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Ketone Supplements

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones

Last year I wrote a couple of posts on the nuances and complexities of ketosis, with an emphasis on nutritional ketosis (but some discussion of other states of ketosis—starvation ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA). To understand this post, you’ll want to at least be familiar with the ideas in those posts, which can be found here and here. In the second of these posts I discuss the Delta G implications of the body using ketones (specifically, beta-hydroxybutyrate, or BHB, and acetoacetate, or AcAc) for ATP generation, instead of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). At the time I wrote that post I was particularly (read: personally) interested in the Delta G arbitrage. Stated simply, per unit of carbon, utilization of BHB offers more ATP for the same amount of oxygen consumption (as corollary, generation of the same amount of ATP requires less oxygen consumption, when compared to glucose or FFA). I also concluded that post by discussing the possibility of testing this (theoretical) idea in a real person, with the help of exogenous (i.e., synthetic) ketones. I have seen this effect in (unpublished) data in world class athletes not on a ketogenic diet who have supplemented with exogenous ketones (more on that, below). Case after case showed a small, but significant increase in sub-threshold performance (as an example, efforts longer than about 4 minutes all-out). So I decided to find out for myself if ketones could, indeed, offer up the same amount of usable energy with less oxygen consumption. Some housekeeping issues before getting into it. This is a self-experiment, not real “data”—“N of 1” stuff is suggestive, but it prevents the use of nifty little things likes error bars and p-values. Please don’t over interpret these results. My reason for shari Continue reading >>

Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off

Avoid This Ketogenic Rip-off

The Truth About Exogenous Ketones Ketones are all the rage among low carbers. And like most things in nutrition and performance, we've found a way to get them in supplement form so we don't have to do any actual work. What are ketones? They're a byproduct of ketosis caused by the process of converting fat to fuel. Your body makes them when it's in a calorie or carb restricted state. What do they do? The body and brain can use them as fuel without the presence of glucose in the blood. And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it. Exogenous Ketones = Endogenous Fat Storage? The problem with ketone supplementation (EXOgenous) is that it's not even close to the same thing as being in ketosis (ENDOgenous ketone production). And just like the butter-blended-into-coffee trend, it's a farce. Ketones may be depressing dieters' hunger and giving them a hit of energy and cognitive enhancement, but it's INHIBITING their ability to burn fat, providing zero nourishment, and doing nothing for their metabolic health. There's an assortment of evidence suggesting that it's probably making things worse. Think of exogenous ketones kind of like alcohol. When they're consumed, everything is stored and nothing else is burned. So any lipolysis (fat burning) that would be taking place is halted; any glucose and fatty acids in your blood that were circulating are stored; and the ingested ketones are burned until there aren't any left. More importantly, this clearance of alternative fuels (glucos Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-related Behavior In Sprague-dawley And Wistar Albino Glaxo/rijswijk Rats

Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-related Behavior In Sprague-dawley And Wistar Albino Glaxo/rijswijk Rats

1Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Hyperbaric Biomedical Research Laboratory, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA 2Department of Zoology, University of West Hungary, Szombathely, Hungary 3Proteomics Laboratory, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open ar Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits Of Use And How They Work

Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits Of Use And How They Work

Exogenous ketones have become a popular nutritional supplement since their introduction in 2014. Like with any new supplement, though, there tends to be a lot of misinformation that you have to sift your way through to find the reliable data. So, this article does the hard work for you and gets right to what the true benefits and drawbacks of exogenous ketones are. We also cover what forms of ketones to consider, how they function in the body, and their role in future research. What Are Ketones? Our bodies use ketones via our mitochondria to generate energy. They are an alternative fuel source to glucose. Ketones are simple compounds because of their small molecular structure and weight. Specifically, they are organic (carbon-based) compounds that contain a central carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and two carbon-containing substituents, denoted by “R” (see chemical structure below). In humans, there are 3 different ketones produced by the mitochondria of the liver. These are also often referred to as ketone bodies. The three ketones are: Acetone Acetoacetic Acid Beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (also known Beta Hydroxybuyrate or BHB). Other chemical names include 3-hydroxybutyric acid or 3-hydroxybutyrate. BHB is not technically a ketone since it contains a reactive OH-group in place of where a double-bonded oxygen normally would be as you can see in the diagram below. Yet, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and converts into energy much like acetoacetate and acetone. This happens via the acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA pathway. Note that acetone conversion to acetyl-CoA is not efficient due to the need to convert acetone to acetoacetate via decarboxylation. However, BHB still functions like a ketone in the body and can be converted to energy (via acetoace Continue reading >>

