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Ketones In The Urine Kidney Failure

Diabetes Urine Tests

Diabetes Urine Tests

Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes. Testing for ketones is most common in people with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? This test detects the presence of ketones, which are byproducts of metabolism that form in the presence of severe hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar). Ketones are formed from fat that is burned by the body when there is insufficient insulin to allow glucose to be used for fuel. When ketones build up to high levels, ketoacidosis (a serious and life-threatening condition) may occur. Ketone testing can be performed both at home and in the clinical laboratory. Ketones can be detected by dipping a test strip into a sample of urine. A color change on the test strip signals the presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones occur most commonly in people with type 1 diabetes, but uncommonly, people with type 2 diabetes may test positive for ketones. The microalbumin test detects microalbumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Protein is present in the urine when there is damage to the kidneys. Since the damage to blood vessels that occurs as a complication of diabetes can lead to kidney problems, the microalbumin test is done to check for damage to the kidneys over time. Can urine tests be used to Continue reading >>

Dr. Oz Explains Symptoms Of Chronic Kidney Disease

Dr. Oz Explains Symptoms Of Chronic Kidney Disease

There's a dangerous health problem on the rise in the United States, affecting more than 20 million adults—25 percent more than a decade ago. It's more common than diabetes and twice as prevalent as cancer. More alarming: New evidence shows that the majority of those stricken by the condition don't even know they have it. What is this insidious epidemic? Chronic kidney disease. Located just below the rib cage on either side of the spine, the kidneys act like a laundry service for your blood. Each bean-shaped organ, about the size of a computer mouse, contains approximately one million tiny filters, or nephrons, that separate the nutrients and other substances your body needs from waste products and excess fluid, which you eliminate as urine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when the organs' tiny filters are progressively damaged over the course of several months to years. Eventually the damage leads to a dangerous buildup of waste in your blood, which can cause inflammation in the blood vessels, setting you up for heart attack, stroke, even brain damage. Without treatment to help slow the progress of the disease, many patients will require either dialysis or a kidney transplant. One reason CKD is on the rise is that it's linked to two other increasingly common conditions—diabetes and hypertension, which together account for two-thirds of CKD cases. (High blood sugar and high blood pressure damage the kidney's nephrons and impair blood vessel function, making it more difficult for waste to be removed.) But although more and more Americans are being screened for these two conditions, CKD often goes undiscovered until obvious symptoms—such as numbness in the hands or feet, a halt to menstruation, or severe joint pain—appear. The bad news: These symptoms usually Continue reading >>

Lupus And Kidney Disease: What You Should Know About Lupus Nephritis (lupus Kidney Disease)

Lupus And Kidney Disease: What You Should Know About Lupus Nephritis (lupus Kidney Disease)

Adapted from a presentation at the SLE Workshop at Hospital for Special Surgery Introduction At this session of the SLE Workshop at HSS, Dr. Kyriakos Kirou presented his expertise on the diagnosis, symptoms, treatments, and research related to lupus and kidney involvement, including lupus nephritis (LN). Dr. Kirou is an assistant attending physician at HSS and the co-director of the Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Care. When presenting, Dr. Kirou emphasized that the purpose of his presentation is to educate patients about lupus and its interaction with the kidney and should not be used as therapeutic advice. He stressed that when patients need to make a decision about their own specific care, they should consult their own rheumatologist. It is important to recognize that there’s no “one fits all” therapy. Dr. Kirou discussed how lupus can affect the kidney and cause the disease known as lupus nephritis (LN). He also discussed tests that are used for diagnosis, as well as available therapies. He also spoke about the necessary lifestyle changes that LN patients may have to adopt after their diagnosis of LN to minimize harm in their bodies. First, it is important to understand how the kidney functions, what happens when someone with lupus has problems with their kidneys, and how they can go about dealing with the situation. Background Information Lupus:Lupus is a chronic and autoimmune disease that affects several parts of the body, including joints, blood, skin, and kidneys. The immune system of those with lupus does not function properly. Lupus creates autoantibodies that fight and damage the cells, tissues, and body organs. When they are present, they can likely lead to disease. Kidney: The kidney is a bean-shaped, fist-sized organ that helps cleans the body from a Continue reading >>

