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Ketolysis

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Lesson on the transport, absorption and metabolism of ketone bodies (ketolysis) as a source of energy during fasting and intense exercise. Prolonged fasting, intense exercise and certain dietary modifications (ex. ketogenic diet) lead to increases in blood levels of ketone bodies (beta hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), which can be used for energy production by peripheral tissues, including the brain and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies become an important energy source for the brain during fasting and starvation as the brain cannot use fatty acids as an energy source because the blood brain barrier is impermeable to fatty acids. By utilizing ketone bodies (ketolysis), the body can reduce its reliance on glucose as an energy substrate, maintaining blood glucose levels and allowing glucose to be used by other glucose-dependent cells and tissues, such as erythrocytes. In this lesson, you will learn about the blood levels of ketone bodies during fed states, and throughout times of fasting, intense exercise and when utilizing the ketogenic diet. You will also learn about how ketone bodies are transported out of the liver after ketogenesis, how ketone bodies are transported through the b

Disorders Of Ketogenesis And Ketolysis

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press Published online September 2016 | e-ISBN: 9780190463083 | DOI: Continue reading >>

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  1. martinus

    Keto Calculator 2.0

    It is a slow and lazy Sunday, so I've tried to make something useful: An online calculator that tries to determine how much of what nutrient you should eat each day. The main reason for this is to have something much more accurate than the typically recommended ratios:
    http://keto-calculator.ankerl.com/
    I'd appreciate any feedback!
    UPDATE: Wow, I did not expect such a big interest! I'm trying to improve the calculator while still keeping it simple, and most importantly as scientific accurate as possible. The latest update now remembers your form data so your data is not lost when you reload the page. If you want something improved, please tell me!
    UPDATE 2: I had a second look at the protein numbers. I am now using the middle way between the suggestions from here, and the book "The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance". (I used the numbers from the second source earlier). The protein numbers have therefore increased a bit, when you reload the page.
    UPDATE 3: A target caloric goal can be chosen, and percentage for MFP are calculated.
    UPDATE 4: Please see Keto Calculator 2.0
    UPDATE 5: Now it's more flexible. protein intake can be specified, and monthly loss is estimated.
    UPDATE 6: IE support. Lots of minor changes.
    UPDATE 7: Now with fancy estimated weight loss chart
    UPDATE 8: red boxes everywhere (I got complaints that the calculator did not work and the reason was missing data), and some book recommendations
    UPDATE 9: Lower limit of 30g fat for prevention of gallstone formation.
    UPDATE 10: Lots of restructuring, and now you enter target fat instead of target calories.

  2. [deleted]

    easy to use and easy to understand :)

  3. sutrigoo

    Spectacular! This follows the exact procedure in the FAQ, doesn't it? Amazing!

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Individuals with diabetes - or simply high levels of blood sugar - are more likely to have secondary health concerns, especially as they age. One such concern is an increased risk of cancer. Breast, colon and bladder cancer are more likely to develop in diabetic patients. Visit us online at http://www.interimhealthcare.com for more information.

Metabolic Profiles Of Ketolysis And Glycolysis In Malignant Gliomas: Possible Predictors Of Response To Ketogenic Diet Therapy.

e13048 Background: The enzymatic differences in energy metabolism between normal brain tissues and malignant gliomas formed the basis for animal model studies that showed increased survival in mice with orthotopically transplanted glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with energy restricted ketogenic diet (ERKD). To test the hypothesis that human brain tumors may also be sensitive to ERKD, we used immunohistochemistry reactions on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor samples to evaluate for the presence of enzymes important for the metabolism of ketones and glucose. Methods: Immunoreactivities were graded using a semi-quantitative scale based on the percentage of positive cells: low positive<5% (LOW); intermediate (INT) 5-20%; and highly positive (HIGH) >20%. Focal non-neoplastic “normal” brain tissue present within the specimens served as positive internal controls. Results: Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (OXCT1) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1) are mitochondrial enzymes important for metabolizing beta hydroxy butyrate, the main ketone in blood. Both of these enzymes were either decreased or absent (INT or LOW) concordantly in 14 of the 17 (82%) GBMs, an Continue reading >>

