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Ketones

Ketones Urine Test

Ketones Urine Test

Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that you can buy at a drug store. The kit contains dipsticks coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ketones. This article describes the ketone urine test that involves sending collected urine to a lab. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. Continue reading >>

The Perks Of Fasting, With None Of The Work

The Perks Of Fasting, With None Of The Work

“If there’s a downside, it is kind of crazy tasting,” said Geoff Woo, the founder of HVMN, a Silicon Valley company that makes nootropics, or performance-enhancing supplements. We were in a conference room in The Atlantic’s office building, and he was bracing me for my trial run of his latest product. It was a small, clear vial labeled “Ketone,” a new type of energy drink his company is releasing this week. Its nutrition label says it contains 120 calories, but no carbs, no fat, and no protein. Instead, it’s all ketones, the chemical that Woo and his company are calling a “fourth food group.” He hopes the drink will allow people to reap the benefits of occasional fasting—high ketone levels inside the body—without actually having to not eat. I unscrewed the top and, college-days muscle memory kicking in, chugged it like a shot of Captain Morgan. It tasted like cough syrup that had been poured into a garbage bag and left in the sun. “Augh!” I cried. “I compare it to a combination of a liquor shot with nail-polish remover,” Woo said. Woo’s coworker, Brianna Stubbs, went to fetch me a glass of water. “We’ve done a lot of work to make it better,” she said. Within an hour, the drink was supposed to help improve my athletic performance by changing how my body burned energy during exercise. Some people also say it helps them feel more energetic and focused on their work. About 25 minutes after I drank Ketone, Woo and Stubbs pricked my finger to see if it was working. My blood sugar, which had verged on diabetic levels from some pineapple I had eaten that morning, was down to near-normal levels. Meanwhile, my ketones, which had been practically nonexistent before imbibing—measuring just 0.2 millimolar—had soared to 4.9. “It would have Continue reading >>

Ask The Supplement Expert: Will Ketones Help Me Burn Fat?

Ask The Supplement Expert: Will Ketones Help Me Burn Fat?

Q: Will taking ketone supplements, while eating a normal diet, provide the same fat-loss benefits as being on a seriously carb-restricted, or ketogenic diet? The very short answer to your question is "probably not," but given how complex the burgeoning field of study into nutritional ketosis is, that simple answer requires a bit of unpacking. The basic thinking when it comes to supplementing with ketones and their effect on fat loss is this: When your body is consistently carb-depleted, it produces ketones as a mechanism to utilize fat (and to a lesser extent, amino acids from muscle) as fuel. These ketones can also be used as an alternative to glucose as fuel to support your brain, muscles, heart, and other organs. Once you have a high enough presence of ketones in the blood, usually around 0.5 to 3.0 mM per deciliter of blood (as can be measured with urinalysis ketone strips), you have entered what is known as "nutritional ketosis." To be clear, your body is what is producing those ketones, though. Ketone supplement advocates extend that line of thinking beyond the ketones your body is manufacturing on its own. Their case is that if consuming a ketone supplement raises your blood ketone level to the point where you are technically in ketosis, then you must be burning fat with the same effectiveness if you came by your ketosis the old-fashioned way. Unfortunately, the scant scientific evidence that currently exists doesn't support connecting the dots this way. Researchers out of the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil, recently gave a group of rats substantial doses of beta hydroxybutyrate (exogenous ketones) both acutely and for four weeks.[1] Not surprisingly, the researchers concluded that consuming oral ketones increased circulating ketones (ketonemia). To which I s Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies: A Review Of Physiology, Pathophysiology And Application Of Monitoring To Diabetes.

Ketone Bodies: A Review Of Physiology, Pathophysiology And Application Of Monitoring To Diabetes.

