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Ketones Are Produced From Cholesterol

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Ketone Bodies As Signaling Metabolites

Outline of ketone body metabolism and regulation. The key irreversible step in ketogenesis is synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA by HMGCS2. Conversely, the rate limiting step in ketolysis is conversion of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA by OXCT1. HMGCS2 transcription is heavily regulated by FOXA2, mTOR, PPARα, and FGF21. HMGCS2 activity is post-translationally regulated by succinylation and acetylation/SIRT3 deacetylation. Other enzymes are regulated by cofactor availability (e.g., NAD/NADH2 ratio for BDH1). All enzymes involved in ketogenesis are acetylated and contain SIRT3 deacetylation targets, but the functional significance of this is unclear other than for HMGCS2. Although ketone bodies are thought to diffuse across most plasma membranes, the transporter SLC16A6 may be required for liver export, whereas several monocarboxylic acid transporters assist with transport across the blood–brain barrier. Abbreviations: BDH1, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase; FGF21, fibroblast growth factor 21; FOXA2, forkhead box A2; HMGCS2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase 2; HMGCL, HMG-CoA lyase; MCT1/2, monocarboxylic acid transporters 1/2; mTOR, mechanistic target of rap Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. wallflowerwendy

    Hey so every time I go into Ketosis, I get UTI-like symptoms until I start eating carbs again. When I first started doing keto diets I actually thought I had a UTI so I went to the doctor and tested negative which confused me. It kept happening every time and I JUST now put 2 and 2 together. Does anyone else have the same problem? If so, does anyone have any tips on how to stop it so I can keep going with this?
    For reference, when I do keto I go super low cal and basically only consume the necessary protein for someone my size--almost negligible fat/carbs. I can see the fat on my body getting less and less every day so I really want to be able to keep this up for longer.

  2. Anniel

    What UTI symptoms do you get? When you first go into ketosis you will lose a lot of water weight and will pee a lot and may go through what is called keto flu. This is temporary and goes away within a couple of days as long as you stay in ketosis.

  3. wallflowerwendy

    Anniel, on 15 Mar 2017 - 11:10 AM, said:

    What UTI symptoms do you get? When you first go into ketosis you will lose a lot of water weight and will pee a lot and may go through what is called keto flu. This is temporary and goes away within a couple of days as long as you stay in ketosis.
    I'be already been through keto flu. It burns to pee and I continue to pee an excessive amount every single time I do keto. This has happened 6 times so far this last year (kept track of painful cloudy peeing, never cross referenced it with my food consumption until now). Some people online have these symptoms after a couple week of keto, but I get it immediately?

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