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  1. eyko

    I was reading the wikipedia article on ketoacidosis and it says the following:
    The excess ketone bodies can significantly acidify the blood. The presence of a high concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) caused by the lack of insulin can lead to further acidity. In healthy individuals this normally does not occur because the pancreas produces insulin in response to rising ketone/blood glucose concentration.
    In some posts, people are posting ketostix results of, say, a very dark purple. Is this acidosis, and if it is, shouldn't the pancreas produce insulin in response to the high ketone concentration?
    Where's the line drawn between ketosis and ketoacidosis?
    EDIT: To clarify, my title should've said Ketostix actually. My question is, is too dark purple (say, 160) in a Ketostix an indication of ketoacidosis, or is it okay?

  2. frgr

    http://www.reddit.com/help/faqs/keto#CommonMythsAboutKetosis

  3. Berengal

    Where's the line drawn between ketosis and ketoacidosis?
    Acidosis is when the acidity of the blood is increased compared to what it's supposed to be. Ketoacidosis just means "acidosis caused by ketones". The line is therefore drawn at pH 7.35 blood plasma.
    In some posts, people are posting ketostix results of, say, a very dark purple. Is this acidosis, and if it is, shouldn't the pancreas produce insulin in response to the high ketone concentration?
    It's not acidosis unless your blood is too acidic. Also, the concentration of ketones in your urine doesn't have to match the concentration in your blood. It's a useful measure if you're suseptible to ketoacidosis, but there are other reasons for why it might be high. You don't have to worry about ketoacidosis unless your insulin is broken, because yes, insulin prevents this from happening.

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Chapter 152. Disorders Of Ketolysis

Ketolysis involves esterification of acetylacetonate (AcAc) to AcAcCoA by succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid transferase (SCOT) and involves hydrolysis of AcAcCoA by 3-ketothiolase to form acetyl-CoA.1 SCOT deficiency is characterized by episodic ketoacidosis, often beginning in infancy, with increased blood ketone bodies even in the fed state. Diagnosis can be established by enzyme assay in fibroblasts or by mutation analysis, and prenatal diagnosis can be accomplished in the same manner. Mitochondrial 3-ketothiolase releases acetyl-CoA from acetoacetyl-CoA and from 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA, an intermediate in isoleucine oxidation (see Chapter 156). Enzyme deficiency can present in infancy with hyperammonemia, metabolic acidosis, and severe ketosis, or later with fasting- or protein-induced episodes of vomiting, hepatomegaly, ketoacidosis, and encephalopathy. Urine organic acid analysis shows increased 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-methylacetoacetic acid, and tiglylglycine, but they may be obscured during acute illnesses by 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) and may be detectable only between episodes or after an oral load of isoleucine. Glycine levels are often elevated in b Continue reading >>

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  1. bma449

    I love the keto diet (lost almost 20 pounds in 4 months) however I really love carbs as well and I like eating normal meals with my family several days a week. I've been fasting for 16 hours from Sunday night through Monday to get into ketosis and then following a Keto diet through to a late dinner on Thursday. It works great for me but I get really gassy after my normal, relatively healthy but moderate carb meal on Thursday night. Basically the transition off keto throws my gut into a bit of a loop every Thursday night through Friday morning. I've been eating yogurt and some probiotics in pill form on Thursday night or Friday morning. That helps but doesn't fully solve it. Any advice?

  2. Targash

    I doubt anyone here is going to have advice for you to cheat 3 days a week because you "really love carbs" (pathetic excuse btw) it's no wonder it's hard on your system.

  3. bma449

    Wow tough love, much appreciated though your "pathetic excuse" wording isn't going to work for me. Cyclic keto is a very reasonable way to lose weight and works for me because it is sustainable over the long term. I appreciate the encouragement but everyone is different. I'm already very health and only looking to lose another 10-15 lbs so am going to keep with it. I'll post pics once I get there.

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