The Top 5 Best Exogenous Ketone Supplements

The Top 5 Best Exogenous Ketone Supplements

Ketogenic diets have been around for at least a century in one form or another, but they have really grown in popularity over the last few years. The idea is that you follow a diet with virtually no carbohydrates in it whatsoever. This is not a low carb diet, this is a very low carb diet (less than 20g per day). After following this for 24 hours your body should be almost completely void of glycogen, the main fuel source (that comes from carbohydrates). When this happens the body goes into a process known as ketosis – where it uses stored body fat to convert to ketones, which can be used for energy as a replacement for glycogen. Exogenous ketones are ones that are not produced in the body. They are taken as nutritional supplements, to 1) help a person enter ketosis faster, and 2) to increase the benefits of doing so. Supplementing with ketones can have physical and mental benefits – improving endurance, reducing appetite (great for people on diets), and increasing cognitive performance (short term memory, decision making, focus). In this article we are going to take a brief look at five of the best exogenous ketone supplements that are currently available to buy. Starting with the best first. 1. Perfect Keto Perfect Keto are a supplement company dedicated to selling exogenous ketones, they have two base products: Chocolate Sea Salt flavour and Peaches & Cream flavour. They use stevia leaf as a sweetener which helps keep calories (and carbs) down to an absolute minimum and each serving contains 11.38g of Beta Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) – which is the main form of exogenous ketone. They have spent a lot of time ensuring that their product tastes delicious which sets them apart from most companies (exogenous ketones have a reputation for tasting disgusting). Order Perfect Continue reading >>

Do Raspberry Ketones Really Work? A Detailed Review

Do Raspberry Ketones Really Work? A Detailed Review

If you need to lose weight, you are not alone. More than a third of Americans are overweight, and another third are obese (1). Only 30% of people are now at a healthy weight... being overweight has become the new "normal." The problem is, conventional weight loss methods are so difficult that 85% of people fail in the long run (2). However... there are many products out there that are claimed to make things easier. These are herbs, shakes and pills that are supposed to help you burn fat or reduce your appetite. Among the most popular ones is a supplement called Raspberry ketones. Raspberry ketones are claimed to cause the fat within cells to be broken down more effectively, helping the body burn fat faster. They are also claimed to increase levels of adiponectin, a hormone that helps to regulate metabolism. This article reviews the current scientific research behind raspberry ketone supplements and whether they are actually worth considering. Raspberry ketone is a natural substance that gives red raspberries their powerful aroma. This substance is also found in small amounts in blackberries, cranberries and kiwis. It has a long history of use in cosmetics and has been added to soft drinks, ice cream and other processed foods as a flavorant. Actually... most people are already eating small amounts of raspberry ketones, either from the fruits themselves or because of their popularity as a flavorant (3). Only recently did they became popular as a weight loss supplement. Even though the word "raspberry" may appeal to people, the supplement is actually NOT derived from raspberries. Extracting raspberry ketones from raspberries is insanely expensive, because you need 90 pounds (41 kg) of raspberries to get the amount needed for a single dose! In fact, a kilogram (2.2 pounds) Continue reading >>

Top 8 Keto Supplements And 5 Functional Foods

Top 8 Keto Supplements And 5 Functional Foods

So you’ve decided to go keto and you’ve done all of your research on which foods you’ll be eating on the keto diet. But before you do your next big grocery run, you may want to consider these keto supplements too. While supplements aren’t 100% necessary on the keto diet, certain keto supplements can maximize your results by accelerating weight and fat loss and boosting your energy levels. Some keto supplements are also helpful for reducing symptoms of the keto flu and can help make the transition to a high-fat/low-carb diet much easier, especially in the early stages when you may want to give up. In addition to keto supplements, we’ll also let you know which superfoods — or ‘functional foods’ as we call them — can also be helpful on the keto diet. These foods are concentrated in essential nutrients and can further improve how you feel on the keto diet. Let’s take a look at the most popular keto supplements and the keto-approved functional foods you may also want to try. Top 8 Keto Supplements 1. Perfect Keto Perfect Keto is a powdered drink mix and keto supplement that provides your body with exogenous ketones (whereas your body produces endogenous ketones). Taking exogenous ketones provides ketone bodies for you to burn as fuel right away, whether or not you’re in ketosis. This is why some people who aren’t following a keto diet will still take ketone supplements for energy. Being made from exogenous ketones, Perfect Keto provides the same benefits that endogenous ketones naturally offer your body: long-lasting energy, improved cognitive function, athletic performance, and mental focus, fat burning, and accelerated weight loss. To be clear, exogenous ketones aren’t a replacement for the keto diet. While exogenous ketone supplements will raise Continue reading >>

