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Ketones Are Produced From Cholesterol

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Learn how the phospholipids in the cell membrane maintain membrane fluidity. By William Tsai. Created by William Tsai. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep... Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep... MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academys MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK... Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_...

Replacing The Cholesterol Hydroxyl Group With The Ketone Group Facilitates Sterol Flip-flop And Promotes Membrane Fluidity

Abstract The 3α-hydroxyl group is a characteristic structural element of all membrane sterol molecules, while the 3-ketone group is more typically found in steroid hormones. In this work, we investigate the effect of substituting the hydroxyl group in cholesterol with the ketone group to produce ketosterone. Extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of saturated lipid membranes with either cholesterol or ketosterone show that, like cholesterol, ketosterone increases membrane order and induces condensation. However, the effect of ketosterone on membrane properties is considerably weaker than that of cholesterol. This is largely due to the unstable positioning of ketosterone at the membrane−water interface, which gives rise to a small but significant number of flip-flop transitions, where ketosterone is exchanged between membrane leaflets. This is remarkable, as flip-flop motions of sterol molecules have not been previously reported in analogous lipid bilayer simulations. In the same context, ketosterone is found to be more tilted with respect to the membrane normal than cholesterol. The atomic level mechanism responsible for the increase of the steroid tilt and the promo Continue reading >>

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  1. tk421

    Sorry if this doesn't belong in this part of the forum, but it seems better here than the other places in the forum.
    I am having trouble finding a solid answer to this. Everywhere I look online tells me something different. I see some say around 50 mg/dl which I would think is totally hypoglycemic. So I don’t really believe that. I see others saying as long as you are below about 97 mg/dl. I see others that say in the 80s. Some say other things. I just want a straight answer. So I need some advice from a successful keto person.
    What is proper blood glucose levels for someone who is in ketosis? I got this blood glucose monitor and I think it may be defective or just a crappy brand. Yesterday my fasting blood glucose (after a 14 hour fast) was 83 mg/dl. Today (again after a 14 hour fast) was 97. I couldn’t believe it so I took my blood glucose again and it said 92. Then I ate exactly 3 pieces of bacon and a piece of cheese, and two hours later my blood glucose was 102. I thought WTF, so I immediately took it again and it said 109.
    So maybe I have a defective monitor (the Nova Max Plus), but regardless, there is probably at least a little bit of truth to it. But I seriously eat 25 grams or less of carbs per day. Usually less.
    Could someone please explain glucose levels to me in regards to ketosis.

  2. JBean

    In the absence of dietary carbohydrates, your body will break down fats and proteins to maintain your blood glucose in the normal range. Here's an explanation:
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis

  3. tk421

    Originally posted by JBean
    In the absence of dietary carbohydrates, your body will break down fats and proteins to maintain your blood glucose in the normal range. Here's an explanation:
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis Very interesting. Thanks for the info, that helps me a lot!!
    Cheers

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Biochemistry 10: Lipid Metabolism

These are notes from lecture 10 of Harvard Extension’s biochemistry class. intake and distribution of fats Fat can be consumed directly in the diet or derived (by the liver) from excess dietary carbohydrates. Once stored, it can be re-mobilized from adipose tissue. Typical humans (in developed countries??) get ~40% of their calories from dietary fat. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are broken down by lipases. Pancreatic lipases in the intestinal lumen help to absorb fatty acids from the diet into the intestine. Lipoprotein lipases in the capillary walls help absorb fatty acid from chylomicrons and VLDLs into target tissues. Hormone-sensitive lipases inside cells break down fat stores in adipose tissue. Bile salts are various derivatives of cholesterol with different R2 groups at the end of the chain. The bile salt acts as a detergent, breaking apart large dietary globules of fat to yield smaller micelles, which are more accessible to lipases than the large globules. Intestinal lipases then convert TAGs into mono- and di-acylglycerols, free fatty acids, and glycerol. Now the TAGs need to somehow travel through the blood to be of use as energy to other organs. This is accomplished by packa Continue reading >>

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  1. TheCommuter

    You can post this question on this site's Nursing Student Assistance Forums and perhaps get an answer. One of our frequent users, Daytonite, loves to give detailed answers to these types of questions.
    http://allnurses.com/forums/f205/

  2. ICRN2008

    Here is the formula for anion gap:
    Agap = Na + K - Cl -CO2
    I would think that the doctor would be monitoring the glucose level (not the agap) to determine when to stop the insulin drip. Anyone else have an idea?

  3. P_RN

    One of our wonderful members Mark Hammerschmidt has a great FREE MICU site:
    http://www.icufaqs.org/
    Check section 4.2
    It's all acidosis/alkalosis

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Moof's Medical Biochemistry Video Course: http://moof-university.thinkific.com/... In this video, I detail the pathway of Ketone Body Synthesis, commonly known as Ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes (liver cells). The pathway begins with the condensation of two Acetyl-CoA molecules, forming an Acetoacetyl-CoA (catalyzed by Thiolase). The second step involves the condensation of another Acetyl-CoA molecule to form HMG-CoA (catalyzed by HMG-CoA Synthase). The third step is the cleavage of HMG-CoA, producing Acetoacetate (a ketone body), while releasing an Acetyl-CoA. Acetoacetate can 1) be decarboxylated (either spontaneous or enzymatically by Acetoacetate Decarboxylase) to yield Acetone (another ketone body) or 2) be reduced to D--Hydroxybutyrate by D--Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase, requiring an NADH as a coenzyme. Its worth mentioning that this pathway does NOT occur to a great extent in healthy people under normal conditions. It happens to a very minimal extent, and very few ketone bodies are synthesized during normal physiology. For a suggested viewing order of the videos, information on tutoring, personalized video solutions, and an opportu

Regulation Of Ketone Body And Coenzyme A

METABOLISM IN LIVER by SHUANG DENG Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation Adviser: Henri Brunengraber, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Nutrition CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY August, 2011 SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES We hereby approve the thesis/dissertation of __________________ ____________ _ _ candidate for the ________________________________degree *. (signed) ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ (date) _______________________ *We also certify that written approval has been obtained for any proprietary material contained therein. Shuang Deng (chair of the committee) Edith Lerner, PhD Colleen Croniger, PhD Henri Brunengraber, MD, PhD Doctor of Philosophy Janos Kerner, PhD Michelle Puchowicz, PhD Paul Ernsberger, PhD I dedicate this work to my parents, my son and my husband iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents……………………â Continue reading >>

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  1. Amy Chai

    Ketosis rash means that your body does not like being in ketosis and it means that you are restricting your carbohydrates too much. That is not healthy.

  2. Jay William Litwyn

    I don’t think ketosis is a state you want to be in continually. It comes naturally with fasting, which is a religious ritual that Muslims observe in a season that varies with the moon. Meanwhile, some Christian sects observe fasting during lent and advent. It is

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