Ketosis: Symptoms, Signs & More

Ketosis: Symptoms, Signs & More

Every cell in your body needs energy to survive. Most of the time, you create energy from the sugar (glucose) in your bloodstream. Insulin helps regulate glucose levels in the blood and stimulate the absorption of glucose by the cells in your body. If you don’t have enough glucose or insufficient insulin to get the job done, your body will break down fat instead for energy. This supply of fat is an alternative energy source that keeps you from starvation. When you break down fat, you produce a compound called a ketone body. This process is called ketosis. Insulin is required by your cells in order to use the glucose in your blood, but ketones do not require insulin. The ketones that don’t get used for energy pass through your kidneys and out through your urine. Ketosis is most likely to occur in people who have diabetes, a condition in which the body produces little or no insulin. Ketosis and Ketoacidosis: What You Need To Know Ketosis simply means that your body is producing ketone bodies. You’re burning fat instead of glucose. Ketosis isn’t necessarily harmful to your health. If you don’t have diabetes and you maintain a healthy diet, it’s unlikely to be a problem. While ketosis itself isn’t particularly dangerous, it’s definitely something to keep an eye on, especially if you have diabetes. Ketosis can be a precursor to ketoacidosis, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is a condition in which you have both high glucose and high ketone levels. Having ketoacidosis results in your blood becoming too acidic. It’s more common for those with type 1 diabetes rather than type 2. Once symptoms of ketoacidosis begin, they can escalate very quickly. Symptoms include: breath that smells fruity or like nail polish or nail polish remover rapid breat Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Q. Do Ketones In Urine Mean Kidney Damage?

Q. Do Ketones In Urine Mean Kidney Damage?

Hello doctor, I am 5 feet and 5 inches, 112 lbs and eat a normal diet. I recently had a urine test with trace ketones, although negative for glucose. My test showed cloudy clarity and presence of crystals. All the other values on the urine test were normal. I also had normal blood tests. My doctor is referring me to a nephrologist. Do you think my doctor suspects a kidney disease? I researched ketones and what it means for kidney function. The more I read, the more confusing all this becomes. Thank you for any information as I wait to see a nephrologist. Hello doctor, Thanks for your reply. I am not on any drugs, nor am I having any burning or pain when urinating. My doctor has ruled out diabetes because of no glucose in the urine and normal blood glucose numbers. So, what could be the reason for ketones in urine? I had fasted for my blood test, but my doctor did not seem to think that was the reason for the presence of the ketones. My main question is, is it necessary to see a nephrologist based on my urine reports? Thank you doctor, Do ketones in urine mean kidney damage? Do you have any major concerns as a nephrologist based on my urine analysis? Continue reading >>

Clearing Up Kidney Confusion: Part Deux

Clearing Up Kidney Confusion: Part Deux

It’s funny how our mental state really affects how we write and what we are interested in. When I wrote the introduction to this piece I was just getting settled into our new place in Santa Fe, NM and was looking at over a month at home to work and write. Then a number of wacky events happened and I’ve been home about 7 days out of the last month and I’ve only made it about 70 pages into Kon-Tiki. Ouch. Now I’m home for 8 days and will then be gone for a project that will take me completely off the grid for nearly 3 weeks. No phone, email…nada. When I sat down to do this kidney piece it was with a mindset that I had a ton of time and could really sink my teeth into it. Now I’m time crunched and anxious that I will get it done at all! Up front here I’d like to thank Mat “The Kraken” Lalonde with his help on some literature for this piece. Any inaccuracies however are my own tomfoolery. If I wanted to cut to the chase I could boil this whole thing down to the following: 1-Dietary protein DOES NOT CAUSE KIDNEY DAMAGE. 2-Chronically elevated BLOOD GLUCOSE levels DO cause kidney damage. 3-Dietary fructose REALLY causes kidney damage. 4-Many kidney issues have either a hyperinsulinemic characteristic, an autoimmune characteristic, and or a combination of autoimmunity or hyperinsulinism. A standard, low-ish carb paleo diet can fix most of these issues. 5-For serious kidney damage a low-protein, ketogenic diet can be remarkably therapeutic. 6-If you get kidney stones that are from oxalates, reduce your green veggie intake (spinach for example) and have other types of veggies. 7-If you get kidney stones that are from urate salts, you are likely NOT following a low-ish carb paleo diet, you likely have insulin resistance and your liver is not processing uric acid Continue reading >>