Ask The Supplement Expert: Will Ketones Help Me Burn Fat?

Ask The Supplement Expert: Will Ketones Help Me Burn Fat?

Q: Will taking ketone supplements, while eating a normal diet, provide the same fat-loss benefits as being on a seriously carb-restricted, or ketogenic diet? The very short answer to your question is "probably not," but given how complex the burgeoning field of study into nutritional ketosis is, that simple answer requires a bit of unpacking. The basic thinking when it comes to supplementing with ketones and their effect on fat loss is this: When your body is consistently carb-depleted, it produces ketones as a mechanism to utilize fat (and to a lesser extent, amino acids from muscle) as fuel. These ketones can also be used as an alternative to glucose as fuel to support your brain, muscles, heart, and other organs. Once you have a high enough presence of ketones in the blood, usually around 0.5 to 3.0 mM per deciliter of blood (as can be measured with urinalysis ketone strips), you have entered what is known as "nutritional ketosis." To be clear, your body is what is producing those ketones, though. Ketone supplement advocates extend that line of thinking beyond the ketones your body is manufacturing on its own. Their case is that if consuming a ketone supplement raises your blood ketone level to the point where you are technically in ketosis, then you must be burning fat with the same effectiveness if you came by your ketosis the old-fashioned way. Unfortunately, the scant scientific evidence that currently exists doesn't support connecting the dots this way. Researchers out of the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil, recently gave a group of rats substantial doses of beta hydroxybutyrate (exogenous ketones) both acutely and for four weeks.[1] Not surprisingly, the researchers concluded that consuming oral ketones increased circulating ketones (ketonemia). To which I s Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones Pros And Cons

Exogenous Ketones Pros And Cons

What Are Exogenous Ketones? Exogenous Ketones (EK for short) are ketone supplements and by definition, a supplement is a thing added to something else in order to complete or enhance it. Think about it like building muscle, good supplements can enhance your results, but if you don’t eat right and exercise, supplements are just useless. You can’t just sit on the couch to watch TV, eat potato chips all day and drink some supplements and expect to gain muscle. A supplement is not a miracle. It’s just an addition and before you add it to your diet, you need to get the basic right first, which is dieting and exercise in the case of building muscles. The supplements are not going to lift the heavy weights for you. You do! Back to the case of EK. If you cheat on your keto diet and eat a ton of carbs, and you want to use EK as a way to feel better and less guilty about it, it’s probably not a smart choice because EK won’t do anything for you (more on this later). However, if you are eating LCHF and somehow you’re not feeling your best, EK can be helpful and we will explain more below. Our Approach We own and manage a few growing Keto Facebook groups with tens of thousands of members and we often see the exogenous ketones topic comes up. We have seen a lot of confusion and criticism as well as support from our members. Most of the complaints are normally because of the expensive price of some products, the lack of understanding about what the product is and what it does to your body or because some sellers/promoters try to bend the truth to get you buy their products or recruit you into their multi level marketing team. We recently ran a survey in our private group and asked people if they have used EK before and if it worked for them. Here’s the result: Many peopl Continue reading >>

Effects Of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation On Blood Ketone, Glucose, Triglyceride, And Lipoprotein Levels In Sprague–dawley Rats

Effects Of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation On Blood Ketone, Glucose, Triglyceride, And Lipoprotein Levels In Sprague–dawley Rats

