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Ketone Levels In Urine

Diabetes And Ketones

Diabetes And Ketones

Tweet The presence of high levels of ketones in the bloodstream is a common complication of diabetes, which if left untreated can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketones build up when there is insufficient insulin to help fuel the body’s cells. High levels of ketones are therefore more common in people with type 1 diabetes or people with advanced type 2 diabetes. If you are suffering from high levels of ketones and seeking medical advice, contact your GP or diabetes healthcare team as soon as possible. What are ketones? Ketones are an acid remaining when the body burns its own fat. When the body has insufficient insulin, it cannot get glucose from the blood into the body's cells to use as energy and will instead begin to burn fat. The liver converts fatty acids into ketones which are then released into the bloodstream for use as energy. It is normal to have a low level of ketones as ketones will be produced whenever body fat is burned. In people that are insulin dependent, such as people with type 1 diabetes, however, high levels of ketones in the blood can result from taking too little insulin and this can lead to a particularly dangerous condition known as ketoacidosis. How do I test for ketones? Ketone testing can be carried out at home. The most accurate way of testing for ketones is to use a blood glucose meter which can test for ketones as well as blood glucose levels. You can also test urine for ketone levels, however, the testing of urine means that the level you get is representative of your ketone levels up to a few hours ago. Read about testing for ketones and how to interpret the results Who needs to be aware of ketones? The following people with diabetes should be aware of ketones and the symptoms of ketoacidosis: Anyone dependent on insulin – such as all people Continue reading >>

Ketones Urine Test

Ketones Urine Test

Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that you can buy at a drug store. The kit contains dipsticks coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ketones. This article describes the ketone urine test that involves sending collected urine to a lab. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate. Continue reading >>

What Are Ketones?

What Are Ketones?

What are ketones and what causes them? Ketones are the result of the body burning fat for energy or fuel. For a person with diabetes, ketones are often the result of prolonged high blood sugar and insulin deficiency. Without the right amount of insulin, glucose starts to build up in the blood stream and doesn't enter the cells. The cells burn fat instead of glucose, and ketones form in the blood and spill into the urine. Some causes of high blood sugar are: Missing an insulin dose or skipping some oral medications. A disconnected or blocked insulin pump tube. Being sick with the flu. High levels of stress. Eating more carbohydrates than your medication covers. What are the signs that I should test for ketones? Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, frequent thirst, blurry vision, dry mouth, vomiting, and fatigue. There are several scenarios that should prompt a test for ketones. If your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dl for two tests in a row. When you are ill. When your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dl and you are planning on exercising. If you are pregnant, you should test for ketones each morning before breakfast and whenever blood sugars are elevated. How do I test for ketones? There are two ways to test for ketones - by testing your urine or your blood. Ketones appear first in the blood stream and are later present in the urine, so testing your blood for ketones is the best way to check for an early problem. To check urine for ketones, you must collect a urine sample or dip a ketone test strip into a fresh stream of urine. After waiting for the time suggested by the ketone strip manufacturer, you compare the color strip to the chart on the bottle. The darker the color, the higher the amount of ketones in the urine. At this time, there are just a few mete Continue reading >>

Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells

Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells

Urine as a Diagnostic Tool A long time ago, disgusting as it may be, people used to actually taste and drink urine in order to try and diagnose a patient's disease! I'm not even kidding you. Thankfully, modern-day doctors do not have to resort to such disgusting and even dangerous methods. One of the reasons the doctor barbers of yesteryear used to drink their patient's urine was to see if it had a sweet taste, often indicative of diabetes mellitus. Finding the sweet-tasting glucose in the urine was covered in detail in another lesson, so we'll focus on other important measurements here instead. Interpreting Urine pH One value that can be measured in the urine is known as urine pH. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. If the pH is low, then it is acidic. If the pH is high, then it is basic, or alkaline. To remember which is which, I'll give you a little trick that has worked for me. If you grew up watching cartoons, you probably saw some comical ones where cartoonish robbers poured acid on the roof of a bank vault and waited while the acid ate its way downward into the vault, so the robbers could get down there to steal all the cash. If you can recall that acid likes to eat its way downward into things, then you'll remember that acidic substances go down the pH scale. That is to say, their pH numbers are lower than basic substances. Normal urine pH is roughly 4.6-8, with an average of 6. Urine pH can increase, meaning it will become more basic, or alkaline, due to: A urinary tract infection Kidney failure The administration of certain drugs such as sodium bicarbonate Vegetarian diets On the flip side, causes for a decreased, or acidic, urine pH, include: Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

