Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>
As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>
How Does Keto//os Affect Kidneys And Liver And The Role In Metabolizing Ketones?
As with all medium chain triglycerides, the MCT powder portion of the product will largely be converted to ketones by the liver within a few short hours of consumption. MCT create a readily supply of Ketone production for the liver to use for ketones. The BHB-salt portion should simply be absorbed into the blood as ketones. The BHB supplies another source, which doesn’t require the liver to produce ketones. There is no reason that the ketones produced by the product will affect the kidneys or liver any differently than ketones produced from exogenous fats (such as when eating a ketogenic diet) or ketones produced from stored fats (such as when calorie restricting or losing weight). Exogenous ketone scientific literature does not suggest that either kidney or liver function is negatively affected by ketosis. The major role of the kidneys when it comes to ketones is to excrete excess ketones in the urine. This excretion will likely be highest during the first few days of keto-adaptation (either in eating the keto diet or consuming KETO//OS), but the body will retain more and the tissues will begin to preferentially burn the ketones as consumption continues. The liver is the major site of endogenous ketone production, so taking exogenous ketones with KETO//OS would provide another source besides the liver to make ketones. Remember, KETO//OS and exogenous ketones are a source of calories; so be sure to consider it in your daily goals. KETO//OS and exogenous ketone supplementation is not hard on the liver. Continue reading >>
Could A High-fat, Low-carb Diet Someday Replace Dialysis?
MORE A type of low-carb, high-fat diet that's typically used to manage seizures for children with epilepsy could reverse kidney disease in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics, a new animal study suggests. If successful in humans, the so-called ketogenic diet could have the potential to replace dialysis, which is a procedure that artificially filters blood in place of a damaged or failed kidney, said study researcher Charles Mobbs, professor of neuroscience and geriatrics and palliative care medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. "I speculate that this may be useful to completely cure diabetic kidney failure , and I hope that it's possible," Mobbs told MyHealthNewsDaily. "If it's possible, we can potentially not require dialysis. That's a big deal." However, a lot more research in mice is needed before any studies can be done in humans, Mobbs said, let alone determine if the diet can reverse advanced kidney disease in humans, he said. "That's the first thing we want to establish in mice: Can we truly reset the clock? Can we completely correct the [kidney] impairments?" Mobbs said. Other experts say the finding is promising for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics with earlier-stage kidney disease, but more research must be done to provide evidence that the diet can make an impact on end-stage kidney disease , or kidney failure. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin (needed to move blood sugar into cells for energy) to control blood sugar levels, according to the National Institutes of Health. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels. Overweight and obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and poor diet are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes, according to the N Continue reading >>
Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an extreme medical emergency that requires immediate veterinary attention. The condition can result in an accumulation of fluid in the brain and lungs, renal failure or heart failure. Affected animals that are not treated are likely to die. With timely intervention and proper treatment, it is likely that an affected cat can recover with little to no side effects. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin, creating an inability to efficiently process the sugars, fats, and proteins needed for energy. The resulting build-up of sugar causes extreme thirst and frequent urination. Since sugar levels help to control appetite, affected animals may experience a spike in hunger and lose weight at the same time due to the inability to properly process nutrients. In extreme cases, diabetes may be accompanied by a condition known as ketoacidosis. This is a serious ailment that causes energy crisis and abnormal blood-acid levels in affected pets. Cats affected with diabetic ketoacidosis are likely to present with one or more of the following symptoms: Vomiting Weakness Lethargy Depression Excessive Thirst Refusal to drink water Refusal to eat Sudden weight loss Loss of muscle tone Increased urination Dehydration Rough coat Dandruff Rapid breathing Sweet-smelling breath Jaundice The exact cause of diabetes in cats is unknown, but it is often accompanied by obesity, chronic pancreatitis, hormonal disease, or the use of corticosteroids like Prednisone. Ketoacidosis, the buildup of ketone waste products in the blood that occurs when the body burns fat and protein for energy instead of using glucose, is caused by insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis is commonly preceded by other conditions including: Stress Surgery Continue reading >>
On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>
Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise
A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>
Jardiance® (empagliflozin) Significantly Reduced The Risk Of Progressive Kidney Disease In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes With Established Cardiovascular Disease
(empagliflozin) reduced the risk for new-onset or worsening kidney disease by 39 percent versus placebo when added to standard of care in adults with type 2 diabetes with established cardiovascular disease. Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) announced today that the findings have been published in The New England Journal of Medicine and also presented at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 76th Scientific Sessions® in New Orleans. “These findings are clinically important, given that more than a third of people with type 2 diabetes will develop kidney disease, which can lead to kidney failure and eventually the need for dialysis. In the United States, the cost to treat chronic kidney disease is estimated to exceed $48 billion annually,” said Christoph Wanner, M.D., chief of the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at the University Hospital of Würzburg, Germany. “Since diabetes is the number one cause of kidney failure in the U.S., novel treatments that may have the potential to help address this crucial medical need are necessary.” These findings were part of a pre-specified exploratory analysis plan of additional endpoints of the landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial. New-onset or worsening kidney disease was a pre-specified composite endpoint that included the below clinical events. Compared with placebo, JARDIANCE led to the following statistically significant changes in outcomes: 55 percent reduction in the initiation of renal replacement therapy (such as dialysis) 44 percent reduction in doubling of creatinine (a waste product usually filtered by the kidneys) in the blood 38 percent reduction in progression to macroalbuminuria (very high levels of a protein called albumin in the urine) JARDIANCE also significantly slowed the dec Continue reading >>