Abstract Ketone bodies are produced by the liver and used peripherally as an energy source when glucose is not readily available. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), while acetone is the third, and least abundant, ketone body. Ketones are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. They are also found in the blood of neonates and pregnant women. Diabetes is the most common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), high levels of ketones are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counterregulatory hormones. In acute DKA, the ketone body ratio (3HB:AcAc) rises from normal (1:1) to as high as 10:1. In response to insulin therapy, 3HB levels commonly decrease long before AcAc levels. The frequently employed nitroprusside test only detects AcAc in blood and urine. This test is inconvenient, does not assess the best indicator of ketone body levels (3HB), provides only a semiquantitative assessment of ketone levels and is associated with false-positive results. Recently, inexpensive quantitative tests of 3HB levels have become available for use with small blood samples (5-25 microl). These tests offer new options for monitoring and treating diabetes and other states characterized by the abnormal metabolism of ketone bodies. Continue reading >>

Urine Ketones

Urine Ketones

Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for fuel. Normally these ketones will be completely broken down (metabolised) so that there are very few ketones in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, causing an increase in ketones in the body. This results in more ketones present in the urine. What are ketones? Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy. Normally, your body gets the energy it needs from carbohydrate in your diet. But stored fat is broken down and ketones are made if your diet does not contain enough carbohydrate to supply the body with sugar (glucose) for energy or if your body can't use blood sugar (glucose) properly. Ketones are usually formed in the liver and are broken down so that very small amounts of ketones appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable (for example, in starvation) or can't to be used as an energy source (for example, in diabetes), fat becomes the main source of energy and large amounts of ketones are made. Therefore, higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. High levels of ketones in your body can cause tummy (abdominal) pain, feeling sick (nausea), being sick (vomiting) and diarrhoea. The ketones that most often appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are called acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. What are the causes of ketones in the urine? The causes of high levels of ketones and therefore ketones in your urine include: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Starvation: not eating for prolonged periods (for example, 12 to 18 hours). Ketogenic diet (high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet). This can cause an increase in body ketones but much less than DKA and not Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Compounds in which a carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms R2C=O (neither R may be H). Interactive Link Maps First Level Second Level Third Level Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. Original PDF version: The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable. Ketonic parent sugars (polyhydroxyketones H–[CHOH]n–C(=O)[CHOH]m–H with three or more carbon atoms) and their intramolecularhemiacetals. The oxo group is usually at C-2. E.g. d-fructose: Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. Original PDF version: The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable. Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. Original PDF version: The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable. Radical anions (or the corresponding salts) derived from ketones by addition of an Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies

Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies Acetone Acetoacetic acid (R)-beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids[1] during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise,[2], alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy.[3] In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids).[1] They are therefore always released into the blood by the liver together with newly produced glucose, after the liver glycogen stores have been depleted (these glycogen stores are depleted after only 24 hours of fasting)[1]. When two acetyl-CoA molecules lose their -CoAs, (or Co-enzyme A groups) they can form a (covalent) dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an alcohol (or hydroxyl) group (see illustration on the right). Both are 4-carbon molecules, that can readily be converted back into acetyl-CoA by most tissues of the body, with the notable exception of the liver. Acetone is the decarboxylated form of acetoacetate which cannot be converted Continue reading >>

Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off

Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off

The Truth About Exogenous Ketones Ketones are all the rage among low carbers. And like most things in nutrition and performance, we've found a way to get them in supplement form so we don't have to do any actual work. What are ketones? They're a byproduct of ketosis caused by the process of converting fat to fuel. Your body makes them when it's in a calorie or carb restricted state. What do they do? The body and brain can use them as fuel without the presence of glucose in the blood. And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it. Exogenous Ketones = Endogenous Fat Storage? The problem with ketone supplementation (EXOgenous) is that it's not even close to the same thing as being in ketosis (ENDOgenous ketone production). And just like the butter-blended-into-coffee trend, it's a farce. Ketones may be depressing dieters' hunger and giving them a hit of energy and cognitive enhancement, but it's INHIBITING their ability to burn fat, providing zero nourishment, and doing nothing for their metabolic health. There's an assortment of evidence suggesting that it's probably making things worse. Think of exogenous ketones kind of like alcohol. When they're consumed, everything is stored and nothing else is burned. So any lipolysis (fat burning) that would be taking place is halted; any glucose and fatty acids in your blood that were circulating are stored; and the ingested ketones are burned until there aren't any left. More importantly, this clearance of alternative fuels (glucos Continue reading >>