Getting To Know Ketones

Getting To Know Ketones

People with diabetes, particularly those with Type 1 diabetes, have been at least vaguely aware of the word ketones for a long time. With the recent resurgence of popular interest in low-carbohydrate diets, however, just about everyone seems to be talking about ketones these days. But does anyone really know what ketones are? Are they a danger to your health (as in diabetic ketoacidosis), or a sign that you have lowered your carbohydrate intake enough to cause weight loss (as some people who follow low-carbohydrate diets believe)? What are ketones? Ketones are end-products of fat metabolism in the body. That is, they are formed when fat is burned for energy by the muscles. Chemically, they are acids known as ketone bodies, and there are three types: beta-hydroxybutyric acid, aceto-acetic acid, and acetone. But you don’t have to be a chemist to understand what role they play in the body. To get to know ketones, it’s helpful to understand how your body burns fuel. A simple analogy is that of an automobile. For a car engine to run, the engine must burn fuel (gasoline), and when the fuel is burned, exhaust (carbon monoxide) is created. The carbon monoxide is the end-product of gasoline combustion. Your body also has an engine that must burn fuel to operate. The engine is muscle, and the fuel is fat, carbohydrate (glucose), and, in certain conditions, protein. When fat is burned, the “exhaust” is ketones, and when glucose is burned, the “exhaust” is lactic acid. Fat is more desirable as a fuel than glucose because there are more calories in a gram of fat (9 calories per gram) than there are in a gram of glucose (4 calories per gram), so you get more energy per gram of fat burned. In a sense, you could call fat a high-test fuel. But there is one catch to burning f Continue reading >>

Ketonuria

Ketonuria

Ketonuria is a medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine. It is seen in conditions in which the body produces excess ketones as an indication that it is using an alternative source of energy. It is seen during starvation or more commonly in type I diabetes mellitus. Production of ketone bodies is a normal response to a shortage of glucose, meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. Pathophysiology[edit] Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fat becomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Acetone is also produced and is expired by the lungs.[1] Normally, the urine should not contain a noticeable concentration of ketones to give a positive reading. As with tests for glucose, acetoacetate can be tested by a dipstick or by a lab. The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under 20 mg/dl; a moderate amount is a value of 30–40 mg/dl, and a finding of 80 mg/dl or greater is reported as a large amount. One 2010 study admits that though ketonuria's relation to general metabolic health is ill-understood, there is a positive relationship between the presence of ketonuria after fasting and positive metabo Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

How To Detect Ketosis

How To Detect Ketosis

How can you tell if your low-carbing efforts have been effective enough to induce ketosis? Learn how to check your ketones! The state of ketosis The state of ketosis means that the body has switched from depending on carbohydrates for energy to burning fats for fuel. This means not only dietary fats (olive oil, guacamole, deep-fried pig ears), but also all the jiggly bits around your waist — clearly a desirable state for anyone looking to shed extra weight. When the body metabolizes fat, it generates molecules called ketones (also known as ketone bodies). As you restrict carbohydrate intake and amp up the dietary fat, more fat is metabolized and a greater quantity of ketones are created. Most of the cells in your body — including those in your brain — are able to use ketones for energy, although many people experience a few days’ adjustment period, often called the low carb flu. One of the varieties of ketones generated — acetone — cannot be used by the body and is excreted as waste, mostly in the urine and the breath. Conveniently, this makes it very simple to measure whether or not you are in ketosis. Upon entering ketosis, some people report a distinct change in the smell of their breath as a result of the extra released acetone. It could be “fruity” — it’s been likened to overripe apples — or even “metallic.” If you notice this happening during your first few days of changing your diet, it could be a good sign you’re in ketosis. The unusual smell isn’t anything dangerous, but it could be annoying. Drinking plenty of water should help, or get yourself some sugar-free gum. Most people report “keto-breath” diminishing after the first few weeks. Detecting ketones in urine The more accurate way — and the one we recommend — to check f Continue reading >>

