Diabetes Team

Question: From Houston, Texas, USA: Are moderately high ketones ever caused by anything else besides diabetes? I have IDDM but there's no prior family history. I found out that my 4 year old son had moderately high ketones in his urine the morning after the day I took him to the pediatrician for an asthma problem. I have a good pediatrician and I want to prepare myself for what he might say. My son has been sick for six months with asthma difficulties that get better only on steroids (liquids) but the wheezing and dry coughing comes back when the steroids wear off. He's never been this sickly. He has gained no weight and seems much skinnier to me, but last time I mentioned this to the doctor he said wait until he's well and we'll weigh him again. I'm thinking of asking for a glucose tolerance test. My son is terrified of needles and I don't want to push the unnecessary. Answer: Ketones are produced when the body breaks down too much stored fat to get extra fuel for energy. In fact, in normal metabolic conditions, the main energy source of our human machinery are carbohydrates (i.e., glucose). Quite often very young children with normal (or low) blood sugar are unable to get enough sugar from their stored fat and from stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver while they're are sleeping during the night or are in a "starvation" situation or not taking in normal calories and fluids: then most of the time they can have ketones in their urine in the morning. Stress and illnesses like asthma, flu, and infections, put a stress on the body of a child and this can make his body produce ketones. This usually occurs because in these conditions the body makes hormones like epinephrine and cortisol which cause the body to break down its own fat deposits; this would explain why your son h Continue reading >>

Ketone Testing: About Your Child's Test

Ketone Testing: About Your Child's Test

What is it? A ketone test checks for ketones in your child's blood or urine. Ketones are made when the body breaks down fat for energy instead of using sugar. This can happen when children with diabetes are ill or don't get enough insulin. Newer home blood sugar meters can measure ketone levels in the blood. You can also use home urine tests to measure ketones. Why is this test done? Measuring your child's ketones is recommended whenever your child has symptoms of illness, such as nausea, vomiting, or belly pain. These symptoms are similar to symptoms of high blood sugar and may mean that your child has diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition is very serious and needs immediate treatment. How can you prepare for the test? In general, your child doesn't need to prepare before having this test. Your doctor may give you some specific instructions. What happens during the test? Blood test in a doctor's office or hospital: A health professional takes a sample of your child's blood. Blood test at home: Some home blood sugar meters can also measure blood ketones. You use the same finger-prick method that you use to measure your child's blood sugar. Home urine test: Collect a sample of urine in a clean container. Follow the manufacturer's directions on the bottle of test strips or tablets. What else should you know about the test? With the home urine test, if either the test strip changes colour or the urine changes colour when the tablet is dropped into the sample, ketones are present in your child's urine sample. The test results are read as negative to 1+ to 4+, or small to large. Blood ketone tests using a meter display the result on the monitor. Your doctor can tell you what ketone range is high for your child (for example 0.6 mmol/L or higher). Your doctor may recommend tha Continue reading >>

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones: Clearing Up The Confusion

Ketones, ketosis, ketoacidosis, DKA…these are words that you’ve probably heard at one point or another, and you might be wondering what they mean and if you need to worry about them at all, especially if you have diabetes. This week, we’ll explore the mysterious world of ketones, including if and how they may affect you. Ketones — what are they? Ketones are a type of acid that the body can form if there’s not enough carbohydrate to be burned for energy (yes, you do need carbs for fuel). Without enough carb, the body turns to another energy source: fat. Ketones are made in the liver from fat breakdown. This is called ketogenesis. People who don’t have diabetes can form ketones. This might occur if a person does extreme exercise, has an eating disorder, is fasting (not eating), or is following a low-carbohydrate diet. This is called ketosis and it’s a normal response to starvation. In a person who has diabetes, ketones form for the same reason (not enough carb for energy), but this often occurs because there isn’t enough insulin available to help move carb (in the form of glucose) from the bloodstream to the cells to be used for energy. Again, the body scrambles to find an alternate fuel source in the form of fat. You might be thinking that it’s a good thing to burn fat for fuel. However, for someone who has diabetes, ketosis can quickly become dangerous if it occurs due to a continued lack of insulin (the presence of ketones along with “normal” blood sugar levels is not necessarily a cause for concern). In the absence of insulin (which can occur if someone doesn’t take their insulin or perhaps uses an insulin pump and the pump has a malfunction, for example), fat cells continue to release fat into the circulation; the liver then continues to churn Continue reading >>