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Diabetes Urine Tests
Urine tests may be done in people with diabetes to evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes. Testing for ketones is most common in people with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? This test detects the presence of ketones, which are byproducts of metabolism that form in the presence of severe hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar). Ketones are formed from fat that is burned by the body when there is insufficient insulin to allow glucose to be used for fuel. When ketones build up to high levels, ketoacidosis (a serious and life-threatening condition) may occur. Ketone testing can be performed both at home and in the clinical laboratory. Ketones can be detected by dipping a test strip into a sample of urine. A color change on the test strip signals the presence of ketones in the urine. Ketones occur most commonly in people with type 1 diabetes, but uncommonly, people with type 2 diabetes may test positive for ketones. The microalbumin test detects microalbumin, a type of protein, in the urine. Protein is present in the urine when there is damage to the kidneys. Since the damage to blood vessels that occurs as a complication of diabetes can lead to kidney problems, the microalbumin test is done to check for damage to the kidneys over time. Can urine tests be used to Continue reading >>
Urinalysis And Urine Culture
Urinalysis is testing of the urine. A urine sample is usually collected using the clean-catch method or another sterile method. For example, a method to obtain an uncontaminated urine sample involves passing a catheter through the urethra into the bladder. Urine cultures, in which bacteria from a urine sample are grown in a laboratory, are done to diagnose a urinary tract infection. Cultures are not part of routine urinalysis. The sample of urine must be obtained by the clean-catch method (see Obtaining a Clean-Catch Urine Sample) or by briefly inserting a sterile catheter through the urethra into the bladder. Urinalysis can be used to detect and measure the level of various substances in the urine, including protein, glucose (sugar), ketones, blood, and other substances. These tests use a thin strip of plastic (dipstick) impregnated with chemicals that react with substances in the urine and quickly change color. Sometimes the test results are confirmed with more sophisticated and accurate laboratory analysis of the urine. The urine may be examined under a microscope to check for the presence of red and white blood cells, crystals, and casts (impressions of the kidney tubules created when urinary cells, protein, or both precipitate out in the tubules and are passed in the urine). Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can usually be detected by dipstick when present in large amounts. Protein may appear constantly or only intermittently in the urine, depending on the cause. Proteinuria may occur normally after strenuous exercise, such as marathon running, but is usually a sign of a kidney disorder. Small amounts of protein in the urine may be an early sign of kidney damage due to diabetes. Such small amounts may not be detected by dipstick. In these cases, urine will need to Continue reading >>
Diabetic Nephropathy - Kidney Disease
Tweet Kidney disease amongst diabetics is commonly called diabetic nephropathy. Statistically, around 40% of people with diabetes develop nephropathy but it is possible to prevent or delay through control of both blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Diabetes affects the arteries of the body and as the kidneys filter blood from many arteries, kidney problems are a particular risk for people with diabetes. What is diabetic nephropathy? Nephropathy is a general term for the deterioration of proper functioning in the kidneys. At an advanced level, this is called end-stage renal disease or ESRD. ESRD often stems from diabetes, with diabetes causing just under half of all cases. Diabetic nephropathy can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy is divided into five stages of deterioration, with the final one being ESRD. It commonly takes over 20 years for patients to reach stage 5. Symptoms of kidney disease The symptoms of diabetic nephropathy tend to become apparent once the condition has reached the later stages. Typically the following symptoms may start to be noticed around stage four of its progression: Swelling of the ankles, feet, lower legs or hands caused by retention of water Darker urine, caused by blood in the urine Becoming short of breath, when climbing the stairs for instance Tiredness as a result of a lack of oxygen in the blood Nausea or vomiting To help catch nephropathy before the later stages develop, people with diabetes should be screened for kidney complications once a year. The screening test involves a simple urine sample which is tested to detect whether protein is present in the urine. Read more on kidney disease screening What are the causes of diabetic nephropathy? Statistics show that development of kidney dise Continue reading >>
Protein In Urine
Your kidneys filter waste products from your blood while retaining what your body needs — including proteins. However, some diseases and conditions allow proteins to pass through the filters of your kidneys, causing protein in urine. Conditions that can cause a temporary rise in the levels of protein in urine, but don't necessarily indicate kidney damage, include: Diseases and conditions that can cause persistently elevated levels of protein in urine, which might indicate kidney disease, include: Amyloidosis (buildup of abnormal proteins in your organs) Certain drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Endocarditis (an infection of the inner lining of the heart) Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) Glomerulonephritis (inflammation in the kidney cells that filter waste from the blood) Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease) (Hodgkin's disease) IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease) (kidney inflammation resulting from a buildup of the antibody immunoglobulin A) Orthostatic proteinuria (urine protein level rises when in an upright position) Pregnancy Sarcoidosis (development and growth of clumps of inflammatory cells in your organs) Continue reading >>
What Causes High Ketones In A Canine?