Testing Your Urine For Ketones

Testing Your Urine For Ketones

Learning to test for ketones at home is an important part of diabetes self-management. It's a simple and easy test, using special test strips available at Kaiser Permanente and other pharmacies. Diabetic Ketoacidosis High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to a serious condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. A person can lose consciousness and go into a diabetic coma with DKA. DKA happens when blood sugar levels are high for a long time because the body doesn't have enough insulin to turn the sugar into energy. Instead, the body burns stored fat, creating a waste product called ketones. Ketones build up in the bloodstream and then spill into the urine DKA happens more often in people with type 1 diabetes because their bodies don't make insulin. Although it's less common in people with type 2 diabetes, DKA can happen when someone is under extreme stress, experiences a trauma, or gets very sick. When to test A person with type 1 diabetes should check his or her urine for ketones whenever blood sugar levels stay higher than 240, even after he or she has done everything to bring blood sugar into the normal range. It's important to test for ketones several times a day when you're sick. Being sick often causes blood sugar levels to be higher than normal. DKA can develop quickly if you're very sick with a fever, flu, or any kind of infection, especially if you're throwing up or have diarrhea. Drink plenty of water or other calorie-free drinks to help keep you from getting dehydrated. Call a member of your health care team right away if your blood sugar is over 240 at 2 different tests that are 2 to 3 hours apart and your ketone test shows moderate to heavy (severe) ketone levels at both those tests. Also call if your level is over 240 and you have a fever, are th Continue reading >>

Urine Test For Ketones

Urine Test For Ketones

A A A Topic Overview Ketones are substances that are made when the body breaks down fat for energy. Normally, your body gets the energy it needs from glucose (sugar). If your body cannot use glucose for energy—for example, if your body doesn't make or use insulin—ketones are formed. You might also have ketones if you are not eating enough carbohydrates and your body uses fat for energy instead. Your body wants to get rid of ketones through urine. Ketones in urine is most common in people who have type 1 diabetes. It is an early sign that there is not enough insulin, and blood sugar may be dangerously high. This can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a very serious medical problem. You can test your urine for ketones at home using specially prepared tablets or plastic strips. Collect a urine sample in a clean container. Follow the manufacturer's directions on the bottle of test strips or tablets. If either the test strip or the urine changes color when the tablet is dropped into the sample, ketones are present in your urine sample. The test results are read as negative to 1+ to 4+ or small to large. If the results of your ketone test show that the ketone level in your urine is more than 2+, or moderate, call your doctor for advice. Credits Continue reading >>

Reference Range

Reference Range

Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone are ketone bodies. In carbohydrate-deficient states, fatty-acid metabolism spurs acetoacetate accumulation. The reduction of acetoacetate in the mitochondria results in beta-hydroxybutyrate production. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, the predominant ketone bodies, are rich in energy. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate transport energy from the liver to other tissues. Acetone forms from the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate. Acetone is the cause of the sweet odor on the breath in persons with ketoacidosis. [1, 2] Ketone bodies fuel the brain with an alternative source of energy (close to two thirds of its needs) during periods of prolonged fasting or starvation, when the brain cannot use fatty acids for energy. The reference range for ketone is a negative value, at less than 1 mg/dL (< 0.1 mmol/L). [3] Continue reading >>

Ketones In Urine

Ketones In Urine

I know this is an old post, but people may still be checking for answers. I work in a laboratory where we do urinalysis constantly all day every day. In a pregnant woman, you can see ketones in the urine in two, but separate, circumstances. First is ketones in combination with any urine glucose (sugar) level. This may be a sign of gestational diabetes and you should start asking your doctor questions about it. Second is ketones by themselves. I'm 12 weeks pregnant and had ketones in my urine and was instructed by my doctor to go to the ER and get IV fluids. This was directly related to my eating habits, which at that point were near null because of the morning sickness. Because I was eating so little, and barely able to keep water down, my body was using my fat stores to supply nutrients to the baby. This breakdown of fat in such large amounts causes ketones as a waste product, which is then excreted through your urine. Ketones occur in the absence of carbs, when your body starts to use fat for calories. You will see ketones when you are eating very low calorie, very low carb, or have impaired insulin function. Ketones are concentrated in a state of dehydration. Excess glucose in urine indicates eating too many carbs (if you're diabetic) and/or impaired insulin function. Both are hallmarked by sweet smelling urine. Make sure you eat small meals during the day and add a night time snack, with a protein, to prevent ketosis while sleeping. If you think you have diabetes see a physician. I am 38 weeks pregnant and my urin showed high ketones this week. My blood sugar was in "acceptable" level; however, my doctor said that the presence of ketones in my urine means I need to drink alot more water because my body is converting carbs to sugar faster than I can exp Continue reading >>

