Ketone Bodies Synthesis

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This video shows how to test urine samples for glucose and ketones using the Mission Glucose Ketone test strips. Advice to testing for diabetics and adkins diet testers strips provided by http://www.valuemed.co.uk/acatalog/ur...


ke·tone (kē′tōn′) n. 1. Any of a class of organic compounds, such as acetone, characterized by having a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is bonded to two other hydrocarbon groups and having the general formula R(CO)R′, where R may be the same as R′. [German Keton, shortening and alteration of Aceton, acetone : Latin acētum, vinegar; see acetum + German -on, n. suff. (alteration of -en, from Greek -ēnē).] American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. ketone (ˈkiːtəʊn) [C19: from German Keton, from Aketon acetone] Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014 ke•tone (ˈki toʊn) n. any of a class of organic compounds containing a carbonyl group, CO, attached to two alkyl groups, as CH3COCH3. Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. ke·tone (kē′tōn′) Any of a c Continue reading >>

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  1. PunchyHorse

    Hi, I'm wondering what the effects of caffeine (from black coffee) does to the body's insulin response, and how it affects ketosis.

  2. Emmie618

    I know that it spurs metabolism, but I doubt that it spikes blood glucose because drinking black coffee is allowed before a fasting blood test. Since blood glucose is one of the items being tested, I doubt that caffeine would be permitted if it affected blood glucose.

  3. TILnothingAMA

    I wasn't allowed to drink coffee before having my blood tested because it affect the cortisol/adrenaline level.

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Moof's Medical Biochemistry Video Course: http://moof-university.thinkific.com/... In this video, I describe how Ketone Bodies are oxidized for energy. The liver makes ketone bodies that travel through the blood to extrahepatic tissues, where they are oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix to give energy. The pathway begins with D--Hydroxybutyrate, as it is oxidized to Acetoacetate by the same D--Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase reaction (except in reverse). The Acetoacetate is then activated to Acetoacetyl-CoA by -Ketoacyl-CoA Transferase (also known as Thiophorase); this second step takes a Coenzyme A from Succinyl-CoA (an intermediate of the Krebs Cycle). The Acetoacetyl-CoA is then cleaved into two Acetyl-CoA molecules that can go through the Krebs Cycle to be oxidized, resulting in energy that cell can use. Ultimately, the liver is basically sending Acetyl-CoA that it isnt metabolizing to other tissues (by way of Ketone Bodies in the blood) so that those other tissues can utilize the Acetyl-CoA. However, sometimes, the extrahepatic tissues do not oxidize the ketone bodies rapidly enough to keep up with the pace at which they are arriving from the blood. This is a problem described

Ketone Bodies

The use of ketone bodies as fuel by most tissues during a fast reduces the need for gluconeogenesis from amino acid carbon skeletons, slowing the loss of essential protein. During a fast, the liver is flooded with liberated FAs from adipose tissue. Liver mitochondria have the capacity to convert excess acetyl CoA, derived from fatty acid oxidation, into ketone bodies when the amount of Acetyl CoA exceeds oxidative capacity. These include acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. As ketone bodies are soluble, they can be transported in the blood to peripheral tissues where they can be reconverted into Acetyl CoA and oxidized in the TCA cycle. Production of Ketone Bodies During a fast, the liver is flooded with liberated FAs from adipose tissue. This inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle and activates pyruvate carboxylase, shunting pyruvate towards OAA for transport out of the mitochondria and into gluconeogenesis. This leaves Acetyl CoA available for ketone body synthesis. Use of Ketone Bodies Ketone bodies are reconverted into acetyl CoA in the periphery, including brain, heart and muscle, although the liver cannot use them as fuel. Excessive Production of Ketone Bod Continue reading >>

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  1. kimmer

    Hi everyone,
    I'm currently 15 days into my Whole30 and as of three days ago I start experiencing bad breath/taste. It's gotten so bad that it has made me throw up and I haven't been able to eat much as it makes everything I eat taste horrible.
    I have a really good dental hygeine schedule but that seems to only be a temporary fix, usually about an hour before it goes bad again, I've tried liquid chlorophyll and probiotics incase it was something in my gut and I'm drinking a lot of water also.
    I've looked around on the internet and the only thing that could be causing this is ketosis. I've tried adding more carb rich vegetables to my meals but it hasn't made a difference.
    Has anyone else here experienced anything similar? What did you do to fix it? Does it go away on its own?
    Thanks for your help.