A dog with a high level of ketones in his urine suffers from a condition known as ketonuria, usually resulting from a buildup of these substances in the dog's blood. A ketone is a type of acid, which, if allowed to accumulate in the blood, can lead to ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition. The main health conditions that can cause high ketone levels in a canine are starvation and diabetes. A dog's body breaks down the food that he eats into sugars, also called glucose, that the cells of the body use for energy. The dog's pancreas then produces the hormone insulin to regulate the amount of glucose that the body will absorb. If the insulin to regulate the glucose is insufficient, typically due to chronic diabetes mellitus, the body breaks down alternate sources of fuel for its cells; a dog's body that is starved of nutrition will do the same. One of these sources is the fat stored in the dog's body. When the body breaks down this fat, it produces as a by-product toxic acids known as a ketones. These ketones then build up in the dog's blood and also his urine, leading to ketoacidosis. Always consult an experienced veterinarian regarding the health and treatment of your pet. A dog suffering from high ketone levels in his blood and urine exhibits symptoms of weight loss, vomiting, increased thirst, decreased appetite, increased urination, lethargy, low body temperature and yellowing of the skin and gums, according to PetMD. The dog's breath may also have a sweet, fruity smell due to the presence of acetone caused by ketoacidosis, says VetInfo. To properly diagnose high ketone levels and ketoacidosis in your dog, a veterinarian will take blood tests and a urinalysis, which will also check your dog's blood glucose levels. Depending on the dog's physical condition, hospit Continue reading >>
Does High Protein Intake Cause Kidney Failure?
The role of protein in muscle repair and development is evident. Our body metabolizes a large amount of protein throughout a day. Some research claims that excess amount of protein metabolism can affect the kidney function. So far, there is no direct relation to excess protein intake and kidney damage. However, there are few hypothesis that points out the effect of excess protein on kidney function. Important role of Protein Some important role of protein in our body includes Make hormones Repair and heal tissues Produce antibodies and enzymes Fluid and electrolytes balance Foods high in protein includes eggs, chicken, cottage cheese, milk, peanuts, etc. In what ways an excess protein can affect kidney function? (Src) Metabolism of protein in our body produces some toxic element like ketones as a byproduct. Most of the time, ketones are eliminated by the kidneys. But sometimes they are left behind. These ketones can hamper the kidney function. It can also cause other complications such as dehydration, dizziness, fatigue, heart palpitations, and bad breath. Let see on what basis this is concluded. The Kidney function is measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate ( GFR). It determines how well the kidney is working or filtering the blood. Research have shown that excess protein filtration can affect the GFR rates. Also known as hyperfiltration. Over the long term, hyperfiltration may lead to acute renal failure. CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) (Src) The various Scientific report indicates that restriction of dietary protein in CKD patient can reduce albuminuria (albumin protein found in urine) and uraemic symptoms. Here are some CKD diseases that is closely related to the dietary protein intake. Proteinuria When kidneys are not functioning well, they cannot filter protein proper Continue reading >>
Abnormal Contents Of Urine
Normally, urine contains water and wastes, such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and some ions. However, some of these substances may be abnormally elevated, which usually indicates that something is wrong with the body. The following are some of the abnormal constituents of urine and some possible causes. Albumin Albumin is a type of protein, which is a normal component of plasma—the fluid component of blood. When albumin is found to be excessive in the urine, it may indicate that the tiny filtering units in the kidney, called nephrons, are damaged or destroyed. Elevated albumin in the urine is termed albuminuria. Bilrubin Bilirubin, when modified by the kidneys, contributes to the classical yellow color of urine. It is a byproduct that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin—the red pigment in red blood cells. When levels of bilirubin in urine is above normal, the condition is called bilirubinuria. This may indicate liver disease or obstructive biliary disease. Glucose The presence of glucose or blood sugar in urine is called glucosuria. It may indicate that the person has diabetes. Ketone bodies The presence of ketone bodies in the urine may indicate diabetes or anorexia. It may also be elevated during fasting and starvation. Microbes The presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungus may indicate urinary tract infection. Blood The red blood cells in blood should not be found in urine because they are too large to pass through the nephrons. Hematuria is the clinical term used when red blood cells are present in the urine. It may indicate damage to the kidney, such as in renal or kidney disease. Sometimes, blood may be present because of the presence of kidney stones. White blood cells When white blood cells are present in the urine, it may indicate infect Continue reading >>