How To Know If You’re In Ketosis: A Guide To Testing Ketone Levels

How To Know If You’re In Ketosis: A Guide To Testing Ketone Levels

Ketosis can be a powerful way to use your metabolism for fat loss, mental output, physical performance as well as many other health benefits. But how do you know if you’re actually in ketosis? As the old adage goes “test, don’t guess” when it comes to your health. In this guide, we’ll show exactly how to test your ketone levels to know if you’re in ketosis so you can make sure you’re getting all of the benefits that ketosis has to offer. There are three primary forms of ketones in your body, acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutryate. Each of these compounds do different things in the metabolism of ketosis and can be tested individually with differing techniques. Not all measurement is created equally, however, and some can be better than others for different purposes or times. The three different ketone bodies can be measured when they spill over into three different areas of your body: your breath, urine or blood. The good news is that all of these ketone level measurements can be done at home, by yourself. You don’t have to go to any lab or use any fancy high tech equipment. Tracking diligently, at least when you’re getting used to ketosis based diets, is important so you know how much you react to different variables like exercise, type and amount of food, and amounts of exogenous ketone supplements. Also, the optimal level of ketones for specific goals can vary per person. Knowing the amount where you thrive in the goal you want to achieve (and consistently checking if you’re hitting that amount) is the fastest way to reach your goals. Testing levels of ketones with urine strips (acetoacetate) One of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate, can be measured directly in the urine if they are in excessive levels. The way metabolic substrates get into Continue reading >>

Quantitative Relationships Betweenbloodandurine Ketonelevels In Diabetic Ketosis

Quantitative Relationships Betweenbloodandurine Ketonelevels In Diabetic Ketosis

By HELEN EASTMANMARTIN AND ARNE N. WICK (From the Departments of Physiology and Medicine of the University of Southern California, and the Department of Medicine of the Los Angeles General Hospital, Los Angeles, and the Scripps Metabolic Clinic, La Jolla, California) In the study of ketosis in diabetic patients, cer- tain problems have gone largely unanswered due to the lack of sufficiently accurate methods for blood ketone determinations. With the develop- ment of blood ketone methods accurate at low as well as high blood concentrations, it has been possible to study the problems of (1) the renal threshold for the ketone bodies, and (2) the quan- titative relationship between the urinary ketone excretion and the blood ketone level. The studies to be presented summarize the re- sults obtained on (1) 13 diabetic patients in mild ketosis, produced by withdrawing insulin for 12 to 24 hours, a ketogenic diet for 12 to 24 hours, or a combination of a ketogenic diet and insulin with- drawal; and (2) 7 patients entering the Los Angeles County Hospital in moderate to severe ketosis (several in diabetic "coma"). In both types of patients, after initial levels of blood and urine ketone bodies were obtained, insulin and fluids were given as required by .the individual case, and blood and urine ketone levels were. fol- lowed until ketosis, as indicated by the qualitative urinary acetone test (modified Lange test), dis- appeared. The blood ketones 1 were determined by the Barnes-Wick (1) method, and the urine ketones by the Van Slyke (2) gravimetric method in most instances. Table I summarizes the results obtained in the diabetic patients in mild ketosis, and Table II the results in patients -in moderate to severe ketosis. Figures 1 and 2 give the clinical course, during therapy, of Continue reading >>

Ketones — Urine

Ketones — Urine

Definition Ketones build up when the body needs to break down fats and fatty acids to use as fuel. This is most likely to occur when the body does not get enough sugar or carbohydrates. A urine test can be done to check the level of ketones in your body. Alternative Names Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones How the test is performed The test requires a clean catch urine sample. To obtain a clean catch sample, men or boys should clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl to clear the urethra of contaminants. Then, put a clean container under your urine stream and catch 1 to 2 ounces of urine. Remove the container from the urine stream. Cap and mark the container and give it to the health care provider or assistant. For infants, thoroughly wash the area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and place it on the infant. For boys, the entire penis can be placed in the bag and the adhesive attached to the skin. For girls, the bag is placed over the labia. Diaper as usual over the secured bag. This procedure may take a couple of attempts -- lively infants can displace the bag. The infant should be checked frequently and the bag changed after the infant has urinated into the bag. The urine is drained into the container for transport to the laboratory. Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test" using a dipstick coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. The dipstick is dipped in the urine sample, and a color change indicates the presence of ketones. How to prepare for the test You may have to eat a special diet, and you should stop taking a Continue reading >>

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