  2. missmary

    Its unlikely that you are in ketosis if you are eating veggies. One possible culprit is heavy metal detox. This will happen through your teeth/mouth and yes, it does go away after a while (although for now be happy the heavy metals are exiting your system!). One thing that really helps is oil pulling. I know, it sounds weird, but do this: take a spoonful of coconut oil (not huge) and hold it in your mouth. Once it melts, start swishing it through your teeth and back and forth. Swish it around your mouth for a minute or so? I never could stand it for very long. When you are done, spit it into the trash (it will clog your sink) and rinse once more with water. The oil binds to any heavy metals in your mouth, and coconut oil in particular is antibacterial (meaning this should help even if this is something other than heavy metal detox), anyway, win win. worth a try?
    For the record, FYI: my teeth/mouth has never been healthier since I started the whole30, like noticed by my hygenist healthier, so there is hope.

  3. Tom Denham

    I wonder if your time line has been too compressed for starchy, carb-rich vegetables to help YET. If you have been in ketosis, it may take more than a day of eating carb rich vegetables to balance you out again.

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Moof's Medical Biochemistry Video Course: http://moof-university.thinkific.com/... In this video, I detail the pathway of Ketone Body Synthesis, commonly known as Ketogenesis. Ketogenesis occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes (liver cells). The pathway begins with the condensation of two Acetyl-CoA molecules, forming an Acetoacetyl-CoA (catalyzed by Thiolase). The second step involves the condensation of another Acetyl-CoA molecule to form HMG-CoA (catalyzed by HMG-CoA Synthase). The third step is the cleavage of HMG-CoA, producing Acetoacetate (a ketone body), while releasing an Acetyl-CoA. Acetoacetate can 1) be decarboxylated (either spontaneous or enzymatically by Acetoacetate Decarboxylase) to yield Acetone (another ketone body) or 2) be reduced to D--Hydroxybutyrate by D--Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase, requiring an NADH as a coenzyme. Its worth mentioning that this pathway does NOT occur to a great extent in healthy people under normal conditions. It happens to a very minimal extent, and very few ketone bodies are synthesized during normal physiology. For a suggested viewing order of the videos, information on tutoring, personalized video solutions, and an opportu


(redirected from Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies) Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. ketone [ke´tōn] any compound containing the carbonyl group, C=O, and having hydrocarbon groups attached to the carbonyl carbon, i.e., the carbonyl group is within a chain of carbon atoms. ketone bodies the substances acetone, acetoacetic acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; except for acetone (which may arise spontaneously from acetoacetic acid), they are normal metabolic products of lipid and pyruvate within the liver, and are oxidized by muscles. Excessive production leads to urinary excretion of these bodies, as in diabetes mellitus; see also ketosis. Called also acetone bodies. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. ke·tone (kē'tōn), Any organic compound in which two carbon atoms are linked by the carbon of a carbonyl group (C-O). The simplest ketone and the most important in medicine is dimethyl ketone (acetone). ketone /ke·tone/ (ke´tōn) any of a class of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group, CdbondO, whose carbon atom i Continue reading >>

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  1. TriLifter

    So, I'm wondering if this is fat-adapted related? The past few months my urine has smelled weird. Like asparagus pee, but without eating asparagus. I mean, I HAVE eaten asparagus, but not every day LMAO.
    Anyway, I'm just wondering if the strong odor has something to do with being paleo. My carbs are relatively high (65-85g/day) and my breath smells fine (believe my, my husband would tell me if it didn't). My urine used to not really smell like anything, but now it does, even when almost clear from my excessive water intake.

  2. justaspoonfulofsugar

    This is due to ketosis..I have it as well..I also often have to deal with metal mouth and brush my teeth all the time.
    Not everyone has to be below 50 grams to be in ketosis..for some it comes with less than 80 grams

  3. TriLifter

    Thank you! I didn't want to throw the k-word (ketosis) around too frivilously. I'm glad that's what it sounds like--that's what I was hoping. It's kinda of embarrassing to pee at work, though, because I know people in other stalls can probably smell it too!

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