Go to: Background Emerging evidence supports the therapeutic potential of the ketogenic diet (KD) for a variety of disease states, leading investigators to research methods of harnessing the benefits of nutritional ketosis without the dietary restrictions. The KD has been used as an effective non-pharmacological therapy for pediatric intractable seizures since the 1920s [1–3]. In addition to epilepsy, the ketogenic diet has elicited significant therapeutic effects for weight loss and type-2 diabetes (T2D) [4]. Several studies have shown significant weight loss on a high fat, low carbohydrate diet without significant elevations of serum cholesterol [5–12]. Another study demonstrated the safety and benefits of long-term application of the KD in T2D patients. Patients exhibited significant weight loss, reduction of blood glucose, and improvement of lipid markers after eating a well-formulated KD for 56 weeks [13]. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the use of the KD as a treatment for acne, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with promising preliminary results [14–26]. The classical KD consists of a 4:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbohydrate, with 80–90 % of total calories derived from fat [27]. The macronutrient ratio of the KD induces a metabolic shift towards fatty acid oxidation and hepatic ketogenesis, elevating the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) in the blood. Acetone, generated by decarboxylation of AcAc, has been shown to have anticonvulsant properties [28–32]. Ketone bodies are naturally elevated to serve as alternative metabolic substrates for extra-hepatic tissues during the prolonged reduction of glucose Continue reading >>

Are Exogenous Ketones Right For You?

Are Exogenous Ketones Right For You?

I’ve spent a lot of time lately analysing three thousand ketone vs. glucose data points trying to determine the optimal ketone and blood sugar levels for weight loss, diabetes management, athletic performance and longevity. In this article, I share my insights and learnings on the benefits, side effects and risks of endogenous and endogenous ketosis. But first, I think it’s important to understand the difference between exogenous and endogenous ketosis: Endogenous ketosis occurs when we go without food for a significant period. Our insulin levels drop, and we transition to burning body fat and ketones in our blood rise. Exogenous ketosis occurs when we drink exogenous ketones or consume a ketogenic diet. Ketones are important. As blood glucose decreases, the ketones in your blood increase to keep our energy levels stable. The chart below shows three thousand blood glucose vs ketone values measured at the same time from a range of people following a low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet. While there is generally a linear relationship between glucose and ketones, each person has a unique relationship between their blood glucose and ketone values that provide a unique insight into a particular person’s metabolic health. Hyperinsulinemia has been called as the “unifying theory of chronic disease” [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. It’s beneficial to understand where you stand on the spectrum of metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. The chart below shows the typical relationship between blood glucose and blood ketone for a range of different degrees of insulin resistance/sensitivity. If your blood glucose levels are consistently high it’s likely you are not metabolising carbohydrate well. When you go without food, endogenous ketones are slow to kick in because your insulin Continue reading >>

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones: Tale And Truth

My Experience With Exogenous Ketones: Tale And Truth

97 Comments I woke up the morning of the ceremony with butterflies in my stomach. I’d done the necessary prep. I’d abstained from carbs the past week and food the past 24 hours. I’d performed four consecutive full-body circuit workouts to deplete muscle glycogen, and undergone a liver biopsy to confirm full depletion of liver glycogen. I wasn’t taking any chances. Although I had extensive experience generating endogenous ketones and subsisting on my own body fat, exogenous ketones were another matter entirely. You don’t want to mess around with a holy sacrament without doing due diligence. Holy sacrament? Yes. According to ethnographic accounts from early Arctic explorers who encountered the sacred compound, the exogenous ketone was developed by traditional peoples of the wintry north. No one’s quite sure where it arose first—Siberia, Greenland, Alaska, Lapland. What they do know is that these societies revered the type 1 diabetic, a rare find in the pre-contact Arctic. Using an admittedly grisly and cruel process, these groups would starve the tribe’s diabetic to induce ketoacidosis, harvest the ketone-rich urine, and reduce it slowly to a ketone-rich tar over a wood fire. Tribe shamans would dissolve the tar in pine needle tea and distribute it to members exclusively before hunting trips, warfare, and any other activity requiring optimal physical and mental function to boost energy and improve performance. As Mark Twain famously quipped, “The strongest coffee I ever had was a Laplander’s piss.” So when I showed up to the small building on the edge of town on a rainy evening, I was anxious. What was I in for? The solemn countenances worn by my two guides for the day—Dr. Peter Attia, wearing dark robes and swinging a thurible loaded with burning Continue reading >>