Urinalysis And Urine Culture

Urinalysis And Urine Culture

Urinalysis is testing of the urine. A urine sample is usually collected using the clean-catch method or another sterile method. For example, a method to obtain an uncontaminated urine sample involves passing a catheter through the urethra into the bladder. Urine cultures, in which bacteria from a urine sample are grown in a laboratory, are done to diagnose a urinary tract infection. Cultures are not part of routine urinalysis. The sample of urine must be obtained by the clean-catch method (see Obtaining a Clean-Catch Urine Sample) or by briefly inserting a sterile catheter through the urethra into the bladder. Urinalysis can be used to detect and measure the level of various substances in the urine, including protein, glucose (sugar), ketones, blood, and other substances. These tests use a thin strip of plastic (dipstick) impregnated with chemicals that react with substances in the urine and quickly change color. Sometimes the test results are confirmed with more sophisticated and accurate laboratory analysis of the urine. The urine may be examined under a microscope to check for the presence of red and white blood cells, crystals, and casts (impressions of the kidney tubules created when urinary cells, protein, or both precipitate out in the tubules and are passed in the urine). Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can usually be detected by dipstick when present in large amounts. Protein may appear constantly or only intermittently in the urine, depending on the cause. Proteinuria may occur normally after strenuous exercise, such as marathon running, but is usually a sign of a kidney disorder. Small amounts of protein in the urine may be an early sign of kidney damage due to diabetes. Such small amounts may not be detected by dipstick. In these cases, urine will need to Continue reading >>

How Does Keto//os Affect Kidneys And Liver And The Role In Metabolizing Ketones?

How Does Keto//os Affect Kidneys And Liver And The Role In Metabolizing Ketones?

As with all medium chain triglycerides, the MCT powder portion of the product will largely be converted to ketones by the liver within a few short hours of consumption. MCT create a readily supply of Ketone production for the liver to use for ketones. The BHB-salt portion should simply be absorbed into the blood as ketones. The BHB supplies another source, which doesn’t require the liver to produce ketones. There is no reason that the ketones produced by the product will affect the kidneys or liver any differently than ketones produced from exogenous fats (such as when eating a ketogenic diet) or ketones produced from stored fats (such as when calorie restricting or losing weight). Exogenous ketone scientific literature does not suggest that either kidney or liver function is negatively affected by ketosis. The major role of the kidneys when it comes to ketones is to excrete excess ketones in the urine. This excretion will likely be highest during the first few days of keto-adaptation (either in eating the keto diet or consuming KETO//OS), but the body will retain more and the tissues will begin to preferentially burn the ketones as consumption continues. The liver is the major site of endogenous ketone production, so taking exogenous ketones with KETO//OS would provide another source besides the liver to make ketones. Remember, KETO//OS and exogenous ketones are a source of calories; so be sure to consider it in your daily goals. KETO//OS and exogenous ketone supplementation is not hard on the liver. Continue reading >>

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones

Kidney stones may not be on your mind when beginning a weight-loss diet, but if you plan to follow a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet plan, they should be. While many popular low-carb commercial diet plans encourage your body to shift into a fat-burning state called ketosis, the production of ketones that results can alter your urine chemistry and raise the risk of kidney stones. Understanding the risks to your kidneys can help you decide whether the weight loss promises of a high-protein, low-carb diet are worth it. Video of the Day Kidney stones develop when a hard mass of crystals develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones are often extremely painful, especially when they pass through the thin ureter to exit the body. There are a few different types of kidney stones, each made up of different materials. The cause of kidney stones remains unknown, but some people seem to be more prone to developing them than others, so there may be a hereditary component. Ketones are compounds formed by the breakdown of fat as the body shifts from burning carbohydrates to burning fat for fuel. During a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, ketones become the main source of energy in the body. After a few days or weeks on this type of diet, the brain begins to use ketones as fuel instead of glucose. However, when too many ketones build up in the bloodstream, the pH of the urine changes from neutral to slightly acidic, which can put stress on the kidneys and potentially raise the risk of developing kidney stones. A 2002 study published in the "American Journal of Kidney Diseases" found that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet raised the acidity of the blood over a six-week period, a condition known to contribute to kidney stones. The study found up to a 90-percent increase in acid Continue reading >>