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

It is a basic rule in ketone nomenclature..... that when it is a straight chain compound or a cyclic compound , we drop off the 'e' from alkane and put 'one'... so a hexane becomes a hexanone .... however in presence of two ketone groups in a compound... (diones) the 'e' in alkane is retained and we add 'dione or trione ' to the IUPAC name.. (it says simply that in a single ketone group the two vowels clash, so a vowel is dropped off i.e 'e' ... else it would be hexaneone.. (which doesnt sound… (more) A phenyl group refers to an aromatic ring that is directly attached to the chain/group in question (think aniline, which can also be named phenylamine, Ar-NH2), whereas a benzyl group refers to an aromatic ring bonded to another carbon, the latter of which is then attached to the chain/group in question. So a phenyl alcohol (or phenol) is Ar-OH, and a benzyl alcohol is Ar-CH2-OH (where Ar stands for an aromatic ring, and the bolded part is the phenyl/benzyl group proper). So when you have two… (more) Hydrogens are assumed at any position where nothing is shown. We know that a carbon (without a formal charge) should be participating in four bonds. Since the carbons at each end of the double bond have three bonds shown and no charge, they must have a fourth bond to hydrogen that isn't being shown. Furthermore, the bonds to other carbons are shown and so there is only one 'space' left for each of the hydrogens we know must be present. Those spaces are on opposite sides of the double bond… (more) Because that's what we do to indicate the presence of double bonds between carbon atoms. Ethane has a single bond between carbon atoms Ethene has a double bond between carbon atoms Ethyne has a triple bond between carbon atoms (Note: alkAne, ethAne. alkEne, ethEne. alkYne, ethYn Continue reading >>

Blood Ketones

Blood Ketones

On This Site Tests: Urine Ketones (see Urinalysis - The Chemical Exam); Blood Gases; Glucose Tests Elsewhere On The Web Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Ketones are a beneficial product of fat metabolism in the body. When carbohydrate intake is restricted, it lowers blood sugar and insulin levels. As insulin levels fall and energy is needed, fatty acids flow from the fat cells into the bloodstream and are taken up by various cells and metabolized in a process called beta-oxidation. The end result of beta-oxidation is a molecule called acetyl-coA, and as more fatty acids are released and metabolized, acetyl-coA levels in the cells rise. This causes a sort of metabolic “feedback loop” which triggers liver cells to shunt excess acetyl-Coa into ketogenesis, or the making of ketone bodies. Once created, the liver dumps the ketone bodies into the blood stream and they are taken up by skeletal and heart muscle cells at rates of availability. In addition, the brain begins to use ketones as an alternate fuel when blood levels are high enough to cross the blood brain barrier. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com There are three major types of ketone bodies present in the human blood stream when the metabolic process of ketosis is dominant: Acetoacetate (AcAc) is created first β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is created from acetoacetate Acetone is a spontaneously created side product of acetoacetate In times of starvation, or a low carbohydrate intake resulting in low insulin levels, ketone bodies supply up to 50% of the energy requirements for most body tissues, and up to 70% of the energy required by the brain. Glucose is the main source of fuel for neurons when the diet is high in carbohydrates. But when carbs are restricted, ketogenesis becomes the primary fuel process for most cells. During fasting or low carbohydrate intake, levels of ketone bodies in the blood stream can Continue reading >>

Ketones

Ketones

Excess ketones are dangerous for someone with diabetes... Low insulin, combined with relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels, causes fat to be released from fat cells, which then turns into ketones. Excess formation of ketones is dangerous and is a medical emergency In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketones can develop. What are ketones and why do I need to know about them? Ketones and ketoacids are alternative fuels for the body that are made when glucose is in short supply. They are made in the liver from the breakdown of fats. Ketones are formed when there is not enough sugar or glucose to supply the body’s fuel needs. This occurs overnight, and during dieting or fasting. During these periods, insulin levels are low, but glucagon and epinephrine levels are relatively normal. This combination of low insulin, and relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels causes fat to be released from the fat cells. The fats travel through the blood circulation to reach the liver where they are processed into ketone units. The ketone units then circulate back into the blood stream and are picked up by the muscle and other tissues to fuel your body’s metabolism. In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones. However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketone Continue reading >>