Ketones — Urine

Ketones — Urine

Definition Ketones build up when the body needs to break down fats and fatty acids to use as fuel. This is most likely to occur when the body does not get enough sugar or carbohydrates. A urine test can be done to check the level of ketones in your body. Alternative Names Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones How the test is performed The test requires a clean catch urine sample. To obtain a clean catch sample, men or boys should clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl to clear the urethra of contaminants. Then, put a clean container under your urine stream and catch 1 to 2 ounces of urine. Remove the container from the urine stream. Cap and mark the container and give it to the health care provider or assistant. For infants, thoroughly wash the area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and place it on the infant. For boys, the entire penis can be placed in the bag and the adhesive attached to the skin. For girls, the bag is placed over the labia. Diaper as usual over the secured bag. This procedure may take a couple of attempts -- lively infants can displace the bag. The infant should be checked frequently and the bag changed after the infant has urinated into the bag. The urine is drained into the container for transport to the laboratory. Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test" using a dipstick coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. The dipstick is dipped in the urine sample, and a color change indicates the presence of ketones. How to prepare for the test You may have to eat a special diet, and you should stop taking a Continue reading >>

Ketones And Children With Type 1 Diabetes – What’s Important?

Ketones And Children With Type 1 Diabetes – What’s Important?

What are ketones and when do you check for them in children with type one diabetes? This is a common question I get! I think when children are diagnosed, this a frequent part of the education that is easily forgotten or misunderstood due to the overwhelming amount of information being taught. So let’s look at why we would check ketones, how to check them, what the colors on the strips mean, and what to do if ketones are present. Why Check Ketones: When someone with type 1 diabetes does not not get enough insulin, their blood sugar levels rise, so the body is forced to use fat for energy. When fat is used for energy for an extended period of time, ketones develop. Ketones are a waste product of fat. If someone with type 1 diabetes does not get enough insulin, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can develop. The length of time it takes and how high one’s blood sugar are varies, however DKA can occur in a few hours. Symptoms of DKA: high blood sugars ketones in blood and urine nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain confusion lethargy (tired, sluggish, weak) difficulty breathing unconsciousness DKA is a very serious and life threatening situation. Speak with your health care providers to determine how you are to treat ketones and when you are to go to the emergency room. When to check ketones: Your doctor can tell you exactly, but usually when your blood sugars are over 250, especially if the blood sugar is not responding to insulin and remaining high after the second blood sugar check. Always check ketones when your child is sick, even if blood sugar numbers are not high. Anytime your child has nausea and vomiting, check ketones. How to check ketones: Ketones can be checked by using ketone urine strips. To check ketones, urinate on a strip, or collect urine and dip stick into ur Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Urine Testing For Ketones

Diabetes: Urine Testing For Ketones

Ketones in the urine mean that the body cells are using fat for energy instead of glucose. A large amount of ketones in the urine is a danger sign and can mean the start of a serious illness. Call your child's doctor or nurse educator if your child has a large amount of ketones in his/her urine. Things that can cause the urine ketone to be positive are: too much food injury or illness too little insulin infection dehydration certain medicines Urine is Tested for Ketones: Whenever your child does not feel well. If your child's blood glucose is greater than 300 (or as directed by your child's doctor). Your child's doctor will tell you how often you should check your child's urine for ketones. To Collect a Urine Sample: Have your child urinate (void) into a clean container or on the test strip. NOTE: If your child wears a diaper, try placing cotton balls in the diaper and squeeze the urine on the test strip. What You Will Need: Fresh urine sample Ketone strip Pen or pencil Record Book Clock or watch with a second hand Ketone strip color chart Procedure Using Strip Method: There are different kinds of strips that can be used to check for ketones in the urine. Several kinds are Ketostix®, and Ketodiastix®,. Read the instructions on your brand. You may want to ask your pharmacy to order individually wrapped strips because opened bottles expire in 90 days. Check the date on the bottle to be sure the strips are not expired. Dip the strip into the urine. Wait for the amount of time stated for the type of strip you are using. Compare the color of the strip with the color chart. Record your results, date, and time in record book. Throw away urine and strip. Call your doctor or nurse educator if you have moderate or large ketones. Disclaimer: This information is not intended to s Continue reading >>

Ketonuria

Ketonuria

Ketonuria is a medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine. It is seen in conditions in which the body produces excess ketones as an indication that it is using an alternative source of energy. It is seen during starvation or more commonly in type I diabetes mellitus. Production of ketone bodies is a normal response to a shortage of glucose, meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. Pathophysiology[edit] Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fat becomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Acetone is also produced and is expired by the lungs.[1] Normally, the urine should not contain a noticeable concentration of ketones to give a positive reading. As with tests for glucose, acetoacetate can be tested by a dipstick or by a lab. The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under 20 mg/dl; a moderate amount is a value of 30–40 mg/dl, and a finding of 80 mg/dl or greater is reported as a large amount. One 2010 study admits that though ketonuria's relation to general metabolic health is ill-understood, there is a positive relationship between the presence of ketonuria after fasting and positive metabo Continue reading >>

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