Urinalysis

Urinalysis

Print Overview A urinalysis is a test of your urine. A urinalysis is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes. A urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease. Unusual urinalysis results often require more testing to uncover the source of the problem. Why it's done A urinalysis is a common test that's done for several reasons: To check your overall health. Your doctor may recommend a urinalysis as part of a routine medical exam, pregnancy checkup, pre-surgery preparation, or on hospital admission to screen for a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease and liver disease. To diagnose a medical condition. Your doctor may suggest a urinalysis if you're experiencing abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination, blood in your urine, or other urinary problems. A urinalysis may help diagnose the cause of these symptoms. To monitor a medical condition. If you've been diagnosed with a medical condition, such as kidney disease or a urinary tract disease, your doctor may recommend a urinalysis on a regular basis to monitor your condition and treatment. Other tests, such as pregnancy testing and drug screenings, also may rely on a urine sample, but these tests look for substances that aren't included in a typical urinalysis. For example, pregnancy testing measures a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Drug screenings detect specific drugs or their metabolic products, depending on the purpose of the testing. How you prepare Continue reading >>

Urine Test Kits

Urine Test Kits

What is the difference between the urine test kits for people with diabetes? Three different kinds of urine testing kits are available for testing three different substances in the urine: glucose (sugar), ketones, and microscopic amounts of protein (microalbuminuria). Glucose test kits Before the development of blood glucose meters, urine testing was the only method for gauging a person's sugar levels. However, it has always been a very imprecise method for testing glucose levels for a variety of reasons: Urine test strips cannot detect glucose (sugar) until the blood glucose level is above 180 mg/dl. This means a person's blood sugar level could still be high (hyperglycemia) or even dangerously low (hypoglycemia) but still not be detected. Urine glucose testing is highly subject to user error because it requires color interpretation of the urine test strip via a color-scale comparison. This becomes an issue with people who are colorblind or have poor eyesight, and certain drugs and vitamin C can change the color of the urine and thus provide an invalid measurement. The reading reflects the level of blood glucose from a few hours earlier - not at the present moment - and often is misinterpreted. As a result of these shortcomings, healthcare professionals recommend that anyone needing to closely monitor blood glucose levels use a blood glucose meter. However, urine strips can be useful in certain populations who physically cannot or will not test themselves with a blood glucose meter. Ketone test kits Ketone bodies are the byproducts of the body burning fat, rather than glucose, to provide energy. When fat is used for energy instead of glucose, the preferred fuel source, the liver produces substances called ketones. If ketones build up, they can lead to a life-threatenin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>

Urine Dipstick Analysis

Urine Dipstick Analysis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Instructions All samples should be midstream and collected in a clean sterile container. Suprapubic aspiration or fresh catheter samples are ideal, but not always practical. The gold standard method of testing is to remove a small volume of urine from the sterile container with a fresh sterile syringe, and then apply the removed urine to the dipstick. In this way, the remainder of the collected sample contents remains untouched by a potentially unsterile dipstick and so can be sent for laboratory analysis if required. Hold the dipstick horizontally before reading. Available tests include the likes of Multistix® (suitable for screening for glycosuria only), Micral-Test II® or Microalbustix® (detect microalbuminuria) and the more commonly used multiple combination strips - eg, five tests on each strip (detects blood, ketones, glucose, pH and protein), or seven tests on each strip (tests for blood, ketones, glucose, pH, bilirubin, urobilinogen and protein). Costs vary depending on how many substances can be detected and on the supplier. Physical examination Colour The colour of the urine can vary greatly. Normal urine varies from colourless to dark yellow. Various factors can affect urine colour.[1] Common Causes of Urine Discolouration Colour Pathological causes Food and drug causes Brown Bile pigments, myoglobin Levodopa, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, some antimalarial agents, fava beans Brownish-black Bile pigments, melanin, methaemoglobin Cascara, levodopa, Continue reading >>

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