Ketone Bodies (urine)

Ketone Bodies (urine)

Does this test have other names? Ketone test, urine ketones What is this test? This test is used to check the level of ketones in your urine. Normally, your body burns sugar for energy. But if you have diabetes, you may not have enough insulin for the sugar in your bloodstream to be used for fuel. When this happens, your body burns fat instead and produces substances called ketones. The ketones end up in your blood and urine. It's normal to have a small amount of ketones in your body. But high ketone levels could result in serious illness or death. Checking for ketones keeps this from happening. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if you have a high level of blood sugar. People with high levels of blood sugar often have high ketone levels. If you have high blood sugar levels and type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it's important to check your ketone levels. People without diabetes can also have ketones in the urine if their body is using fat for fuel instead of glucose. This can happen with chronic vomiting, extreme exercise, low-carbohydrate diets, or eating disorders. Checking your ketones is especially important if you have diabetes and: Your blood sugar goes above 300 mg/dL You abuse alcohol You have diarrhea You stop eating carbohydrates like rice and bread You're pregnant You've been fasting You've been vomiting You have an infection Your healthcare provider may order this test, or have you test yourself, if you: Urinate frequently Are often quite thirsty or tired Have muscle aches Have shortness of breath or trouble breathing Have nausea or vomiting Are confused Have a fruity smell to your breath What other tests might I have along with this test? Your healthcare provider may also check for ketones in your blood if you have high levels of ketones in your urine Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Ketone, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. The remaining two bonds are to other carbon atoms or hydrocarbon radicals (R): Ketone compounds have important physiological properties. They are found in several sugars and in compounds for medicinal use, including natural and synthetic steroid hormones. Molecules of the anti-inflammatory agent cortisone contain three ketone groups. Only a small number of ketones are manufactured on a large scale in industry. They can be synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and because of their ease of preparation, relative stability, and high reactivity, they are nearly ideal chemical intermediates. Many complex organic compounds are synthesized using ketones as building blocks. They are most widely used as solvents, especially in industries manufacturing explosives, lacquers, paints, and textiles. Ketones are also used in tanning, as preservatives, and in hydraulic fluids. The most important ketone is acetone (CH3COCH3), a liquid with a sweetish odour. Acetone is one of the few organic compounds that is infinitely soluble in water (i.e., soluble in all proportions); it also dissolves many organic compounds. For this reason—and because of its low boiling point (56 °C [132.8 °F]), which makes it easy to remove by evaporation when no longer wanted—it is one of the most important industrial solvents, being used in such products as paints, varnishes, resins, coatings, and nail-polish removers. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name of a ketone is derived by selecting as the parent the longest chain of carbon atoms that contains the carbonyl group. The parent chain is numbered from the end that Continue reading >>

Ketones And Weight Loss

Ketones And Weight Loss

When you lose weight, your body gives off substances known as ketones. These ketones can be secreted in the urine and serve as an indicator you are losing weight -- in addition to the decreasing numbers on the scale. However, ketones' presence also can indicate a more harmful condition. Knowing how to tell the difference can help you experience healthy weight-loss results. Video of the Day Ketones are a substance the body produces as a byproduct of fat metabolism, according to the Joslin Diabetes Center. When you are trying to lose weight, your body will use glucose buildup in your fat stores in order to obtain energy from your food, resulting in weight loss. In addition to being produced while weight loss occurs, ketones also are a sign of diabetes. This is because ketones also are present when the body is not able to use insulin to break down sugars in your body. This occurrence can be dangerous to your health because the ketones can spill into the urine. Ketones produced by the body are often associated with following a low-carbohydrate diet, according to the Better Health Channel. This is because the body breaks down sugars stored in the muscles when you do not eat enough carbohydrates. While dieting in general results in the release of some ketones, those following low-carbohydrate diets are likely to release a higher number of ketones. If your physician performs a urine test and finds your ketones to be high, it’s important to notify him you are losing weight, according to the Joslin Diabetes Center. He may recommend an additional blood test to ensure your blood-glucose levels are not high — which can be a sign of diabetes. However, dieters with high ketone levels should not experience high blood-glucose levels. Those inside and outside the medical profession Continue reading >>

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