Why I’m Using Exogenous Ketone Supplements

Why I’m Using Exogenous Ketone Supplements

Exogenous ketone supplements have gotten extremely popular lately with high performers like Tim Ferriss posting non-stop about all the benefits they offer, so I decided to give it a try as a self-experiment. Man I am glad I did. I was a bit skeptical at first because of all the hype, but I really felt the difference it made for me. As with most guys in my generation, I’ve take tons of different supplements trying to find the perfect shortcut, putting all kinds of weird stuff into my body. Then I realized how ridiculous that was and stopped taking most supplements. Needless to say I was a little hesitant to try this stuff because I have pretty much only been taking protein, greens, and pre-workout sometimes (pretty basic and well-established supplements). But with a bunch of my friends and people I follow talking about the benefits of a ketogenic diet (or ketosis) I thought it would be worth giving it a shot. The reason I wasn’t turned off by exogenous ketones (and the reason for taking it actually makes sense to me) is that ketosis is a completely natural metabolic state your body goes into in the absence of carbohydrates. Instead of burning sugar for primary energy, your body starts burning the breakdown of fat (or ketones) as your primary energy source. The reason I really wanted to try them is that ketones are a far preferred energy source to your brain than glucose or carbs, but getting into ketosis can be miserable and I want to continue to eat carbs for the working out I do. Exogenous ketones are basically supplemental ketones. When you take them, your body immediately starts using ketones for energy just like you would if you were in a deep state of ketosis. This means no crash diets, no low carb craziness; I can just have the benefits of ketosis whenever I w Continue reading >>

Breakthrough Migraine Research: Ketone Supplements

Breakthrough Migraine Research: Ketone Supplements

A new breakthrough in migraine research found that ketone supplements may slash migraine frequency in half. This article reviews current ketone migraine research, the new study, and where to get exogenous ketones today. Breakthrough Migraine Research: Ketone Supplements A new breakthrough in migraine research found that ketone supplements may slash migraine frequency in half. The research was presented at the 18th Congress of the International Headache Society 2017 (Medscape). It’s fantastic news for migraine sufferers, and researchers expect improved results from a full trial that’s currently in progress. This article reviews current ketone migraine research, the new study, and where to get exogenous ketones today. The Science of Ketones and Migraines Ketones are produced naturally from the ketogenic diet or fasting. Your body breaks down fat and metabolizes it into ketones to use as an alternative fuel to glucose. It’s brain fuel. And it kills migraines. Ketones work by reducing migraine triggers called glutamate and oxidative stress. They also improve glucose levels, reduce hunger, and help your body reduce excess body fat, which further improves migraine reduction. Problems with the brain metabolizing glucose are linked to many neurological conditions, including migraines. Ketones are simply a different fuel to try. Previous Migraine Success From Ketones The ketogenic diet made headlines in 2013 when a case study found that two chronic migraineur sisters became migraine-free within three days of starting the ketogenic diet. A follow-up study of over 100 patients found that the ketogenic diet reduced the migraine frequency of more than 90 percent of migraine sufferers, which is far more successful than any migraine medication. For links to all the studies menti Continue reading >>

Exogenous Ketones Review And Benefits

Exogenous Ketones Review And Benefits

Before I give you my exogenous ketones review, let’s back it up for a second..What exactly are the best exogenous ketones on the market and why does everyone keep talking about it? To put it in layman’s terms, they are simply “synthetic” ketones that are consumed in order for your body to help adapt into a state of ketosis. What are ketones? An alternative fuel source to glucose. They are produced when the body burns fat for energy. It’s also produced when you have low body fat or there isn’t enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Ketones are the preferred source of energy for our body. It is used much more efficiently and has been known to produce a wide range of health benefits. There are two types of ketones that can be produced. 1. “endogenous” ketones = ketones produced from INSIDE your body. This is the natural process by which your body produces ketones by restricting carbohydrates and instead burning fat as fuel. 2. “exogenous” ketones = external ketone bodies that are consumed as a supplement. So instead of ketones being produced in the liver (endogenous ketones), ketones that are simply taken as a supplement are considered exogenous ketones. You’re basically providing your body with an automatic supply of ketones to utilize EVEN IF you are NOT in ketosis prior to ingesting it. This is huge for the keto dieters out there because this means we can eat decently carb-heavy meals while still maintaining a decent state of ketosis… …thus, still providing the benefits of — sustained energy, decreased anxiety, boost in mood and concentration, etc.. The main problem for beginners going on the ketogenic diet is sticking it out long enough to actually start getting the benefits. People give up too soon, right before they hit gol Continue reading >>

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